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How Is Dka Fatal

Why Would Scientists Use Transformation To Make An Insulin Protein?

Why Would Scientists Use Transformation To Make An Insulin Protein?

When it comes to insulin, there are a lot of questions. Why is it so expensive? Why don’t we use insulin from animals anymore? Why do we use the more expensive stuff? I think there are some valid reasons on why pharmaceuticals chose to only sell insulin made from DNA replication. One of the points is that it relates better to our systems. If scientists can make insulin as close to human’s as possible, then it theoretically should work the best. This is usually the case. The insulin today allows people to go longer without needing it. Not only that, but it matches up with our DNA very well. This was one of the biggest reasons for going away from the animal protein. However, some people react better from the animal insulin. I think the question, “Why would scientists use transformation to make insulin proteins?” comes down to a search for a perfect medicine. Everyone wants diabetes to be cured. The next best thing would be a perfect insulin that created no problems. That is why scientists used transformation to create proteins. Their goal was to find a solution to this problem. The insulin might be better for people, but it cost a lot more money. Scientists use genetically modified bacteria in order to produce the insulin that is needed. Scientists use these because they need to make mass amounts of it. With the diabetes epidemic that is dropping upon this country, insulin is in high demand. Therefore, scientists can’t naturally make enough of it to keep up with society. They have to take materials and modify them in order to produce mass amounts. That then brings up the question of “why do they use a more expensive process and not offer the cheaper option?” This is not a conspiracy that pharmacists are in this for the money. I think that in the case of insu Continue reading >>

What Is The Nursing Diagnosis For Hyperkalemia?

What Is The Nursing Diagnosis For Hyperkalemia?

As is frequently the case with “what is the nursing diagnosis for X” questions on Quora, there is a disclaimer that must be made: This is a MEDICAL diagnosis. There are no nursing diagnoses for it. There are likely nursing diagnoses ASSOCIATED with it. Lets look at why it means to be hyperkalemic… or in laymen’s terms, having high potassium in your bloodstream. It means that somewhere, most likely in the gastrointestinal, renal, or endocrine systems a problem has occurred. Before we can figure out how to fix the kyperkalemia, we need to know WHY the patient is in this state. It it excessive intake? Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)? Renal failure? A licensed independent practitioner (LIP) will need to figure this one out for the nurse (or at least officially make the decision as it is out of the scope of the RN to make this call). The nursing role will be to support the medical diagnosis and selected interventions. This is where we start to see some nursing diagnosis actually emerge. IV access will most likely be needed. Associated nursing diagnosis: Risk for bleeding, risk for infection, risk for impaired healing, risk for altered body image. If this is a DKA issue, then it is possible the you can include: Need for further education, lack of effecting coping mechanisms, or even the dreaded and controversial Risk for noncompliance. Please note that your patients with diabetes (DM1, to be precise in this case) are not always in DKA because they have “failed” at their treatment regimen. DM is a complicated disease process and homeostatic imbalances can become a runaway nightmare that push even the most ardent adherents of blood sugar management into a very bad place. Also remember that they may be serum hyperkalemic on the labs, but are at high Risk for HYPOkalemia Continue reading >>

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Unfortunately, we veterinarians are seeing an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats. This is likely due to the growing prevalence of obesity (secondary to inactive lifestyle, a high carbohydrate diet, lack of exercise, etc.). So, if you just had a dog or cat diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, what do you do? First, we encourage you to take a look at these articles for an explanation of the disease: Diabetes Mellitus (Sugar Diabetes) in Dogs Once you have a basic understanding of diabetes mellitus (or if you already had one), this article will teach you about life-threatening complications that can occur as a result of the disease; specifically, I discuss a life-threatening condition called diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) so that you know how to help prevent it! What is DKA? When diabetes goes undiagnosed, or when it is difficult to control or regulate, the complication of DKA can occur. DKA develops because the body is so lacking in insulin that the sugar can’t get into the cells -- resulting in cell starvation. Cell starvation causes the body to start breaking down fat in an attempt to provide energy (or a fuel source) to the body. Unfortunately, these fat breakdown products, called “ketones,” are also poisonous to the body. Symptoms of DKA Clinical signs of DKA include the following: Weakness Not moving (in cats, hanging out by the water bowl) Not eating to complete anorexia Large urinary clumps in the litter box (my guideline? If it’s bigger than a tennis ball, it’s abnormal) Weight loss (most commonly over the back), despite an overweight body condition Excessively dry or oily skin coat Abnormal breath (typically a sweet “ketotic” odor) In severe cases DKA can also result in more significant signs: Abnormal breathing pattern Jaundice Ab Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication of diabetes caused by a lack of insulin in the body. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body is unable to use blood sugar (glucose) because there isn't enough insulin. Instead, it breaks down fat as an alternative source of fuel. This causes a build-up of a by-product called ketones. Most cases of diabetic ketoacidosis occur in people with type 1 diabetes, although it can also be a complication of type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: passing large amounts of urine feeling very thirsty vomiting abdominal pain Seek immediate medical assistance if you have any of these symptoms and your blood sugar levels are high. Read more about the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis. Who is affected by diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a relatively common complication in people with diabetes, particularly children and younger adults who have type 1 diabetes. Younger children under four years of age are thought to be most at risk. In about 1 in 4 cases, diabetic ketoacidosis develops in people who were previously unaware they had type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis accounts for around half of all diabetes-related hospital admissions in people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis triggers These include: infections and other illnesses not keeping up with recommended insulin injections Read more about potential causes of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diagnosing diabetic ketoacidosis This is a relatively straightforward process. Blood tests can be used to check your glucose levels and any chemical imbalances, such as low levels of potassium. Urine tests can be used to estimate the number of ketones in your body. Blood and urine tests can also be used to check for an underlying infec Continue reading >>

What Are The Most Important Things To Know Before Writing A Character Who Has Diabetes?

What Are The Most Important Things To Know Before Writing A Character Who Has Diabetes?

Writing as a type 1 diabetic ( not to be taken as medical opinion or advice): Whilst one would need to be careful of copyright: the scenes in the movie ‘Panic Room’ where Jodie Foster’s character as a mother of daughter played by Kirsten Stewart, shows the tension created when they fortify themselves in a panic room after criminals break into the house. The daughter who is diabetic has taken her insulin but has little food and is slipping into a state of low blood sugar.(hypoglycaemia or ‘hypo’). The best acted hypoglycaemic episode I have ever seen was by Julia Roberts in ‘Steel Magnolias’ - which opens with her playing the soon-to-be married daughter - someone who has had a long history of diabetes. In my 50 years as a diabetic the following has happened to me or are thoughts that I have had: ( and are not copyrighted !) we were carrying canoes down a mountain to the river below for a week long canoe trip through inhospitable terrain - the drum carrying my insulin and syringes/needles rolled down the mountain and was not found til the next day. Fortunately I had distributed spare kits to others before the descent. ( the glass vials containing the insulin were padded and put in an aluminium container. They survived the roll down the mountain intact inside the plastic drum. The drum did not fare quite as well). I once suffered from a severe hypo and needed some mouth to mouth resuscitation by my wife. Severe hypoglycaemia can cause brain damage. I became hypo once when body surfing but managed to stagger out onto the beach. i was in a hiking party with two of us being type 1 diabetics - the other diabetic was rather unstable with his control and sadly drowned in a waist-high river crossing during the trip. Exact reason for the accident unknown. An acquaint Continue reading >>

Why Dka & Nutritional Ketosis Are Not The Same

Why Dka & Nutritional Ketosis Are Not The Same

There’s a very common misconception and general misunderstanding around ketones. Specifically, the misunderstandings lie in the areas of: ketones that are produced in low-carb diets of generally less than 50 grams of carbs per day, which is low enough to put a person in a state of “nutritional ketosis” ketones that are produced when a diabetic is in a state of “diabetic ketoacidosis” (DKA) and lastly, there are “starvation ketones” and “illness-induced ketones” The fact is they are very different. DKA is a dangerous state of ketosis that can easily land a diabetic in the hospital and is life-threatening. Meanwhile, “nutritional ketosis” is the result of a nutritional approach that both non-diabetics and diabetics can safely achieve through low-carb nutrition. Diabetic Ketoacidosis vs. Nutritional Ketosis Ryan Attar (soon to be Ryan Attar, ND) helps explain the science and actual human physiology behind these different types of ketone production. Ryan is currently studying to become a Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine in Connecticut and also pursuing a Masters Degree in Human Nutrition. He has interned under the supervision of the very well-known diabetes doc, Dr. Bernstein. Ryan explains: Diabetic Ketoacidosis: “Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), is a very dangerous state where an individual with uncontrolled diabetes is effectively starving due to lack of insulin. Insulin brings glucose into our cells and without it the body switches to ketones. Our brain can function off either glucose or fat and ketones. Ketones are a breakdown of fat and amino acids that can travel through the blood to various tissues to be utilized for fuel.” “In normal individuals, or those with well controlled diabetes, insulin acts to cancel the feedback loop and slow and sto Continue reading >>

Fatal Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Antipsychotic Medication

Fatal Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Antipsychotic Medication

Abstract Hyperglycemia and new onset diabetes have been described with certain antipsychotic medications and some of the initial presentations are fatal diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We report 17 deaths due to DKA in psychiatric patients treated with second generation antipsychotic medications. Death certificates and toxicology data were searched for DKA and hyperglycemia. We reviewed the medical examiner records which included the autopsy, toxicology, police, and medical examiner investigators' reports. The decedents ranged in age from 32 to 57 years (average 48 years). There were 15 men and two women. The immediate cause of death was DKA in all. The psychiatric disorders included: 10 schizophrenia, three bipolar/schizophrenia, two bipolar, and two major depression. The most frequent atypical antipsychotic medications found were quetiapine and olanzapine followed by risperidone. In 16 deaths, we considered the medication as primary or contributory to the cause of death. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Summarized from Nyenwe E, Kitabchi A. The evolution of diabetic ketoacidosis: An update of its etiology, pathogenesis and management. Metabolism 2016; 65: 507-21 Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which is an acute, potentially life-threatening complication of poorly controlled diabetes, is the subject of a recent comprehensive review article. The authors discuss epidemiological issues, revealing increasing incidence of DKA and decreasing mortality. Once inevitably fatal, DKA now has a reported mortality rate of <1 % in adults and 5 % in the elderly who also have one or more chronic illnesses, in addition to diabetes. They reveal that although DKA more commonly affects those with type 1 diabetes, around a third of cases occur in those with type 2 diabetes. This introductory section also reminds that DKA is characterized by the presence of three cardinal biochemical features: raised blood glucose (hyperglycemia); presence of ketones in blood and urine (ketonemia, ketonuria); and metabolic acidosis. Insulin deficiency is central to the development of these three biochemical abnormalities. The very rare occurrence of euglycemic DKA (DKA with normal blood glucose) is highlighted by reference to recent reports of this condition in patients treated with a relatively new class of antidiabetic drug (the SGLT 2 inhibitors) that reduces blood glucose by inhibiting renal reabsorption of glucose. There follows discussion of factors that precipitate DKA (omission or inadequate dosing of insulin, and infection are the most common triggers), and the possible mechanisms responsible for ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes. This latter condition, which was recognized as an entity only relatively recently, is distinguished by the development of severe but transient failure of pancreatic β-cells to m Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious problem that can occur in people with diabetes if their body starts to run out of insulin. This causes harmful substances called ketones to build up in the body, which can be life-threatening if not spotted and treated quickly. DKA mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes, it's important to be aware of the risk and know what to do if DKA occurs. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis Signs of DKA include: needing to pee more than usual being sick breath that smells fruity (like pear drop sweets or nail varnish) deep or fast breathing feeling very tired or sleepy passing out DKA can also cause high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) and a high level of ketones in your blood or urine, which you can check for using home-testing kits. Symptoms usually develop over 24 hours, but can come on faster. Check your blood sugar and ketone levels Check your blood sugar level if you have symptoms of DKA. If your blood sugar is 11mmol/L or over and you have a blood or urine ketone testing kit, check your ketone level. If you do a blood ketone test: lower than 0.6mmol/L is a normal reading 0.6 to 1.5mmol/L means you're at a slightly increased risk of DKA and should test again in a couple of hours 1.6 to 2.9mmol/L means you're at an increased risk of DKA and should contact your diabetes team or GP as soon as possible 3mmol/L or over means you have a very high risk of DKA and should get medical help immediately If you do a urine ketone test, a result of more than 2+ means there's a high chance you have DKA. When to get medical help Go to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department straight away if you think you have DKA, especially if you have a high level of ketones in Continue reading >>

A Fatal Outcome Of Complicated Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis In A 11-year-old Girl

A Fatal Outcome Of Complicated Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis In A 11-year-old Girl

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a complex metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis and ketonuria. Cerebral edema is the most common rare complication of DKA in children. The objective of the study was to emphasize the importance of careful evaluation and monitoring for signs and symptoms of cerebral edema in all children undergoing treatment for DKA. We present a case of 11-year-old girl with a history of diabetes mellitus type I (T1DM) who presented with severe DKA complicated by hypovolemic shock, cerebral edema and hematemesis. Considering the fact that complications of DKA are rare and require a high index of clinical suspicion, early recognition and treatment are crucial for avoiding permanent damage. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

The Facts Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a condition that may occur in people who have diabetes, most often in those who have type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. It involves the buildup of toxic substances called ketones that make the blood too acidic. High ketone levels can be readily managed, but if they aren't detected and treated in time, a person can eventually slip into a fatal coma. DKA can occur in people who are newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and have had ketones building up in their blood prior to the start of treatment. It can also occur in people already diagnosed with type 1 diabetes that have missed an insulin dose, have an infection, or have suffered a traumatic event or injury. Although much less common, DKA can occasionally occur in people with type 2 diabetes under extreme physiologic stress. Causes With type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to make the hormone insulin, which the body's cells need in order to take in glucose from the blood. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to make sufficient amounts of insulin in order to take in glucose from the blood. Glucose, a simple sugar we get from the foods we eat, is necessary for making the energy our cells need to function. People with diabetes can't get glucose into their cells, so their bodies look for alternative energy sources. Meanwhile, glucose builds up in the bloodstream, and by the time DKA occurs, blood glucose levels are often greater than 22 mmol/L (400 mg/dL) while insulin levels are very low. Since glucose isn't available for cells to use, fat from fat cells is broken down for energy instead, releasing ketones. Ketones accumulate in the blood, causing it to become more acidic. As a result, many of the enzymes that control the body's metabolic processes aren't able Continue reading >>

Unusual Case Of New Onset Diabetes Mellitus Presenting With Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Cerebral Edema With Literature Review

Unusual Case Of New Onset Diabetes Mellitus Presenting With Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Cerebral Edema With Literature Review

Nitasa Sahu*, Emma Punni, Chandra Chandran and Medhat Ismail Department of Internal Medicine, St. Joseph’s Regional Medical Center, New York Medical College, Paterson, USA Citation: Sahu N, Punni E, Chandran C, Ismail M (2016) Unusual Case of New Onset Diabetes Mellitus Presenting with Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Cerebral Edema with Literature Review. J Nephrol Ther 6: 262. doi:10.4172/2161-0959.1000262 Copyright: © 2016 Sahu N, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License; which permits unrestricted use; distribution; and reproduction in any medium; provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is typically treated with volume replacement (most commonly normal saline), insulin and monitored via serial chemistry and glucose lab values. Cerebral edema, a complication occurring in approximately 1% of DKA presentations in children, with a mortality of 40-90%, has no clear identifiable risk factors. While many cases have been reported in children, there are only a few cases of clinically significant cerebral edema in adults. It is postulated the underlying mechanism is similar to that in children; excessive fluid resuscitation, rapid reduction in plasma osmolarity, and/or the administration of sodium bicarbonate. We are reporting a case of a 26 year old male with no prior medical history, who presented in diabetic ketoacidosis and was treated as per the American Diabetic Association guidelines, however, deteriorated rapidly after acute complaints of headache and irritability consistent with diffuse cerebral edema. Keywords Diabetic ketoacidosis; Cerebral edema; Adult; Mortality Introduction Dia Continue reading >>

Is It Normal To Wet Your Bed When You're 13?

Is It Normal To Wet Your Bed When You're 13?

It’s something abnormal at that age and therefore you’d see a doctor as it can be a symptom of an underlying disease. Also, if the doctors aren’t helping, Sleeping on your back may help. Your head can face any direction but the rest of the body has to face up properly. So far 28 men have tried my procedure and have all succeeded, and the best thing about it is that there is no limit to the amount of water you can take before sleeping. The only one woman who tried it didn’t succeed but there’s a very big possibility she changed her sleeping position. For the beginning, I’d strongly recommend recording yourself while sleeping. This will help you know if you changed position because I’ve seen people who’ve failed to stay on their back all through their sleep and not know it. I’d really love to hear from you after a week of trying as it’ll help me know more about my research. Get me on roymbscit[@]gmail[.]com Continue reading >>

How Long Does Diabetes Ketoacidosis Last?

How Long Does Diabetes Ketoacidosis Last?

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a common complication of diabetes in children, which needs hospitalisation and can be fatal. In most cases of diabetic ketoacidosis, death is caused due to cerebral edema or complication of DKA. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can be the first sign or presenting symptom in some cases of type 1 diabetes (before diabetes is diagnosed or they have any other symptoms). According to studies, about 20 to 40% of newly diagnosed patients of type 1 diabetes are admitted in DKA. Duration of Diabetic ketoacidosis: with appropriate treatment (fluid replacement and insulin therapy), DKA can be corrected in about 24-48 hours (depending on the severity of DKA at presentation). In most cases, the duration of therapy is about 48 hours. Treatment for DKA aims to correct the metabolic abnormalities of DKA such as high blood sugar level, high ketone levels and serum osmolality with insulin and fluids. Treatment of DKA includes: Insulin replacement to correct blood glucose levels. Fluid and electrolyte replacement to correct dehydration and imbalance of electrolytes in the body. Treating the cause of DKA (such as infection, injury etc). Duration of fluid replacement: fluid is replaced slowly; if it is given at an excessive rate or more than required, it can cause brain swelling (cerebral edema). Most cases have a fluid deficit of about 10% or 100 ml/kg. Fluid is given intravenously (into a vein) slowly with the aim of replacing 50% of the fluid deficit during the first 12 hours of presentation and the remainder within the next 12-16 hours. As high blood sugar is corrected more rapidly than ketoacidosis (high blood ketone levels), glucose-containing fluids is given once the glucose falls to < 14 mmol/l to prevent the fall in blood glucose levels hypoglycaemia). Dur Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus. Before the availability of insulin in the 1920s, DKA was a uniformly fatal disorder. Even after the discovery of insulin, DKA continued to carry a grave prognosis with a reported mortality rate in humans ranging from 10% to 30%. However, with the expanding knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of DKA and the application of new treatment techniques for the complications of DKA, the mortality rate for this disorder has decreased to less than 5% in experienced human medical centers (Kitabchi et al, 2008). We have experienced a similar decrease in the mortality rate for DKA in our hospital over the past two decades. DKA remains a challenging disorder to treat, in part because of the deleterious impact of DKA on multiple organ systems and the frequent occurrence of concurrent often serious disorders that are responsible for the high mortality rate of DKA. In humans, the incidence of DKA has not decreased, appropriate therapy remains controversial, and patients continue to succumb to this complication of diabetes mellitus. This chapter summarizes current concepts regarding the pathophysiology and management of DKA in dogs and cats. • Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a severe form of complicated diabetes mellitus that requires emergency care. • Acidosis and electrolyte abnormalities can be life threatening. • Fluid therapy and correction of electrolyte abnormalities are the two most important components of therapy. • Concurrent disease increases the risk for DKA and must be addressed as part of the diagnostic and therapeutic plan. • Bicarbonate therapy usually is not needed and its use is controversial. • About 70% of treated dogs and cats are discharged from the hospital after 5 to 6 days Continue reading >>

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