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How Glucose Is Converted Into Fatty Acids?

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Can Sugars Be Produced From Fatty Acids? A Test Case For Pathway Analysis Tools

Can sugars be produced from fatty acids? A test case for pathway analysis tools Department of Bioinformatics, 2Bio Systems Analysis Group, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena, Ernst-Abbe-Platz 2, 07743 Jena, Germany and 3School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Headington, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Search for other works by this author on: Department of Bioinformatics, 2Bio Systems Analysis Group, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena, Ernst-Abbe-Platz 2, 07743 Jena, Germany and 3School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Headington, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Search for other works by this author on: Department of Bioinformatics, 2Bio Systems Analysis Group, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena, Ernst-Abbe-Platz 2, 07743 Jena, Germany and 3School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Headington, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK Search for other works by this author on: Department of Bioinformatics, 2Bio Systems Analysis Group, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena, Ernst-Abbe-Platz 2, 07743 Jena, Germany and 3School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Headington, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK Search Continue reading >>

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  1. rwac

    Quote

    The impact of the ketogenic diet on arterial morphology and endothelial function in children and young adults with epilepsy: A case-control study.
    PURPOSE:
    The present study aimed to assess the impact of the ketogenic diet on arterial morphology and endothelial function of the big vessels of the neck and on cardiac diastolic function, in a cohort of epileptic children and young adults treated with the ketogenic diet.
    METHODS:
    Patients were recruited based on the following inclusion criteria: (1) patients who were or had been on the ketogenic diet for a time period of at least six months. Each patient underwent measurement of carotid intima media thickness, carotid artery stiffness, echocardiography, and diastolic function assessment. Patients with drug resistant epilepsy, matched for number, age and sex and never treated with ketogenic diet, were recruited as controls.
    RESULTS:
    The population study was composed by 43 epilepsy patients (23 males), aged between 19 months and 31 years (mean 11 years). Twenty-three patients were or had been treated with ketogenic diet, and 20 had never been on it (control group). Subjects treated with the ketogenic diet had higher arterial stiffness parameters, including AIx and β-index and higher serum levels of cholesterol or triglycerides compared to those who had never been on the diet (control group) (p<0.001).
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Arterial stiffness is increased in children and young adults treated with the ketogenic diet, before the increase of the intima media thickness. This supports that arterial stiffness is an early marker of vascular damage.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/24380692
    I guess the exact composition of the diet is an important question, I wonder if that's in the paper.
    Edited by rwac, 14 January 2014 - 07:22 AM.

  2. Jembe

    They could be eating PUFAs. Nothing has helped for my PVCs better than the ketogenic diet plus supplementation. I used to get up to two dozen skipped heartbeats per day.

  3. Chupo

    I don't think we can draw conclusions from this. These are children and young adults. Arteries actually soften at the beginning of atherosclerosis. This could be a sign that the controls, probably on a typical western diet, are the ones developing atherosclerosis.
    Having said that, I have seen studies showing that these kids develop high triglycerides and low HDL. This isn't something that we see in the general population. These are sick kids who may have a problem metabolising fats in such a way that it's causing both their epilepsy when on lower fat diets and their dyslipidemia when on higher fat diets.
    Edited by Chupo, 15 January 2014 - 01:40 AM.

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Evolving Health: Why Can't We Convert Fat To Glucose?

As evident by many sugar-laden soda pop "potbellies" of North America, lipogenesis can obviously occur from drinking and eating too much sugar (1). Wouldnt it be just grand to reverse the process and be able to lose all that fat via gluconeogenesis? Unfortunately mammals do not have the ability to synthesize glucose from fats (1). The fact is that once glucose is converted to acetyl coA there is no method of getting back to glucose. The pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction that converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA is not reversible (1p252). Because lipid metabolism produces acetyl CoA via beta-oxidation, there can be no conversion to pyruvate or oxaloacetate that may have been used for gluconeogenesis (1p252). Further, the two carbons in the acetyl CoA molecule are lost upon entering the citric acid cycle (1p252). Thus, the acetyl CoA is used for energy (1p252). There are some fatty acids that have an odd number of carbon atoms that can be converted to glucose, but these are not common in the diet (1p253). Maybe they should be made more common. Do they taste good? 1. Gropper SS, Smith JL, Groff JL. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2009. Continue reading >>

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  1. LaTisha

    I've been browsing the site and I've read some posts stating that ketones will not effect my breastmilk. Is this true?? (I just need to make sure ) Is it safe to be in ketosis and still breastfeed?? I really really hope so!! My baby is 7 months and although we've cut down nursing since she's been eating solids, I am not ready to completely stop nursing. I was on atkins prior to my pregnancy, I completely gave it up and ended up gaining 66 lbs! (and I thought the 50 that I gained with my 1st 2 pregnancies was bad *lol*) Anyway, I've lost about 46 of those pounds and I am so ready to lose the rest! I miss the way I felt while on atkins but I didn't think I could do it since I was breastfeeding and I had read somewhere that its not known whether being in ketosis is harmful. I never got far enough into the plan to find out what my CCLL is so I do need to start from scratch. Not to mention I'm completely addicted to carbs! Anyway, does anyone have any articles I can read or some really helpful info? Thanks!

  2. Helen H

    Yep, really true. When I was breastfeeding and low carbing, I used to test my milk regularly, with no signs of ketones. I've also asked some of the most qualified breastfeeding experts in the country, and they all assured me that ketones can't pass into breastmilk.
    When you think about it, it doesn't make sense that people who follow a naturally low carb diet couldn't breastfeed without causing harm to their babies. Nature is extremely protective of babies and breastmilk and has designed the breasts to act as a filter for anything harmful.
    Also, bear in mind that breast milk is a high fat food (54% of cals from fat) and that exclusively breastfed babies are in ketosis until solids are introduced. Considering that breastfed babies have higher average IQs than bottle fed ones, it obviously isn't doing them any harm.
    The one study that seemed to indicate that babies didn't like the taste of breastmilk after vigorous exercise, and which has been extrapolated to include ketosis, was a very badly conducted one. They took a group of exclusively breastfed babies, had their mothers do exercise, and then express milk into a bottle so they could see how much the babies drank. Naturally half of them turned up their noses, they knew the good stuff didn't come in a bottle.
    In practise, no amount of vigorous exercise or sweat seems to put off a hungry baby.
    According to my nursing toddlers, my breastmilk, even when I'm in ketosis, tastes like "warm icecream".

  3. .muse.

    Ahh, Helen, it's a shame you don't have a journal, because I've got so many questions I'd like to bombard you with, since you seem to be a plethora of knowledge regarding ketosis & breastfeeding, and I am, as you can see, so close to my duedate and am going to be going back to Atkins, because I don't like how high-carb diets make me feel.
    Anyway, if you ever wanted to pop into my journal and give me some good advice or links for where you've gotten some of your information, or anything of the sort, I would greatly appreciate it.
    Thanks in advance
    -alden

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Can The Human Body Turn Excess Glucose Into Proteins?

Answered Apr 19, 2016 Author has 8.4k answers and 5.9m answer views No. Glucose is absorbed into our living cells via insulin for instant energy and any excess energy will be first stored in our liver and muscle glycogen then once your glycogen storages are full, they will be converted into fatty acids. Glucose is hydrocarbon chain while amino acids have nitride in the backbone. You can't create nitride out of nowhere. Answered Dec 26, 2017 Author has 1.5k answers and 370.1k answer views Yes. Glucose is the starting point for the synthesis of the nonessential amino acids, which are then incorporated into proteins. A simple pathway to illustrate the point is glucose pyruvate alanine. The last step involves transamination, so you need glucose plus nitrogen from the bodys nitrogen pool. Excess glucose can not be directly converted into protein as it is converted into glycogen and beyond its storage of glycogen in liver and muscles cells into fats. But glucose involved in metabolic pathway indirectly contribute to protein formation. Proteins are made up of amino acids. Amino acids has amino group and a carbon skeleton. During amino acid synthesis amino group for most of amino acid is Continue reading >>

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  1. iwiggy58

    How quickly can you kick yourself OUT of ketosis?

    I am just starting week 3 . I have been OP totally. One thing that keeps me from cheating is the fear that I will kick myself out of ketosis. What amount of non program food would it take to throw you out of ketosis? And does a person start all over and have to go thru the headaches and trauma that happen that first week? I have heard several people go off program while on vacation and start back up again later. Is it like having to start all over again???

  2. mompattie

    It would take prob more than 40-50 carbs to kick you out of ketosis. Some can handle more carbs. But it's a slippery slope. Yes, you have to go through all the symptoms to get back in. And 3-5 days worth of food and time and money. It's like a weeks worth of money and time gone. Not worth it.

  3. IP43

    Quote:

    Originally Posted by mompattie
    It would take prob more than 40-50 carbs to kick you out of ketosis. Some can handle more carbs. But it's a slippery slope. Yes, you have to go through all the symptoms to get back in. And 3-5 days worth of food and time and money. It's like a weeks worth of money and time gone. Not worth it. I know a few times that I've had things I shouldn't, the next day or two I was starving, had cravings etc. so I think I kicked myself out of ketosis. They weren't big cheats but I think we're so close to the limit if you have a restricted item a day. I was "perusing" the Atkins site for some of their carb counts etc. and they start with 12-15g net carbs (carb-fibre) on their phase one and then add 5g netcarbs per week or something.

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