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How Does Ketosis Work

Ketosis Fundamentals

Ketosis Fundamentals

What is ketosis? Ketosis is the physiological state where the concentration of ketone bodies in the blood is higher than normal. This is generally agreed to be at beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations greater than 0.5 mM. How to achieve ketosis? Ketosis occurs either as a result of increased fat oxidation, whilst fasting or following a strict ketosis diet plan (ENDOGENOUS ketosis), or after consuming a ketone supplement (EXOGENOUS ketosis). When in a state of ketosis the body can use ketones to provide a fuel for cellular respiration instead of its usual substrates: carbohydrate, fat or protein. Why does ketosis exist? Normally, the body breaks down carbohydrates, fat, and (sometimes) proteins to provide energy. When carbohydrate is consumed in the diet, some is used immediately to maintain blood glucose levels, and the rest is stored. The hormone that signals to cells to store carbohydrate is insulin. The liver stores carbohydrate as glycogen, this is broken down and released between meals to keep blood glucose levels constant. Muscles also store glycogen, when broken down this provides fuel for exercise. Most cells in the body can switch readily between using carbohydrates and fat as fuel. Fuel used depends on substrate availability, on the energy demands of the cell and other neural and hormonal signals. The brain is different as it is dependent on carbohydrates as a fuel source. This is because fats cannot easily cross the blood-brain barrier. The inability to make use of energy within fat poses a problem during periods where there is limited carbohydrate in the diet. If blood glucose levels fall to low, brain function declines. Relatively little energy is stored as carbohydrate (2,000 kCal) compared to fat (150,000 kCal). The body's store of carbohydrates runs Continue reading >>

What Is A Ketogenic Diet?

What Is A Ketogenic Diet?

Do you want to lose weight, build muscle, or feel more fit? Join Beachbody On Demand, and get unlimited access to Beachbody’s world-famous programs, including 21 Day FIX®, CORE DE FORCE®, and P90X®. Don’t miss out on your chance for amazing results. Sign up today! A ketogenic diet is a low-carb, high-fat, adequate protein diet that was initially developed in the ’20s to help people with neurological diseases such as epilepsy. On a ketogenic diet, you’re attempting to get your body into ketosis, which is a metabolic state where you begin to use fat as your primary source of fuel. What Is Ketosis? Usually, our bodies rely on carbs as the first source of energy. Carbs are broken down into sugar when you eat them, leading to the production of insulin, a hormone that tells your cells to use the sugar for energy now or store it for use later. “When you only eat a very limited amount of carbs, your body breaks down fatty acids from fat stores and forms ketones, which are released into the bloodstream by the liver,” says Alissa Rumsey M.S., R.D., C.S.C.S., and spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. “Ketosis occurs when blood ketones are higher than normal.” Ketosis is basically a side effect of fasting. To trigger ketosis, you must fast for about three days, and a proven way to do that is to decrease the amount of carbohydrates in your diet and increase the amount of fat, says Rumsey. So a ketogenic diet — one that is very high in fat with some protein and very little carbohydrates — can be used to get your body into ketosis. To start ketosis and keep it going, you’ll have to eat less than 30 to 40 grams of carbohydrate per day, which is about 5 percent of your overall calories for the day. There are three main types of ketogenic diets Continue reading >>

The Ketogenic Diet: Is It Safe And Does It Work?

The Ketogenic Diet: Is It Safe And Does It Work?

The ketogenic diet is fast becoming a trend among individuals looking for quick, dramatic weight loss. But is it effective, and more importantly is it safe? We spoke to Dr Alan Barclay, Accredited Practising Dietitian and Research Associate at The University of Sydney about this latest dietary fad. What is the ketogenic diet? The ketogenic diet (or 'keto' as it is sometimes called) is a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet, similar in nature to the Atkins Diet. The aim of this diet, Dr Barclay explains, is to: "significantly decrease the amount of carbohydrate in your diet, so that the body switches from primarily burning carbohydrates, to burning fat, for energy." With the absence of sufficient carbohydrate and the abundance of dietary fat, your liver generates greater quantities of what are known as 'ketone bodies', and this puts your body into a metabolic state known as 'ketosis'. In ketosis, your body becomes incredibly efficient at using ketone bodies, generated from the breakdown of fat, as fuel. In other words, your body will burn more body fat. What foods are excluded on this diet? Generally, the ketogenic diet reduces or excludes carbohydrate-containing foods, including breads, breakfast cereals, pasta, rice, quinoa, couscous, starchy vegetables (potato, sweet potato, corn), fruit, and legumes. It tends to encourage consumption of more high fat foods, such as fatty meats, full-cream dairy, butter, nuts, avocado, olive oil and coconut oil. A standard ketogenic diet consists of a split of around 30% protein, 60% fats and 10% carbohydrates. Experts advise that you should eat no more than 50g of net carbs a day for the body to stay in a ketogenic state. 50g of carbs is equivalent to one cup of oats, one medium sweet potato, one cup cooked brown rice or one slice ry Continue reading >>

The Ugly Truth About Ketogenic Diets

The Ugly Truth About Ketogenic Diets

Here's what you need to know... Ketosis occurs when carbs are in such low quantities that your body relies almost exclusively on fatty acid oxidation and ketone metabolism. Ketogenic diets have about 70-75% of your daily caloric intake coming from fat and about 5% from carbohydrates. Ingesting protein above approximately .8 grams per pound is enough to kick you out of ketosis. Ketogenic diets improve body comp, but so does any diet that reduces calories from any source. There is no literature to support that a ketogenic diet is beneficial for promoting increases in muscle mass. Ketogenic diets affect performance negatively. Questions About Ketosis While the ketogenic diet has been used widely and rather effectively in some cases, there's still a lot of confusion about it. What exactly is a ketogenic diet? How does it differ from low carb dieting? Most importantly, at least for the T Nation demographic, is the question of whether ketogenic diets allow you to put on, or at least keep, muscle. Ketosis: What is it? Ketosis is a metabolic state that occurs when dietary carbohydrates are in such low quantities that your body must rely almost exclusively on fatty acid oxidation and ketone metabolism. That sounds simple on the surface, but let's unpack that explanation a bit. To function, your body requires a substantial amount of energy in the form of ATP. So, let's just assume that the average person uses about 1,800 calories per day to create enough ATP to keep him alive (not including any physical activity). Now this is where it gets interesting. You have this thing in your skull called a brain. It uses about 400 or so calories per day and runs almost exclusively on glucose. (There's some evidence it can use small amounts of fat and lactate, but in the big picture it's not Continue reading >>

The Definitive Guide To The Ketogenic Diet

The Definitive Guide To The Ketogenic Diet

If you want to lose weight or build muscle faster and think the ketogenic diet might help, you want to read this article. How did a diet meant for treating epileptic seizures turn into a popular weight loss fad? That’s the story of the ketogenic diet, which was introduced in 1921 by an endocrinologist named Dr. Henry Geyelin. Geyelin, presenting at the annual meeting of the American Medical Association, explained that the ancient Greeks had discovered that fasting was an effective method of managing epileptic seizures. Hippocrates wrote about it and, like Geyelin, found that the seizures would return once eating resumed. Why? What was it about fasting that suppressed the seizures? Well, epileptic seizures are triggered by electrical abnormalities in the brain. The causes can vary, from genetics to brain injury, but more common is chronic inflammation throughout the body. Geyelin found that when people fast, two major changes occur in the blood: glucose levels fall and ketone levels rise. You’ve probably heard of glucose, also known as blood sugar, but not ketones, which are carbon-oxygen molecules produced by the liver that cells can use for energy instead of glucose. This finding fascinated Geyelin and he set out to determine if similar effects could be achieved without starvation. A decade of work proved they could, and the “ketogenic diet,” as it would be later called, was born. The purpose of the ketogenic diet is to maintain a state of ketosis, wherein the body’s primary energy source is ketones, not glucose. Early studies showed it was an extremely effective treatment for seizures, but in 1938, it was eclipsed by the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin. This medication became the standard treatment for epilepsy, effectively retiring the ketogenic diet from cli Continue reading >>

Does The Ketogenic Diet Work For Women?

Does The Ketogenic Diet Work For Women?

There are three things you should never ask a woman: How old are you? Are you pregnant? Do you eat carbs? If you’re a woman, what emotions come up for you when you read that last question? For some women, carbs are associated with their sense of morals, feeling proud if they restrict carbs and guilty if they indulge. Others can’t imagine giving up their daily bread, morning oats, fresh fruit, quinoa salad, or baked sweet potato. The Carbohydrate Conundrum Ever since the Atkins’ Diet first launched in 1972 and re-vamped in 1992, the “low-carb” kick has been part of headline news stories and put low-fat, whole-grain, granola-heads to the test. In recent years, the ketogenic diet of the 1920s has become popular, claiming humans were designed to consume fat as their primary fuel, shunning the mere thought of a sushi roll with rice or pre-workout banana. A typical ketogenic prescription includes a daily plate comprised of 60-70% fat, 20-30% protein, and 10-20% carbohydrate. While the low-carb diet has its critics, research shows convincing claims that ketogenic diets are beneficial, not only for weight loss, but also: With all these benefits, “going ketogenic” seems to be the answer to the diet our society has been looking for: health, brain power, and lean body mass. So what’s the downside? The goal of this article is not to argue whether ketogenic diets are good or bad, but rather is a full-scope look at the benefits and downsides to a ketogenic diet—namely for women. So, if you’re a woman, read on. Low-Carb for Life? A low-carb ketogenic approach can work for fat loss. If you cut out excess sugar and starch, which retain water and stores as fat when overconsumed, your body will naturally make positive body composition adjustments, and as an added bonus Continue reading >>

What Is The History Of The Ketogenic Diet?

What Is The History Of The Ketogenic Diet?

As early as 500BC, Greek and Indian doctors recognized that fasting for extended periods would have positive effects on patients with epilepsy. Cures were documented after a period of abstaining completely from "food and drink" (I doubt this was a realistic long-term plan, though). In the early 1900s, fasting as a treatment for epilepsy became popular again. However, with the introduction of medicines to control epileptic episodes, the treatment dropped off. Nevertheless, 20-30% of patients remained unresponsive to the drugs and for these individuals, especially children, fasting diets continued to be used. It was in 1921 that endocrinologist Rollin Woodyatt noted that three water-soluble compounds, acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate (together called ketone bodies) were produced by the liver as a result of starvation or if they followed a diet rich in fat and low in carbohydrates. Russel Wilder from the Mayo Clinic called this the “ketogenic diet” and used it as a treatment for epilepsy, also in 1921. This is a significant finding because it shows that you can create a "starvation" state in the body without actually starving. Yay! Finally, a long-term plan that is feasible. My impression of the medicine is that we still don't know exactly why ketosis works. In the early 1900s they thought there was an unknown toxin in the small intestines that needed to be dissipated via a 20+ day fast (total hogwash). These days, we talk about Diabetes III, essentially an inflammation of the brain rather than the body, and somehow ketosis reduces that inflammation. How does ketosis do that? Ketone bodies are only produced when the body is in ketosis and research seems to indicate the brain and the heart prefer receiving energy from ketone bodies, rather then the usual non Continue reading >>

Metabolic Pathways: How The Body Uses Energy

Metabolic Pathways: How The Body Uses Energy

Metabolic pathways in the body determine how we utilize the macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins and fats) we eat, and ultimately what happens to the fuels that come from each macronutrient. It all depends on when the last meal was finished. If the body is in a "fasting or starvation" mode, energy pathways will behave differently than when food is available. Food is available! The macronutrients (carbohydrate, fats and protein) on your plate are broken down in separate metabolic pathways: Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose by various enzymes. Some are burned for immediate energy, but overall the level of glucose in the blood stream rises, which triggers an insulin release by the pancreas. The insulin acts to push glucose into the cells to be made into ATP, stored as glycogen or when in excess amounts, stored as fat droplets called triglycerides in the fat cells (adipose tissue). Fats are digested in the small intestine, and then packaged into lipoproteins for various functions (ever heard of LDL and HDL? ) Excess fat calories often end up as fat droplets in fat cells. When fats are used as an energy source, they are broken down in cellular mitochondria through a process called beta-oxidation. Proteins are broken down into individual amino acids and used in body cells to form new proteins or to join the amino acid pool, a sort of "cache" for these molecules. Amino acids that are in excess of the body's needs are converted by liver enzymes into keto acids and urea. Keto acids may be used as sources of energy, converted into glucose, or stored as fat. Urea is excreted from everyone’s body in sweat and urine. Body is "Fasting" Carbohydrate, fats and protein are metabolized in separate processes into a common product called acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is a major meta Continue reading >>

What Could Be A Good Paleo Diet For A 22 Year Old Vegetarian Indian Male?

What Could Be A Good Paleo Diet For A 22 Year Old Vegetarian Indian Male?

I'm a vegetarian (Gujarati) in a similar situation. From what I've read, researched, practiced and observed, here's my spot of advice. (This answer will be disjointed since I'm typing on the go here.) Fitness is 80% what goes in you (the food you eat) and 20% the energy you expend (workouts). Given that you currently follow a regular low-to-medium intensity cardio workout routine (I'm assuming you're not sprinting 4,000 metres), the best option would be to follow a low-carb diet, keeping carbs to less than 50g/day. This will put your body in a state of ketosis, where it burns ketones for energy instead of carbohydrates. To put this in perspective, let's back up a little to understand how the body works. Your body burns different sources of nutrients for the energy it needs in the following order of preference - carbs (including sugars), proteins and fats. Carbs, especially sugars are the easiest to burn, while fats take the most energy, time and effort. So when you eat something, the body immediately looks for the laziest option - sugar (this explains the transient 'sugar-high' you sometimes get). After this, the body prefers to burn proteins, and last of all come the fats. By the time it's the turn of the fats to be used, our diet ensures that we already have all the energy we need from Carbs and Proteins, and the Fats are left to rot in various parts of the body, undigested. I've come to understand that contrary to popular belief, it's not the fats that make us fat, but the carbs that we have WITH fats, that end up making us fat. So don't let the name 'fats' fool you. Humans had evolved to similar to what we are now, since about 200,000 years ago. Until approximately 10,000 years ago, we were basically hunter gatherers, running to catch prey and to save our asses and Continue reading >>

What Is Ketosis?

What Is Ketosis?

"Ketosis" is a word you'll probably see when you're looking for information on diabetes or weight loss. Is it a good thing or a bad thing? That depends. Ketosis is a normal metabolic process, something your body does to keep working. When it doesn't have enough carbohydrates from food for your cells to burn for energy, it burns fat instead. As part of this process, it makes ketones. If you're healthy and eating a balanced diet, your body controls how much fat it burns, and you don't normally make or use ketones. But when you cut way back on your calories or carbs, your body will switch to ketosis for energy. It can also happen after exercising for a long time and during pregnancy. For people with uncontrolled diabetes, ketosis is a sign of not using enough insulin. Ketosis can become dangerous when ketones build up. High levels lead to dehydration and change the chemical balance of your blood. Ketosis is a popular weight loss strategy. Low-carb eating plans include the first part of the Atkins diet and the Paleo diet, which stress proteins for fueling your body. In addition to helping you burn fat, ketosis can make you feel less hungry. It also helps you maintain muscle. For healthy people who don't have diabetes and aren't pregnant, ketosis usually kicks in after 3 or 4 days of eating less than 50 grams of carbohydrates per day. That's about 3 slices of bread, a cup of low-fat fruit yogurt, or two small bananas. You can start ketosis by fasting, too. Doctors may put children who have epilepsy on a ketogenic diet, a special high-fat, very low-carb and protein plan, because it might help prevent seizures. Adults with epilepsy sometimes eat modified Atkins diets. Some research suggests that ketogenic diets might help lower your risk of heart disease. Other studies show sp Continue reading >>

I Went On The Silicon Valley Diet Craze That Encourages Butter And Bacon For 2 Months — And It Vastly Improved My Life

I Went On The Silicon Valley Diet Craze That Encourages Butter And Bacon For 2 Months — And It Vastly Improved My Life

Bacon became my new best friend on the ketogenic diet.Business Insider A diet that goes against conventional wisdom on healthy eating is gaining momentum among Silicon Valley tech workers. And it involves eating a lot of fat. The ketogenic, or "keto," diet — which first became popular in the 1920s as a treatment for epilepsy and diabetes — limits carbohydrates to no more than 50 grams a day, which is the rough equivalent of a plain bagel or a cup of white rice. By comparison, dietary guidelines laid out by the US Department of Agriculture recommend consuming between 225 and 325 grams of carbs a day. On the keto diet, the body goes into starvation mode and taps its fat stores for fuel. Studies suggest the low-carb, high-fat diet may promote weight loss, dull hunger, and stave off age-related diseases. More research is needed on its long-term effects, especially in healthy people. An increasing number of health nuts — from the internet entrepreneur Kevin Rose to the podcaster Tim Ferriss — swear by the keto diet. I spent the past two months eating bacon, butter, and avocados to see why the keto movement is so popular. I am no stranger to diets. I've cut sugar, counted points on Weight Watchers, and swapped solid food for Soylent, a venture-capital-backed meal-replacement shake. Here's me eating a doughnut.Melia Robinson/Business Insider I gave up breakfast for a week and drank this caffeinated meal-replacement shake instead » But those usually don't last long. I love food. I'm a chronic snacker. Melia Robinson/Business Insider When I first learned about the keto diet, it caught my interest because dieters could eat seemingly unlimited amounts of healthy fats, like cheese, nuts, avocado, eggs, butter — foods that have high "point values" on Weight Watchers and a Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diets - What Are They? Do They Work?

Ketogenic Diets - What Are They? Do They Work?

What would you say if I told you that you could supercharge your energy levels with a switch to your diet? How about lose fat or bulk up using the same diet? Would you like to eat the foods that are considered taboo? Ketogenic Diets - What Are They? Do They Work? What would you say if I told you that you could supercharge your energy levels with a switch to your diet? How about lose fat or bulk up using the same diet? Would you like to eat the foods that are considered taboo? You know... The good foods, the ones with all the fats that really taste good. We are speaking of ketogenic diets (or keto for short). Countless books have been written on this very subject and yet the world does not understand the value of this diet. I keep hearing the same comments: "Man that diet is bad for you." "You will have excessive cholesterol and probably have a heart attack." Where does this come from? A common lack of knowledge! Most of the time we fear that which we don't understand, so we are here to shed some light on the subject and hopefully leave you with a better understanding about this diet. Fitnessman and I have decided it was time to "school" some of you on the effects and ease of this diet. This is the first time we have ever done anything like this together so it should prove to be interesting. Fitnessman is highly schooled on the subject of Ketogenic diets. He has a degree in nutrition and is a major contributor in the Bodybuilding.com forum. When Fitnessman talks we all stop and listen! On with the article... The Problem The most common problem today is what we eat. Modern man seems to have gotten so wrapped up in processing stuff that it actually became bad for us to eat. Many years ago man ate meat! This was his diet. He would kiss his family goodbye and go off in searc Continue reading >>

What Is The Keto Diet And How Does It Work?

What Is The Keto Diet And How Does It Work?

Forget, for a moment, talk of the New Kale, whatever that is, and consider the new Paleo. In fact, Vogue Australia made the call a few weeks ago, declaring, "Keto is the new paleo." That's keto as in a ketogenic diet, what basketball superstar LeBron James followed for 67 days in 2014 to stellar results, namely a seriously ripped midsection and, you know, his third NBA Championship ring. How does it work, what can and can't you eat, and will it do for you what it's done for James and other celebrities who've reportedly tried it? All your (fat-)burning questions, answered. What is the Keto Diet? In a nutshell, it's a high-fat, extremely low-carb diet with an "adequate" amount of protein thrown in, says Heather Mangieri, a Pittsburgh-based registered dietitian, sports nutrition specialist, and spokeswoman for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The keto diet isn't new. Developed in the 1920s to treat drug-resistant epilepsy in children, it's still used in that capacity today and is being investigated as a potential breakthrough treatment for a range of neurological disorders and diseases. In other words, it's not just a celebrity weight-loss trend! What does "ketogenic" mean and how does the diet work? The aim of the keto diet is to put, and keep, your body in a metabolic state called ketosis. Our bodies normally burn carbohydrates for energy. When you restrict the amount of carbs, the body will break down stored fat, creating molecules called ketones to use as fuel. (The Paleo diet is similar, but higher in protein and not as strict about certain foods and proportions.) Ketosis is a normal physiological process. There's nothing dangerous about it. "It's just that this particular eating style is keeping your body in that state all the time," says Mangieri. How low-car Continue reading >>

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis is a normal metabolic process. When the body does not have enough glucose for energy, it burns stored fats instead; this results in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body. Some people encourage ketosis by following a diet called the ketogenic or low-carb diet. The aim of the diet is to try and burn unwanted fat by forcing the body to rely on fat for energy, rather than carbohydrates. Ketosis is also commonly observed in patients with diabetes, as the process can occur if the body does not have enough insulin or is not using insulin correctly. Problems associated with extreme levels of ketosis are more likely to develop in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with type 2 diabetes patients. Ketosis occurs when the body does not have sufficient access to its primary fuel source, glucose. Ketosis describes a condition where fat stores are broken down to produce energy, which also produces ketones, a type of acid. As ketone levels rise, the acidity of the blood also increases, leading to ketoacidosis, a serious condition that can prove fatal. People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to develop ketoacidosis, for which emergency medical treatment is required to avoid or treat diabetic coma. Some people follow a ketogenic (low-carb) diet to try to lose weight by forcing the body to burn fat stores. What is ketosis? In normal circumstances, the body's cells use glucose as their primary form of energy. Glucose is typically derived from dietary carbohydrates, including: sugar - such as fruits and milk or yogurt starchy foods - such as bread and pasta The body breaks these down into simple sugars. Glucose can either be used to fuel the body or be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. If there is not enough glucose available to meet energy demands, th Continue reading >>

How Does A Ketogenic Diet Work And Is The Diet Worth It?

How Does A Ketogenic Diet Work And Is The Diet Worth It?

There are many different diet types out there and some of them are supposed to be revolutionary for weight loss. Today, I want to talk about one specific type, a ketogenic diet. This is a specific form of a low carb diet and one that has become exceptionally popular. That’s really not surprising, as ketogenic diets have been linked to health benefits and also substantial weight loss. But, how does a ketogenic diet work? After all, it’s no good simply claiming that a diet works. Most diets work to some degree for a short time. So, what is it that makes a ketogenic diet special? Well, to understand that, we have to take a look at the science behind this type of diet. Before we get started, I do want to say that ketosis is a little complicated. In this post, I’m going to provide an overview of the diet, including how it works and the benefits that it offers. But, I’m going to avoid going too deeply into the complexity of the diet, as that information can get confusing quickly. Nevertheless, this post will still answer the question, how does a ketogenic diet work. Ketogenic diets actually come under a few different names. For example, you may sometimes hear it called a ketosis diet or even just a keto diet. These names all refer to the same concept, they’re just different terms that are used. The names are all based on the concept of ketosis. In some cases, you may also hear the name nutritional ketosis or nutritional ketosis diet. That term still means the same thing and it’s mostly just a clarification. All of these various names come from the same underlying concept, the idea of ketosis. Ketosis is a specific metabolic state where your body is operating in a different way. Specifically, the body produces ketone bodies (or ketones), including acetone and aceto Continue reading >>

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