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How Does Ketoacidosis Cause Hypotension

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What is INSULIN SHOCK THERAPY? What does INSULIN SHOCK THERAPY mean? INSULIN SHOCK THERAPY meaning - INSULIN SHOCK THERAPY definition - INSULIN SHOCK THERAPY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Insulin shock therapy or insulin coma therapy (ICT) was a form of psychiatric treatment in which patients were repeatedly injected with large doses of insulin in order to produce daily comas over several weeks. It was introduced in 1927 by Austrian-American psychiatrist Manfred Sakel and used extensively in the 1940s and 1950s, mainly for schizophrenia, before falling out of favour and being replaced by neuroleptic drugs in the 1960s. It was one of a number of physical treatments introduced into psychiatry in the first four decades of the twentieth century. These included the convulsive therapies (cardiazol/metrazol therapy and electroconvulsive therapy), deep sleep therapy and psychosurgery. Insulin coma therapy and the convulsive therapies are collectively known as the shock therapies. Insulin coma therapy was a labour-intensive treatment that required trained staff and a special unit. Patients, who were almost invaria

Testicular Failure Following Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis Complicated By Hypotensive Shock

Go to: Case Presentation A 14‐year‐old Caucasian boy with no significant past medical history presented to the emergency department when his mother was unable to wake him up. The family reported a 3 day history of flu‐like symptoms with polyuria and polydipsia but no vomiting. On exam, the patient was unresponsive but had no localizing neurological findings. Physical exam was remarkable for Kussmaul breathing, hypotension, and poor perfusion. Exam by the consulting endocrine team at presentation documented normal body mass index, no acanthosis, and sexual maturity staging of Tanner 4 for pubic hair with testicular volume of 15 mL bilaterally. The patient was diagnosed with severe DKA based on labs which showed pH 6.89, bicarbonate 4.5 mmol/L, blood glucose 1493 mg/dL, and ketonuria. He had acute renal failure with initial blood urea nitrogen (BUN) of 59 and serum creatinine 3.4 mg/dL. Fluid resuscitation and insulin infusion were initiated. The patient was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) for further management. Additional labs drawn at presentation are shown in Table 2. While in the PICU, in spite of biochemical resolution of DKA, the patient had persi Continue reading >>

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  1. Roopa

    levodopa is prescribed to patients suffering from Parkinson's disease, as many of their symptoms are caused by a lack of natural dopamine in the brain. Levodopa is an intermediate step in the metabolization of the hormone dopamine from the amino acid tyrosine. Tyrosine may also metabolize into epinephrine or norepinephrine, also with levodopa as an intermediate product.
    There are a few concerns with the use of levodopa to treat Parkinson's disease. Dopamine cannot be administered because it is blocked by the blood-brain barrier and cannot enter the patient's brain, but large amounts of levodopa become metabolized into dopamine in the patient's peripheral nervous system (PNS) before even reaching the blood-brain barrier. This results in a number of adverse side effects, especially in the long term.

    Side effects of levodopa use may include low blood pressure, arrhythmia, nausea, hair loss, confusion, emotional disturbances, gastrointestinal bleeding, insomnia, and hallucinations. When used long term, levodopa may begin to decrease in effectiveness and may cause dyskinesia, or impairment of voluntary movement. As a result, doctors prescribe levodopa sparingly and often include peripheral DOPA decarboxylase inhibitors to limit the amount of levodopa metabolized in the PNS. Despite these concerns, levodopa is believed to be safer than other drugs used to treat Parkinson's.

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Causes Of Low Blood Pressure(Hypotension): In this video, we shared information about causes of low blood pressure(hypotension) - what causes blood pressure to drop - hypotension causes. Subscribe to our channel for more videos. Watch: (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ivQE7...) What Causes Low Blood Pressure? The cause of low blood pressure isn't always clear. It may be associated with the following: * Pregnancy * Hormonal problems such as an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism), diabetes, or low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) * Some over-the-counter medications * Some prescription medicines such as for high blood pressure, depression or Parkinsons disease * Heart failure * Heart arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms) * Widening, or dilation, of the blood vessels * Heat exhaustion or heat stroke * Liver disease What Causes a Sudden Drop in Blood Pressure? Sudden drops in blood pressure can be life-threatening. Causes of this type of hypotension include: * Loss of blood from bleeding * Low body temperature * High body temperature * Heart muscle disease causing heart failure * Sepsis, a severe blood infection * Severe dehydration from vomiting, diarrhea, or fever * A reaction to medication

Poisoning-related Hypotension

Introduction Hypotension is a frequently encountered problem in patients with poisoning or drug overdose. Toxicological causes of hypotension are usually due to a drug’s or toxin’s ability to induce one or more of the following: decrease cardiac contractility; decrease peripheral vasculature resistance; decrease intravascular volume; or depress the central nervous system. Yet, determining the specific cause of hypotension is often complex as its medical differential is vast. While medications are commonly implicated as a direct cause of hypotension, a fall in blood pressure may be associated with other coexisting medical conditions. An understanding of the pharmacologic effects of drugs and knowledge of the patient’s underlying medical conditions are crucial for the effective management of hypotension. Hypotension is frequently seen in the overdose population. During 2004, hypotension was present in over 20% of all cases reported to poison centers across California. In 2003, the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) reported 12,710 cases of hypotension associated with tricyclic antidepressant poisoning; 15,350 cases from beta-receptor antagonist poisoning; 9, Continue reading >>

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  1. Roopa

    levodopa is prescribed to patients suffering from Parkinson's disease, as many of their symptoms are caused by a lack of natural dopamine in the brain. Levodopa is an intermediate step in the metabolization of the hormone dopamine from the amino acid tyrosine. Tyrosine may also metabolize into epinephrine or norepinephrine, also with levodopa as an intermediate product.
    There are a few concerns with the use of levodopa to treat Parkinson's disease. Dopamine cannot be administered because it is blocked by the blood-brain barrier and cannot enter the patient's brain, but large amounts of levodopa become metabolized into dopamine in the patient's peripheral nervous system (PNS) before even reaching the blood-brain barrier. This results in a number of adverse side effects, especially in the long term.

    Side effects of levodopa use may include low blood pressure, arrhythmia, nausea, hair loss, confusion, emotional disturbances, gastrointestinal bleeding, insomnia, and hallucinations. When used long term, levodopa may begin to decrease in effectiveness and may cause dyskinesia, or impairment of voluntary movement. As a result, doctors prescribe levodopa sparingly and often include peripheral DOPA decarboxylase inhibitors to limit the amount of levodopa metabolized in the PNS. Despite these concerns, levodopa is believed to be safer than other drugs used to treat Parkinson's.

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What is THIRST? What does THIRST mean? THIRST meaning - THIRST pronunciation - THIRST definition - THIRST explanation - How to pronounce THIRST? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Thirst is the craving for fluids, resulting in the basic instinct of animals to drink. It is an essential mechanism involved in fluid balance. It arises from a lack of fluids or an increase in the concentration of certain osmolites, such as salt. If the water volume of the body falls below a certain threshold or the osmolite concentration becomes too high, the brain signals thirst. Continuous dehydration can cause many problems, but is most often associated with renal problems and neurological problems such as seizures. Excessive thirst, known as polydipsia, along with excessive urination, known as polyuria, may be an indication of diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus. There are receptors and other systems in the body that detect a decreased volume or an increased osmolite concentration. They signal to the central nervous system, where central processing succeeds. Some sources, therefore, distinguish "extracellular thirst" from "intracellular

What Is The Pathogenesis Of Thirst In Diabetes Mellitus?

What is the diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus? Answer FBS > 140 mg/dl the most critical Random glucose > 200 mg/dl with symptoms GTT ? rarely indicated What is the pathogenesis of diabetic symptoms? Answer Urinary loss of glucose, when blood glucose exceeds renal threshold of 180 mg/dl 4.1 calories loss for each gram of glucose loss in urine Loss of electrolytes and water with glucose Dehydration, hyperosmolarity of serum, hypovolemia Polyuria, thirst, polydypsia, polyphagia, loss of weight, lack of energy What is the pathogenesis of thirst in diabetes mellitus? Answer Elevated blood sugar contributing to serum osmolality (5 mOsm per 100 mg/dl) Contribution of glucose to serum osmolality is small Thirst center in the hypothalamus are insulin dependant for glucose utilization Contraction of extra cellular fluid also a factor Explain the genesis of dyspnea in diabetic ketoacidosis. Answer Respiratory centers are extremely sensitive to acidic pH Ventilation increases and CO2 gets blown out This is also a respiratory compensation for metabolic acidosis Breathing is deep and rapid : Kussmal's respiration What are the conditions where you can loose weight, in spite of a voracious Continue reading >>

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  1. Roopa

    levodopa is prescribed to patients suffering from Parkinson's disease, as many of their symptoms are caused by a lack of natural dopamine in the brain. Levodopa is an intermediate step in the metabolization of the hormone dopamine from the amino acid tyrosine. Tyrosine may also metabolize into epinephrine or norepinephrine, also with levodopa as an intermediate product.
    There are a few concerns with the use of levodopa to treat Parkinson's disease. Dopamine cannot be administered because it is blocked by the blood-brain barrier and cannot enter the patient's brain, but large amounts of levodopa become metabolized into dopamine in the patient's peripheral nervous system (PNS) before even reaching the blood-brain barrier. This results in a number of adverse side effects, especially in the long term.

    Side effects of levodopa use may include low blood pressure, arrhythmia, nausea, hair loss, confusion, emotional disturbances, gastrointestinal bleeding, insomnia, and hallucinations. When used long term, levodopa may begin to decrease in effectiveness and may cause dyskinesia, or impairment of voluntary movement. As a result, doctors prescribe levodopa sparingly and often include peripheral DOPA decarboxylase inhibitors to limit the amount of levodopa metabolized in the PNS. Despite these concerns, levodopa is believed to be safer than other drugs used to treat Parkinson's.

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