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How Does Ketoacidosis Cause Hyperventilation

Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Practice Essentials Diabetic ketoacidosis, in pediatric and adult cases, is a metabolic derangement caused by the absolute or relative deficiency of the anabolic hormone insulin. Together with the major complication of cerebral edema, it is the most important cause of mortality and severe morbidity in children with diabetes. Signs and symptoms Symptoms of acidosis and dehydration include the following: Symptoms of hyperglycemia, a consequence of insulin deficiency, include the following: Patients with diabetic ketoacidosis may also have the following signs and symptoms: Cerebral edema Most cases of cerebral edema occur 4-12 hours after initiation of treatment. Diagnostic criteria of cerebral edema include the following: Major criteria include the following: Minor criteria include the following: See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Laboratory studies The following lab studies are indicated in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis: Imaging studies Head computed tomography (CT) scanning - If coma is present or develops Chest radiography - If clinically indicated Electrocardiography Electrocardiography (ECG) is a useful adjunct to monitor potassium status. Characteristic changes appear with extremes of potassium status. See the images below. Consciousness Check the patient’s consciousness level hourly for up to 12 hours, especially in a young child with a first presentation of diabetes. The Glasgow coma scale is recommended for this purpose. See Workup for more detail. Management Replacement of the following is essential in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis: Insulin - Continuous, low-dose, intravenous (IV) insulin infusion is generally considered the safest and most effective insulin delivery method for diabetic ketoacidosis Potassium - After initial resuscitatio Continue reading >>

Hyperventilation In Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis*

Hyperventilation In Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis*

Abstract To explore whether the carbon dioxide-bicarbonate (P(CO(2))-HCO(3)) buffering system in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in diabetic ketoacidosis should influence the approach to ventilation in patients at risk of cerebral edema. Medline search, manual search of references in articles found in Medline search, and use of historical literature from 1933 to 1967. A clinical vignette is used--a child with severe diabetic ketoacidosis who presented with profound hypocapnia and then deteriorated--as a basis for discussion of integrative metabolic and vascular physiology. Studies included reports in diabetic ketoacidosis where arterial and CSF acid-base data have been presented. Studies where simultaneous acid-base, ventilation, respiratory quotient, and cerebral blood flow data are available. We revisit a hypothesis and, by reassessing data, put forward an argument based on the significance of low [HCO(3)](CSF) and rising Pa(CO(2))- hyperventilation in diabetic ketoacidosis and the limit in biology of survival; repair of severe diabetic ketoacidosis and Pa(CO(2))-and mechanical ventilation. The review highlights a potential problem with mechanical ventilation in severe diabetic ketoacidosis and suggests that the P(CO(2))--HCO(3) hypothesis is consistent with data on cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis. It also indicates that the recommendation to avoid induced hyperventilation early in the course of intensive care may be counter to the logic of adaptive physiology. ) “iso-acidity” lines. A, changes in the index case: point 1, at presentation; point 2, 15 mins ABG 7.09 ⫾0.04 14.0 ⫾1.0 5.0 ⫾1.0 Ohman et al. (9) CSF 7.35 ⫾0.03 23.0 ⫾2.0 12.0 ⫾2.0 ABG 7.15 ⫾0.06 19.9 ⫾2.5 7.6 ⫾1.6 Marks et al. (10) CSF 7.22 ⫾0.03 25.0 ⫾2.7 10.2 ⫾1.7 ABG Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency that typically occurs as a complication of type 1 diabetes. It can occur in people with undiagnosed type 1 diabetes or in diabetics with: decreased insulin intake intercurrent illness stress of any form (e.g.infection, surgery, MI) Pathophysiology The pathophysiology (see image) of diabetic ketoacidosis must be considered to help understand its presentation and the necessary management. There are 3 main biochemical features: hyperglycaemia hyperketonaemia metabolic acidosis Firstly, lack of insulin causes glucose to remain in the blood rather than be transferred into cells for utilisation. The body therefore responds as if it were in starvation and hepatic glucose production becomes increased. Osmotic diuresis occurs as a consequence of this glucose rich blood being filtered by the kidneys. Glucose is normally reabsorbed by the proximal tubule but in DKA the amount of glucose filtered exceeds the renal threshold for reabsorbtion. The presence of glucose in the tubules causes water retention in the lumen, thus increasing urine output and decreasing reabsorption into the body, leading to dehydration and electrolyte depletion. Secondly, an absence of insulin together with elevated stress hormones such as catecholamines, leads to lipolysis, resulting in numerous free fatty acids available for hepatic ketogenesis. Consequently, there is increased ketone body formation by fatty acid oxidation in the liver, leading to an elevated level in the blood. These ketones give a distinct smell to the urine and breath. Thirdly, the ketone bodies lower the pH of the blood resulting in metabolic acidosis. This causes nausea and vomiting resulting in further dehydration. The body compensates for the acidosis by hyperventilation (Kussmals respira Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic ketoacidosis is an acute metabolic complication of diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperketonemia, and metabolic acidosis. Hyperglycemia causes an osmotic diuresis with significant fluid and electrolyte loss. DKA occurs mostly in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). It causes nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain and can progress to cerebral edema, coma, and death. DKA is diagnosed by detection of hyperketonemia and anion gap metabolic acidosis in the presence of hyperglycemia. Treatment involves volume expansion, insulin replacement, and prevention of hypokalemia. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is most common among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and develops when insulin levels are insufficient to meet the body’s basic metabolic requirements. DKA is the first manifestation of type 1 DM in a minority of patients. Insulin deficiency can be absolute (eg, during lapses in the administration of exogenous insulin) or relative (eg, when usual insulin doses do not meet metabolic needs during physiologic stress). Common physiologic stresses that can trigger DKA include Some drugs implicated in causing DKA include DKA is less common in type 2 diabetes mellitus, but it may occur in situations of unusual physiologic stress. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes is a variant of type 2 diabetes, which is sometimes seen in obese individuals, often of African (including African-American or Afro-Caribbean) origin. People with ketosis-prone diabetes (also referred to as Flatbush diabetes) can have significant impairment of beta cell function with hyperglycemia, and are therefore more likely to develop DKA in the setting of significant hyperglycemia. SGLT-2 inhibitors have been implicated in causing DKA in both type 1 and type 2 DM. Continue reading >>

Emergency Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Emergency Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially fatal metabolic disorder presenting most weeks in most accident and emergency (A&E) departments.1 The disorder can have significant mortality if misdiagnosed or mistreated. Numerous management strategies have been described. Our aim is to describe a regimen that is based, as far as possible, on available evidence but also on our experience in managing patients with DKA in the A&E department and on inpatient wards. A literature search was carried out on Medline and the Cochrane Databases using “diabetic ketoacidosis” as a MeSH heading and as textword. High yield journals were hand searched. Papers identified were appraised in the ways described in the Users’ guide series published in JAMA. We will not be discussing the derangements in intermediary metabolism involved, nor would we suggest extrapolating the proposed regimen to children. Although some of the issues discussed may be considered by some to be outwith the remit of A&E medicine it would seem prudent to ensure that A&E staff were aware of the probable management of such patients in the hours after they leave the A&E department. AETIOLOGY AND DEFINITION DKA may be the first presentation of diabetes. Insulin error (with or without intercurrent illness) is the most common precipitating factor, accounting for nearly two thirds of cases (excluding those where DKA was the first presentation of diabetes mellitus).2 The main features of DKA are hyperglycaemia, metabolic acidosis with a high anion gap and heavy ketonuria (box 1). This contrasts with the other hyperglycaemic diabetic emergency of hyperosmolar non-ketotic hyperglycaemia where there is no acidosis, absent or minimal ketonuria but often very high glucose levels (>33 mM) and very high serum sodium levels (>15 Continue reading >>

Hyperventilation Causes

Hyperventilation Causes

Causes of hyperventilation are seriously misunderstood by the mainstream medicine. Internet (Wikipedia, etc.) and professional medical sources grossly misrepresent the prevalence of hyperventilation primarily limiting it to such cases as lung injuries, extreme stress, diabetic ketoacidosis, head injuries and stroke. In reality research provides a different view on presence and prevalence of hyperventilation (breathing more air than the medical norm).  Minute ventilation rates (chronic diseases) Condition Minute ventilation Number of people All references or click below for abstracts Normal breathing 6 l/min - Medical textbooks Healthy Subjects 6-7 l/min >400 Results of 14 studies COPD 14 (+-2) l/min 12 Palange et al, 2001 COPD 12 (+-2) l/min 10 Sinderby et al, 2001 COPD 14 l/min 3 Stulbarg et al, 2001 Cancer 12 (+-2) l/min 40 Travers et al, 2008 Heart disease 15 (+-4) l/min 22 Dimopoulou et al, 2001 var ezzns22 = {3.00:504664,0.80:504559,0.30:504551,2.00:504657,5.00:504669,0.25:504548,1.40:504651,1.50:504652,1.70:504654,1.80:504655,2.20:504658,2.80:504661,0.20:504145,1.90:504656,2.40:504659,4.00:504666,1.30:504650,0.50:504556,0.90:504560,0.10:504141,0.35:504552,0.40:504554,0.70:504558,1.10:504648,3.50:504665,4.50:504667,0.05:504099,0.45:504555,0.60:504557,1.00:504647,0.15:504144,1.60:504653,2.60:504660,1.20:504649,}; var ezoflbf_2_22 = function() { __ez.queue.addFunc('ReloadFromP_1022', 'IL11ILILIIlLLLILILLLLIILLLIIL11111LLILiiLIliLlILlLiiLLIiILL.ReloadFromP', 1022, false, ['banger.js'], false, false, false, true); }; var ezoflbf_22 = function() { eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'normalbreathing_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_4'])); };ezoflbf_22(); var __ezfl_sss_1022 = function() { setTimeout(function(){ var ezflaun = IL11ILILIIlLLLILILLLLIILLLIIL11111LLILiiLIliLlILlLi Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Serious Complication

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Serious Complication

A balanced body chemistry is crucial for a healthy human body. A sudden drop in pH can cause significant damage to organ systems and even death. This lesson takes a closer look at a condition in which the pH of the body is severely compromised called diabetic ketoacidosis. Definition Diabetic ketoacidosis, sometimes abbreviated as DKA, is a condition in which a high amount of acid in the body is caused by a high concentration of ketone bodies. That definition might sound complicated, but it's really not. Acidosis itself is the state of too many hydrogen ions, and therefore too much acid, in the blood. A pH in the blood leaving the heart of 7.35 or less indicates acidosis. Ketones are the biochemicals produced when fat is broken down and used for energy. While a healthy body makes a very low level of ketones and is able to use them for energy, when ketone levels become too high, they make the body's fluids very acidic. Let's talk about the three Ws of ketoacidosis: who, when, and why. Type one diabetics are the group at the greatest risk for ketoacidosis, although the condition can occur in other groups of people, such as alcoholics. Ketoacidosis usually occurs in type one diabetics either before diagnosis or when they are subjected to a metabolic stress, such as a severe infection. Although it is possible for type two diabetics to develop ketoacidosis, it doesn't happen as frequently. To understand why diabetic ketoacidosis occurs, let's quickly review what causes diabetes. Diabetics suffer from a lack of insulin, the protein hormone responsible for enabling glucose to get into cells. This inability to get glucose into cells means that the body is forced to turn elsewhere to get energy, and that source is fat. As anyone who exercises or eats a low-calorie diet knows, fa Continue reading >>

Hyperventilation

Hyperventilation

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Dealing with Breathing Problems article more useful, or one of our other health articles. The term hyperventilation describes excessive ventilation of the lungs, beyond what is required to achieve normal arterial blood gases. Where hyperventilation occurs chronically or in recurrent episodes and is associated with somatic (respiratory, neurological, intestinal) or psychological (anxiety) symptoms, it is known as hyperventilation syndrome.[1] About 5-10% of general medical outpatients are thought to have this syndrome and, because of the range of somatic symptoms, the risk of misdiagnosis is high. Pathogenesis Hyperventilation has little effect on arterial pO2 and almost no effect on oxygen saturation which is nearly 100% under normal circumstances. Its main effect is to lower pCO2 and produce a respiratory alkalosis. A secondary hypocalcaemia also occurs as calcium dissociation is shifted towards the unionised, bound form. There are many factors that influence the respiratory drive, including the elasticity of the lungs and the resistance in the airways but the most important factors are arterial pH, pCO2 and pO2. Of these, pCO2 is most important, although some people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can depend on the hypoxic drive. Epidemiology It is quite common but precise prevalence is unknown. A postal survey indicated that 8% of adults without asthma have functional breathing problems (of which symptomatic hyperventilation is the most common).[2] Hyperventilation syndrome is more common in people with asthma and also more common i Continue reading >>

Hyperventilation In Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

Hyperventilation In Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

Abstract OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the carbon dioxide-bicarbonate (P(CO(2))-HCO(3)) buffering system in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in diabetic ketoacidosis should influence the approach to ventilation in patients at risk of cerebral edema. DATA SOURCE: Medline search, manual search of references in articles found in Medline search, and use of historical literature from 1933 to 1967. DESIGN: A clinical vignette is used--a child with severe diabetic ketoacidosis who presented with profound hypocapnia and then deteriorated--as a basis for discussion of integrative metabolic and vascular physiology. STUDY SELECTION: Studies included reports in diabetic ketoacidosis where arterial and CSF acid-base data have been presented. Studies where simultaneous acid-base, ventilation, respiratory quotient, and cerebral blood flow data are available. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: We revisit a hypothesis and, by reassessing data, put forward an argument based on the significance of low [HCO(3)](CSF) and rising Pa(CO(2))- hyperventilation in diabetic ketoacidosis and the limit in biology of survival; repair of severe diabetic ketoacidosis and Pa(CO(2))-and mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: The review highlights a potential problem with mechanical ventilation in severe diabetic ketoacidosis and suggests that the P(CO(2))--HCO(3) hypothesis is consistent with data on cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis. It also indicates that the recommendation to avoid induced hyperventilation early in the course of intensive care may be counter to the logic of adaptive physiology. Continue reading >>

Arterial Blood Gases (blood Gases), Acidosis And Alkalosis

Arterial Blood Gases (blood Gases), Acidosis And Alkalosis

Sample The better choice is the Radial artery. The sample may be taken from the femoral artery or brachial. The tests are done immediately because oxygen and carbon dioxide are unstable. Arterial blood is better than the venous blood. For arterial blood don't use the tourniquet and no pull on the syringe plunger. For venous blood syringe or tubes are completely filled and apply a tourniquet for few seconds. Arterial VS Venous blood Arterial blood gives good mixture of blood from various areas of the body. Venous blood gives information of the local area from where the blood sample is taken. Metabolism of the extremity varies from area to area. Arterial blood measurement gives the better status of the lung oxygenating the blood. Arterial blood gives information about the ability of the lung to regulate the acid-base balance through retention or release of CO2. Precautions for the collection of blood Avoid pain and anxiety to the patient which will lead to hyperventilation. Hyperventilation due to any cause leads to decreased CO2 and increased pH. Keep blood cool during transit. Don't clench finger or fist. This will leads to lower CO2 and increased acid metabolites. pCO2 values are lower in the sitting or standing position in comparison with the supine position. Don't delay the performance of the test. Avoid air bubbles in the syringe. Excess of heparin decreases the pCO2 may be 40% less. Not proper mixing of the blood before running the test. Purpose of the test This test is done on the mostly hospitalized patient. Mostly the patients are on ventilator or unconscious. For patients in pulmonary distress. To assess the metabolic (renal) acid-base and electrolytes imbalance. Its primary use is to monitor arterial blood gases and pH of blood. Also used to monitor oxygenatio Continue reading >>

Chapter 16: Acid-base Imbalances

Chapter 16: Acid-base Imbalances

Sort What is the function of a buffer? a) To excrete weak acids b) To secrete hydrogen ions c) To convert strong acids to weak acids d) To convert ammonia to ammonium ions c) To convert strong acids to weak acids -Buffers convert strong acids to weak acids. Excretion of weak acids, secretion of hydrogen ions into the renal tubule, and conversion of ammonia to ammonium ions takes place in the kidneys. A nurse is caring for a patient three days after abdominal surgery who continues to have poorly controlled abdominal pain with green bilious nasogastric output. The patient's respiratory rate is 32 and heart rate is 128. Which acid-base imbalance does the nurse suspect is occurring? a) Mixed acidosis b) Mixed alkalosis c) Metabolic alkalosis d) Respiratory acidosis b) Mixed alkalosis -Mixed alkalosis can occur in a patient who is losing CO2 via hyperventilation (possibly related to pain) while also losing acid by another method, such as prolonged suctioning with a nasogastric tube. Respiratory acidosis occurs when the primary loss of acid is via a respiratory "blow off" of CO2. Metabolic alkalosis occurs with a systemic loss of acid via a metabolic process such as vomiting or suctioning with a nasogastric tube. Mixed acidosis occurs when acid is retained by both respiratory and metabolic systems, such as in a critically ill patient in shock with hypoperfusion and hypoventilation, and will often cause a more profoundly acidotic pH than either condition could independently create. The nurse is caring for a patient that is in respiratory acidosis. What cardiovascular condition should the nurse closely monitor the patient for? a) Diarrhea b) Confusion c) Abdominal pain d) Ventricular fibrillation d) Ventricular fibrillation -Respiratory acidosis causes compensatory hyperkalemia Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetes mellitus is the name given to a group of conditions whose common hallmark is a raised blood glucose concentration (hyperglycemia) due to an absolute or relative deficiency of the pancreatic hormone insulin. In the UK there are 1.4 million registered diabetic patients, approximately 3 % of the population. In addition, an estimated 1 million remain undiagnosed. It is a growing health problem: In 1998, the World Health Organization (WHO) predicted a doubling of the worldwide prevalence of diabetes from 150 million to 300 million by 2025. For a very tiny minority, diabetes is a secondary feature of primary endocrine disease such as acromegaly (growth hormone excess) or Cushing’s syndrome (excess corticosteroid), and for these patients successful treatment of the primary disease cures diabetes. Most diabetic patients, however, are classified as suffering either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes, which accounts for around 15 % of the total diabetic population, is an autoimmune disease of the pancreas in which the insulin-producing β-cells of the pancreas are selectively destroyed, resulting in an absolute insulin deficiency. The condition arises in genetically susceptible individuals exposed to undefined environmental insult(s) (possibly viral infection) early in life. It usually becomes clinically evident and therefore diagnosed during late childhood, with peak incidence between 11 and 13 years of age, although the autoimmune-mediated β-cell destruction begins many years earlier. There is currently no cure and type 1 diabetics have an absolute life-long requirement for daily insulin injections to survive. Type 2 diabetes This is the most common form of diabetes: around 85 % of the diabetic population has type 2 diabetes. The primary prob Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Initial Evaluation Initial evaluation of patients with DKA includes diagnosis and treatment of precipitating factors (Table 14–18). The most common precipitating factor is infection, followed by noncompliance with insulin therapy.3 While insulin pump therapy has been implicated as a risk factor for DKA in the past, most recent studies show that with proper education and practice using the pump, the frequency of DKA is the same for patients on pump and injection therapy.19 Common causes by frequency Other causes Selected drugs that may contribute to diabetic ketoacidosis Infection, particularly pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and sepsis4 Inadequate insulin treatment or noncompliance4 New-onset diabetes4 Cardiovascular disease, particularly myocardial infarction5 Acanthosis nigricans6 Acromegaly7 Arterial thrombosis, including mesenteric and iliac5 Cerebrovascular accident5 Hemochromatosis8 Hyperthyroidism9 Pancreatitis10 Pregnancy11 Atypical antipsychotic agents12 Corticosteroids13 FK50614 Glucagon15 Interferon16 Sympathomimetic agents including albuterol (Ventolin), dopamine (Intropin), dobutamine (Dobutrex), terbutaline (Bricanyl),17 and ritodrine (Yutopar)18 DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Three key features of diabetic acidosis are hyperglycemia, ketosis, and acidosis. The conditions that cause these metabolic abnormalities overlap. The primary differential diagnosis for hyperglycemia is hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (Table 23,20), which is discussed in the Stoner article21 on page 1723 of this issue. Common problems that produce ketosis include alcoholism and starvation. Metabolic states in which acidosis is predominant include lactic acidosis and ingestion of drugs such as salicylates and methanol. Abdominal pain may be a symptom of ketoacidosis or part of the inci Continue reading >>

Metabolic Acidosis

Metabolic Acidosis

Metabolic Acidosis Definition Metabolic acidosis is a pH imbalance in which the body has accumulated too much acid and does not have enough bicarbonate to effectively neutralize the effects of the acid. Description Metabolic acidosis, as a disruption of the body's acid/base balance, can be a mild symptom brought on by a lack of insulin, a starvation diet, or a gastrointestinal disorder like vomiting and diarrhea. Metabolic acidosis can indicate a more serious problem with a major organ like the liver, heart, or kidneys. It can also be one of the first signs of drug overdose or poisoning. Causes and symptoms Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body has more acid than base in it. Chemists use the term "pH" to describe how acidic or basic a substance is. Based on a scale of 14, a pH of 7.0 is neutral. A pH below 7.0 is an acid; the lower the number, the stronger the acid. A pH above 7.0 is a base; the higher the number, the stronger the base. Blood pH is slightly basic (alkaline), with a normal range of 7.36-7.44. Acid is a natural by-product of the breakdown of fats and other processes in the body; however, in some conditions, the body does not have enough bicarbonate, an acid neutralizer, to balance the acids produced. This can occur when the body uses fats for energy instead of carbohydrates. Conditions where metabolic acidosis can occur include chronic alcoholism, malnutrition, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Consuming a diet low in carbohydrates and high in fats can also produce metabolic acidosis. The disorder may also be a symptom of another condition like kidney failure, liver failure, or severe diarrhea. The build up of lactic acid in the blood due to such conditions as heart failure, shock, or cancer, induces metabolic acidosis. Some poisonings and overdoses (aspirin, Continue reading >>

What Can Cause Kussmaul Breathing & How Is It Treated?

What Can Cause Kussmaul Breathing & How Is It Treated?

Kussmaul Breathing is the name given to a condition in which the patient develops an extremely deep and labored breathing pattern. This is seen mostly in people who are diabetic and have severe forms of metabolic acidosis, especially diabetic ketoacidosis with kidney dysfunction. Kussmaul Breathing can also be explained as a form of hyperventilation which is a condition in which an individual breathes in such a deep pattern that the level of carbon dioxide decreases in the blood, which is seen mostly in metabolic acidosis where the breathing becomes extremely fast and shallow and as the condition worsens the breathing becomes shallow and deep and it looks as if the individual is virtually gasping for breath. This type of breathing in which the individual is virtually gasping for air is what is termed as Kussmaul Breathing. Kussmaul Breathing is a condition which results due to low levels of carbon dioxide in the blood. It is normally seen in people who have uncontrolled diabetes to level where they develop diabetic ketoacidosis resulting in the patient to have a very shallow and deep breathing. The carbon dioxide level decreases due to the desire of the individual to take a deep breath and exhale more amount of carbon dioxide than the norm resulting in a marked decrease in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood causing hyperventilation or Kussmaul Breathing. The conditions which can cause Kussmaul Breathing are: Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Diabetic ketoacidosis is a condition in which the glucose present in the blood is not able to be used by the body to produce energy because of severe need for insulin which is not there. This results in the inability of the body to get rid of the glucose to produce energy for the body. Metabolic Acidosis: This is a medical condition in w Continue reading >>

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