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How Does Ketoacidosis Cause Confusion

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How Can Diabetic Ketoacidosis Cause Cerebral Edema In Infants?

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) in and of itself does not cause cranial edema. What happens with DKA is the excess glucose in the blood changes the osmolarity of the blood, and causes fluid shift from intracelluar to extracellular. This causes the cells to shrink somewhat. Upon finding the patient in the DKA state, the teatment is insulin and IV fluids. Insulin and the hydration IV fluids reverse the DKA state, and also the osmolarity of the extracellular fluid, causing a fluid shift back into the cell. With the osmolarity reversed, the cells begin swelling—sometimes sometimes larger than before: this is what causes the edema in the cerebrum. This is particularly dangerous because the brain cells have nowhere to go, being encased within the skull. Even though infants have fontanelles and the skull has not fused solid, the extra fluid causes compression within the brain, which in turn can adversely affect the brain function. Continue reading >>

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  1. Hans Luijendijk

    Ketosis is a normal metabolic process in your body. If you don't have sufficient glucose in your body, it will turn to burning fat. A process we call ketosis.
    It does not cause kidney damage in healthy people with normal balanced food intake.

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Diabetic And Endocrine Emergencies

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS; or hyperosmolar non‐ketotic hyperglycaemia) are the most common and most serious diabetic emergencies. Most of these occur in patients with known diabetes. It has long been assumed that DKA is pathogonomic of type 1 diabetes mellitus, but it is now recognised that DKA can occur in type 2 diabetes, especially in African‐American and ethnic minorities.1,2 DKA is a triad of hyperglycaemia, ketosis and acidaemia, and the diagnostic criteria, as defined by the American Diabetes Association, are blood glucose >13.8 mmol/l (250 mg/dl), pH <7.30, serum bicarbonate <18 mmol/l, anion gap >10, and ketonaemia.3 HHS is caused by inadequacy of insulin and defined as blood glucose >33.3 mmol/l (600 mg/dl), pH >7.30, bicarbonate >15 mmol/l, serum osmolality >320, and a small amount of ketones may be present.3 With improved care and early detection, DKA or HHS can be entirely prevented. However, this is not reflected in the hospital admissions in England, with just >7700 admissions in 1998–9 and just <8400 admissions in 2004–5 for admissions with DKA and around 2000 admissions for HHS.4 The EURODIAB study reported an in Continue reading >>

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  1. Courtney Schumacher

    Ketoacidosis

    Comas

    Medical Treatments

    Medical Conditions and Diseases


    Neuroscience

    Medicine and Healthcare



    Why does Ketoacidosis cause coma? How is it treated?




    1 Answer







    I’m assuming that you do know that ketoacidosis does not have to mean that you have high blood sugar. It means that you have a high level of ketones in your blood, which are usually by-products of your body trying to break down fatty acids for fuel it’s not getting from your food intake.
    It is usually treated with fluids, electrolytes, and insulin. It is much more common in those with type 1 diabetes then type 2, but it can still occur.

    You can look up more specific information on diabetes at the Mayo Clinic site.

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Acute Confusion In A Diabetic Patient

OVERVIEW The causes of confusion or altered LOC in a middle aged diabetic male are numerous. Most causes could be delineated by a thorough history, examination and a few simple investigations. IMPORTANT CAUSES Hypoglycaemia – history of hypo’s, episode in relation to taking medications, BSL. Diabetic ketoacidosis – history of DKA, polyuria, polydipsia, thrist, compliance with medications, type I or II diabetes, ABG, BSL, dehydration on examination. Hyper-osmotic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) – unwell with concomitant infection, severe dehydration, severe hyperglycaemia, hyperosmolality (plasma). Hyperglycaemia – history of control, compliance, BSL. Lactic acidosis – type II diabetics on metformin (biguanides) -> sepsis or renal failure. Cerebrovascular accident – TIA or stroke – DM is a risk factor for vascular disease, history of focal neurological symptoms, brainstem or cortical infarct/bleeding. Sepsis with encephalopathy – the diabetic patient is at risk of systemic infections from a number of sources. Continue reading >>

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  1. Hans Luijendijk

    Ketosis is a normal metabolic process in your body. If you don't have sufficient glucose in your body, it will turn to burning fat. A process we call ketosis.
    It does not cause kidney damage in healthy people with normal balanced food intake.

  2. -> Continue reading
read more close

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