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How Does Ketoacidosis Affect The Brain

Diabetic Coma: Causes, What Happens When You Go Into A Diabetic Coma?

Diabetic Coma: Causes, What Happens When You Go Into A Diabetic Coma?

What is Diabetic Coma and What Happens When You go Into a Diabetic Coma? Diabetic coma is a fatal complication that leads to unconsciousness. Any diabetic person with extremely high (hyperglycemia) or low (hypoglycemia) level of blood sugar can be affected by diabetic coma. A person who has slipped into diabetic coma will not be able to respond to any physical stimulation except for being alive. Diabetic coma can cause death when left untreated or not properly treated on time. There are very less chances of hopes in case of diabetic coma. However one can control his or her health conditions to avoid occurrence of diabetic coma. One should follow their diabetes management plan strictly to avoid a turn towards diabetic coma. Diabetic coma is of three types, ketoacidosis coma, hyperosmolar coma and hypoglycemic coma. Emergency medical facility is required in case of a diabetic coma Hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia is caused by huge rate of fluctuation in the blood sugar level leading to diabetic coma. Whenever there is any extreme fluctuation in the glucose level of the blood, the same has to be reported to the doctor immediately. Never forget that "prevention is better than cure". Make yourself more aware on diabetes and learn the likely consequences of the disease to keep yourself alert. Frequently Asked Questions (F.A.Q's) on Diabetic Coma A person can fall in to diabetic coma while suffering from Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The person will not remain conscious in this sleep-like state. This state which can be caused by hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) or hypoglycemia (low blood glucose), can remain for long time or sometimes lead to death. "Ketones" are generated in the human body when it uses body fat for energy. Ketones are also generated when there is minimum insu Continue reading >>

Effects Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis On Visual And Verbal Neurocognitive Function In Young Patients Presenting With New-onset Type 1 Diabetes

Effects Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis On Visual And Verbal Neurocognitive Function In Young Patients Presenting With New-onset Type 1 Diabetes

Go to: Abstract To evaluate the effects of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) on neurocognitive functions in children and adolescents presenting with new-onset type 1 diabetes. Newly diagnosed patients were divided into two groups: those with DKA and those without DKA (non-DKA). Following metabolic stabilization, the patients took a mini-mental status exam prior to undergoing a baseline battery of cognitive tests that evaluated visual and verbal cognitive tasks. Follow-up testing was performed 8-12 weeks after diagnosis. Patients completed an IQ test at follow-up. Results: There was no statistical difference between the DKA and non-DKA groups neither in alertness at baseline testing nor in an IQ test at follow-up. The DKA group had significantly lower baseline scores than the non-DKA group for the visual cognitive tasks of design recognition, design memory and the composite visual memory index (VMI). At follow-up, Design Recognition remained statistically lower in the DKA group, but the design memory and the VMI tasks returned to statistical parity between the two groups. No significant differences were found in verbal cognitive tasks at baseline or follow-up between the two groups. Direct correlations were present for the admission CO2 and the visual cognitive tasks of VMI, design memory and design recognition. Direct correlations were also present for admission pH and VMI, design memory and picture memory. Pediatric patients presenting with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and severe but uncomplicated DKA showed a definite trend for lower cognitive functioning when compared to the age-matched patients without DKA. Keywords: diabetic ketoacidosis, Cognition, dehydration, neuroinflammation Neurocognitive tasks. Mean (standard deviation) and median (range) of standard scores of Continue reading >>

Neuroimaging Findings In Acute Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Neuroimaging Findings In Acute Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a state of severe insulin deficiency and a serious complication in children with diabetes mellitus type 1. In a small number of children, DKA is complicated by injury of the central nervous system. These children have a significant mortality and high long-term neurological morbidity. Cerebral edema is the most common neuroimaging finding in children with DKA and may cause brain herniation. Ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke during the acute DKA episode is less common and accounts for approximately 10% of intracerebral complications of DKA. Here we present the neuroimaging findings of two children with DKA and brain injury. Familiarity with the spectrum of neuroimaging findings seen in pediatric DKA is important to allow early detection as well as initiation of therapy and, hence, prevent complications of the central nervous system. Continue reading >>

Cerebral Edema In Children With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Cerebral Edema In Children With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

INTRODUCTION Cerebral edema (or cerebral injury) is an uncommon but potentially devastating consequence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). It is far more common among children with DKA than among adults. Young children and those with newly diagnosed diabetes are at highest risk. Symptoms typically emerge during treatment for DKA, but may be present prior to initiation of therapy. The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of cerebral edema in children with DKA will be discussed here. The diagnosis and treatment of DKA in children is discussed separately. (See "Clinical features and diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis in children and adolescents" and "Treatment and complications of diabetic ketoacidosis in children and adolescents".) INCIDENCE Clinically significant cerebral edema occurs in approximately 1 percent of episodes of DKA in children and has a mortality rate of 20 to 90 percent [1-3]. Overall mortality rates for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children and adolescents range from 0.15 to 0.51 percent in national population studies in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States [4-9]; 50 to 80 percent of diabetes-related deaths are caused by cerebral edema [1,2,10]. Other causes of death from DKA include aspiration pneumonia, multiple organ failure, gastric perforation, and traumatic hydrothorax [5]. Subclinical brain swelling, as detected by ventricular narrowing on a computed tomography (CT) scan, has been reported in the majority of children with DKA in some studies [11,12], while others reported much smaller proportions [13]. All of these studies were limited by small numbers and lack of appropriate control groups. In a study of 41 children with DKA, the intercaudate width of the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles was measured by magnetic resonance Continue reading >>

Neurological Consequences Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis At Initial Presentation Of Type 1 Diabetes In A Prospective Cohort Study Of Children

Neurological Consequences Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis At Initial Presentation Of Type 1 Diabetes In A Prospective Cohort Study Of Children

OBJECTIVE To investigate the impact of new-onset diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) during childhood on brain morphology and function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Patients aged 6–18 years with and without DKA at diagnosis were studied at four time points: <48 h, 5 days, 28 days, and 6 months postdiagnosis. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy with cognitive assessment at each time point. Relationships between clinical characteristics at presentation and MRI and neurologic outcomes were examined using multiple linear regression, repeated-measures, and ANCOVA analyses. RESULTS Thirty-six DKA and 59 non-DKA patients were recruited between 2004 and 2009. With DKA, cerebral white matter showed the greatest alterations with increased total white matter volume and higher mean diffusivity in the frontal, temporal, and parietal white matter. Total white matter volume decreased over the first 6 months. For gray matter in DKA patients, total volume was lower at baseline and increased over 6 months. Lower levels of N-acetylaspartate were noted at baseline in the frontal gray matter and basal ganglia. Mental state scores were lower at baseline and at 5 days. Of note, although changes in total and regional brain volumes over the first 5 days resolved, they were associated with poorer delayed memory recall and poorer sustained and divided attention at 6 months. Age at time of presentation and pH level were predictors of neuroimaging and functional outcomes. CONCLUSIONS DKA at type 1 diabetes diagnosis results in morphologic and functional brain changes. These changes are associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes in the medium term. The incidence of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes varies from 0.1 to 57.6 per 100,000 and is increasing worldwide (1). Long Continue reading >>

How Does Polyphasic Sleep Affect The Brain?

How Does Polyphasic Sleep Affect The Brain?

I have been in contact with a few sleep researchers and none of them have done any research on polyphasic sleep and/or how it affects the brain, and none of them know of any research done on the subject. In general I think that they find polyphasic sleep interesting as a concept but it's just a very niche subject in the sleep research field. Millions of people suffer from sleeping disorders all over the world so that is where all funding and focus is directed. Want to know how does polyphasic sleep schedule impacts your brain? The best chance is to try it yourself keeping these 3 simple and easy rules+ going here DeLife for more info on polyphasic sleep schedule and eating raw. I really do believe there is still no clear evidence of any polyphasic sleep schedule is very good or bad. I'd say it can differ from one case to another. Like with everything in your life, you can easily check the impact with your own experience only. This will definitely not kill you and the consequences will be clear enough to feel for you. You can do this wisely, using the advices, which I checked myself. They should help a lot with this kind of experiment. ​ ​ ​ ​ Eat raw. This will save you a lot of energy on digestion and though minimize any bad impact of your experiments. Eating raw also will keep you as far from intoxication as possible. Polyphasic sleep schedules should anyway lead you to feeling good and happy. If it is not going like that, then stop it, it harms you. Or just go here for more information on eating raw DeLife and polyphasic sleep schedules (after some time this info will be included). Continue reading >>

Brain Changes May Accompany Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosis In Kids

Brain Changes May Accompany Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosis In Kids

Complication called ketoacidosis can affect memory, thinking for six months, reports study Please note: This article was published more than one year ago. The facts and conclusions presented may have since changed and may no longer be accurate. And "More information" links may no longer work. Questions about personal health should always be referred to a physician or other health care professional. HealthDay Reporter FRIDAY, May 23, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A serious complication of type 1 diabetes called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can cause temporary changes to the brain matter of children newly diagnosed with the disease, researchers say. What's more, those changes may cause a decrease in memory and attention that persists for at least half a year following the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, the new study reports. "Children and adolescents diagnosed with type 1 diabetes with diabetic ketoacidosis have evidence of brain gray matter shrinkage and white matter swelling," said the study's lead author, Dr. Fergus Cameron, head of diabetes services at Royal Children's Hospital in Victoria, Australia. "While these changes resolve within the first week, there are associated residual cognitive changes -- memory and attention -- that are present six months after diagnosis." Even if they're subtle, these variations "have the potential to affect higher-level learning tasks," he added. Each year, approximately 30,000 U.S. adults and children are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, according to JDRF (formerly the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation). And the incidence of type 1 diabetes has increased dramatically in recent years. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the immune system mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing cells in the body. This leaves the person with type 1 diabetes with Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, And Complications

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, And Complications

Diabetic ketoacidosis definition and facts Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening complication of type 1 diabetes (though rare, it can occur in people with type 2 diabetes) that occurs when the body produces high levels of ketones due to lack of insulin. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body cannot produce enough insulin. The signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include Risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis are type 1 diabetes, and missing insulin doses frequently, or being exposed to a stressor requiring higher insulin doses (infection, etc). Diabetic ketoacidosis is diagnosed by an elevated blood sugar (glucose) level, elevated blood ketones and acidity of the blood (acidosis). The treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis is insulin, fluids and electrolyte therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis can be prevented by taking insulin as prescribed and monitoring glucose and ketone levels. The prognosis for a person with diabetic ketoacidosis depends on the severity of the disease and the other underlying medical conditions. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a severe and life-threatening complication of diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the cells in our body do not receive the sugar (glucose) they need for energy. This happens while there is plenty of glucose in the bloodstream, but not enough insulin to help convert glucose for use in the cells. The body recognizes this and starts breaking down muscle and fat for energy. This breakdown produces ketones (also called fatty acids), which cause an imbalance in our electrolyte system leading to the ketoacidosis (a metabolic acidosis). The sugar that cannot be used because of the lack of insulin stays in the bloodstream (rather than going into the cell and provide energy). The kidneys filter some of the glucose (suga Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

As fat is broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is sometimes the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who have not yet been diagnosed. It can also occur in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing doses of insulin shots, or surgery can lead to DKA in people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but it is less common. It is usually triggered by uncontrolled blood sugar, missing doses of medicines, or a severe illness. Continue reading >>

Cerebral Edema In Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Look Beyond Rehydration

Cerebral Edema In Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Look Beyond Rehydration

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Cerebral Edema in Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Look Beyond Rehydration Department of Pediatrics University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32610 Search for other works by this author on: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 85, Issue 2, 1 February 2000, Pages 509513, Andrew Muir; Cerebral Edema in Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Look Beyond Rehydration, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 85, Issue 2, 1 February 2000, Pages 509513, INJUDICIOUS fluid resuscitation is frequently suggested as the cause of the cerebral edema that is the most common cause of mortality among pediatric patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) ( 1 ). The evidence, however, supports the hypothesis that neurological demise in DKA is a multifactorial process that cannot be reliably prevented by cautious rehydration protocols. Mortality and severe morbidity can, however, be reduced when healthcare providers watch vigilantly for and respond rapidly to the sentinel neurological signs and symptoms that precede, often by hours, the dramatic collapse that is typically described in these patients. Children being treated for DKA develop clinically important neurological compromise about 0.21.0% of the time ( 2 ). Subclinical neurological pathology, causing raised intracranial pressure, likely precedes the initiation of therapy in almost all cases of DKA ( 3 5 ). Intracranial hypertension has been considered to be aggravated by therapy of the DKA ( 4 , 6 , 7 ), but in keeping with the physicians perplexity about the problem, even this widely held tenet has recently been challenged ( 8 ). The pathogenic mechanism for this terrifying complication remains unknown. Hypothetical causes of cerebral edema in children with DKA m Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication of diabetes caused by a lack of insulin in the body. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body is unable to use blood sugar (glucose) because there isn't enough insulin. Instead, it breaks down fat as an alternative source of fuel. This causes a build-up of a by-product called ketones. Most cases of diabetic ketoacidosis occur in people with type 1 diabetes, although it can also be a complication of type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: passing large amounts of urine feeling very thirsty vomiting abdominal pain Seek immediate medical assistance if you have any of these symptoms and your blood sugar levels are high. Read more about the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis. Who is affected by diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a relatively common complication in people with diabetes, particularly children and younger adults who have type 1 diabetes. Younger children under four years of age are thought to be most at risk. In about 1 in 4 cases, diabetic ketoacidosis develops in people who were previously unaware they had type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis accounts for around half of all diabetes-related hospital admissions in people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis triggers These include: infections and other illnesses not keeping up with recommended insulin injections Read more about potential causes of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diagnosing diabetic ketoacidosis This is a relatively straightforward process. Blood tests can be used to check your glucose levels and any chemical imbalances, such as low levels of potassium. Urine tests can be used to estimate the number of ketones in your body. Blood and urine tests can also be used to check for an underlying infec Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Tweet Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication faced by people with diabetes which happens when the body starts running out of insulin. DKA is most commonly associated with type 1 diabetes, however, people with type 2 diabetes that produce very little of their own insulin may also be affected. Ketoacidosis is a serious short term complication which can result in coma or even death if it is not treated quickly. Read about Diabetes and Ketones What is diabetic ketoacidosis? DKA occurs when the body has insufficient insulin to allow enough glucose to enter cells, and so the body switches to burning fatty acids and producing acidic ketone bodies. A high level of ketone bodies in the blood can cause particularly severe illness. Symptoms of DKA Diabetic ketoacidosis may itself be the symptom of undiagnosed type 1 diabetes. Typical symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Vomiting Dehydration An unusual smell on the breath –sometimes compared to the smell of pear drops Deep laboured breathing (called kussmaul breathing) or hyperventilation Rapid heartbeat Confusion and disorientation Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a 24 hour period if blood glucose levels become and remain too high (hyperglycemia). Causes and risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis As noted above, DKA is caused by the body having too little insulin to allow cells to take in glucose for energy. This may happen for a number of reasons including: Having blood glucose levels consistently over 15 mmol/l Missing insulin injections If a fault has developed in your insulin pen or insulin pump As a result of illness or infections High or prolonged levels of stress Excessive alcohol consumption DKA may also occur prior to a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Ketoacidosis can occasional Continue reading >>

How Does Type 1 Diabetes Affect Your Brain?

How Does Type 1 Diabetes Affect Your Brain?

Many tools and tips can help you control your type 1 diabetes. But left unchecked, it can affect several organs, including your brain. Big spikes and dips in blood sugar levels are linked to depression, shortened attention spans, and slowed reaction times, both physically and mentally. More research needs to be done for experts to figure out the exact short-term and long-term effects of diabetes on the brain -- but they're hopeful that they’ll find ways to prevent and even reverse damage. A 2014 study published by the American Diabetes Association shows that really high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) can slow the growth of a brain as it develops. The same is true when a child’s levels swing up and down a lot. Brain scans show differences between a child with diabetes and one without. Still researchers found no major differences in their IQs, mood, behavior, and learning and memory skills. It’s still unknown if the disease can affect things like their muscle movements and how fast they process information. Adults who’ve had type 1 for a long time have slower physical and mental reactions. The condition doesn’t seem to impact a person’s learning and thinking skills, researchers say. But memory and attention span can be affected. Type 1, like type 2, is linked with a high rate of depression. High blood sugar levels and the stress of managing a long-term disease are to blame. The best defense is to control your blood sugar, eat a healthy diet, and follow all of your doctor’s instructions. The longer your levels stay really high or low, or swing to extremes, the more likely your brain will be affected. Continuous glucose monitors are a great tool, since they measure blood sugar every 5 minutes. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Serious Complication

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Serious Complication

A balanced body chemistry is crucial for a healthy human body. A sudden drop in pH can cause significant damage to organ systems and even death. This lesson takes a closer look at a condition in which the pH of the body is severely compromised called diabetic ketoacidosis. Definition Diabetic ketoacidosis, sometimes abbreviated as DKA, is a condition in which a high amount of acid in the body is caused by a high concentration of ketone bodies. That definition might sound complicated, but it's really not. Acidosis itself is the state of too many hydrogen ions, and therefore too much acid, in the blood. A pH in the blood leaving the heart of 7.35 or less indicates acidosis. Ketones are the biochemicals produced when fat is broken down and used for energy. While a healthy body makes a very low level of ketones and is able to use them for energy, when ketone levels become too high, they make the body's fluids very acidic. Let's talk about the three Ws of ketoacidosis: who, when, and why. Type one diabetics are the group at the greatest risk for ketoacidosis, although the condition can occur in other groups of people, such as alcoholics. Ketoacidosis usually occurs in type one diabetics either before diagnosis or when they are subjected to a metabolic stress, such as a severe infection. Although it is possible for type two diabetics to develop ketoacidosis, it doesn't happen as frequently. To understand why diabetic ketoacidosis occurs, let's quickly review what causes diabetes. Diabetics suffer from a lack of insulin, the protein hormone responsible for enabling glucose to get into cells. This inability to get glucose into cells means that the body is forced to turn elsewhere to get energy, and that source is fat. As anyone who exercises or eats a low-calorie diet knows, fa Continue reading >>

Diabetic Encephalopathy

Diabetic Encephalopathy

Diabetic encephalopathy is damage to the brain caused by diabetes. A relatively unknown complication, encephalopathy is becoming more widely recognized as more people are diagnosed with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diabetic encephalopathy presents itself both mentally and physically. It can induce an altered mental state, cognitive decline, changes in personality, memory lapses, or severe impairment like dementia. The complication can also cause tremors, lack of coordination, and even seizures. Diabetic encephalopathy is largely due to acute hypoglycemia (blood sugar levels are too low) or severe hyperglycemia (blood sugar levels are too high). The condition manifests itself differently between the two major types of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes Encephalopathy in those with type 2 diabetes increases the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease or other forms of dementia. According to a 2011 study, those with type 2 diabetes were twice as likely to develop Alzheimer’s and 1.75 times more likely to develop other forms of dementia than healthy participants. This increased risk could be due to many different factors brought about from type 2 diabetes. It could be caused by the body’s resistance to insulin, which makes it difficult for the brain to break down amyloid, a protein that forms brain plaques. Brain plaques are abnormal clusters of this protein that block cell-to-cell signaling at the synapses—a symptom infamous for contributing to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Type 2 diabetic encephalopathy can also be generated from hyperglycemia or the conditions that commonly accompany type 2 diabetes like high blood pressure, obesity, or high cholesterol. Oxidative stress is another provoker of the complication. This stems from an imbalance between reactive oxyge Continue reading >>

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