Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication of diabetes caused by a lack of insulin in the body. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body is unable to use blood sugar (glucose) because there isn't enough insulin. Instead, it breaks down fat as an alternative source of fuel. This causes a build-up of a by-product called ketones. Most cases of diabetic ketoacidosis occur in people with type 1 diabetes, although it can also be a complication of type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: passing large amounts of urine feeling very thirsty vomiting abdominal pain Seek immediate medical assistance if you have any of these symptoms and your blood sugar levels are high. Read more about the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis. Who is affected by diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a relatively common complication in people with diabetes, particularly children and younger adults who have type 1 diabetes. Younger children under four years of age are thought to be most at risk. In about 1 in 4 cases, diabetic ketoacidosis develops in people who were previously unaware they had type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis accounts for around half of all diabetes-related hospital admissions in people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis triggers These include: infections and other illnesses not keeping up with recommended insulin injections Read more about potential causes of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diagnosing diabetic ketoacidosis This is a relatively straightforward process. Blood tests can be used to check your glucose levels and any chemical imbalances, such as low levels of potassium. Urine tests can be used to estimate the number of ketones in your body. Blood and urine tests can also be used to check for an underlying infec Continue reading >>
How Diabetes Affects The Brain
How Diabetes Affects The Brain Diabetes can damage a number of organs, from the eyes to the kidneys and the heart. Now there’s evidence that unchecked blood sugar can affect the brain as well, which may lead to drops in cognitive functions. When blood sugar levels start to climb in diabetes, a number of body systems are harmed and that list includes the brain, since studies have linked diabetes with a higher risk of stroke and dementia. Your brain is a finely tuned organ. It’s sensitive to the amount of sugar, or glucose, it receives as fuel. Whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, both the high blood glucose of uncontrolled diabetes and the low blood glucose that sometimes comes with diabetes treatment can affect your brain. Some of diabetes’ effects on the brain aren’t obvious right away, especially when they are related to high blood sugar. For more great Health and Nutrition Tips refer to the website positivehealthwellness.com. 1.Parts And Functions of The Brain The human brain is ultimately responsible for all thought and movement that the body produces. This allows humans to successfully interact with their environment, by communicating with others and interacting with inanimate objects near them. If the brain is not functioning properly, the ability to move, generate accurate sensory information or speak and understand language can be damaged as well. The brain is made up of nerve cells which interact with the rest of the body through the spinal cord and nervous system. These cells relate information back to specific centers of the brain where it can be processed and an appropriate reaction can be generated. Several chemicals are also located in the brain, which help the body maintain homeostasis, or a sense of overall comfort and calm as its basic ne Continue reading >>
Diabetic Coma Recovery: What You Need To Know
In people with diabetes, a diabetic coma occurs when severe levels of either high or low uncontrolled blood sugar are not corrected. If treated quickly, a person will make a rapid recovery from a diabetic coma. However, diabetic coma can be fatal or result in brain damage. It is important for people with diabetes to control their blood sugars and know what to do when their blood sugar levels are not within their target range. The severe symptoms of uncontrolled blood sugar that can come before a diabetic coma include vomiting, difficulty breathing, confusion, weakness, and dizziness. Recovery from diabetic coma If a diabetic coma is not treated within a couple of hours of it developing, it can cause irreversible brain damage. If no treatment is received, a diabetic coma will be fatal. In addition, having blood sugar levels that continue to be too low or too high can be bad for long-term health. This remains true even if they do not develop into diabetic coma. Recognizing the early signs of low or high blood sugar levels and regular monitoring can help people with diabetes keep their blood sugar levels within the healthy range. Doing so will also reduce the risk of associated complications and diabetic coma. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a long-term condition in which the body is unable to control the level of a sugar called glucose in the blood. Diabetes is caused by either a lack of insulin, the body's inability to use insulin correctly, or both. In people who don't have diabetes, insulin usually ensures that excess glucose is removed from the bloodstream. It does this by stimulating cells to absorb the glucose they need for energy from the blood. Insulin also causes any remaining glucose to be stored in the liver as a substance called glycogen. The production of insul Continue reading >>
Subclinical Cerebral Edema In Children With Diabetic Ketoacidosis Randomized To 2 Different Rehydration Protocols
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Previous studies show that vasogenic cerebral edema (CE) occurs during diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) treatment in children, but the role of intravenous fluids in contributing to CE is unclear. We used magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging to quantify subclinical CE in children with DKA randomized to 2 intravenous fluid regimens. METHODS: Children with DKA were randomized to receive fluids at a more rapid rate (n = 8) or a slower rate (n = 10), with all other aspects of DKA treatment kept identical. Children underwent diffusion weighted imaging 3 to 6 hours and 9 to 12 hours after beginning DKA treatment and after recovery from DKA (≥72 hours after beginning treatment). We calculated brain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values as the average of measurements in the basal ganglia, thalamus, frontal white matter, and hippocampus and determined the mean brain ADC value during DKA treatment by averaging data from the 3- to 6-hour and 9- to 12-hour measurements. The difference in mean brain ADC between DKA treatment and postrecovery was used as an index of the severity of CE during DKA treatment. RESULTS: Mean brain ADC values during DKA treatment were significantly higher than postrecovery values, consistent with vasogenic CE (842 ± 38 vs 800 ± 41×10–6 mm2/second, P = .002). We did not detect significant differences in ADC elevation in children treated with more rapid versus slower rehydration (β coefficient 0.11 for 1 SD change in ADC, 95% confidence interval: –0.91 to 1.13). CONCLUSIONS: ADC changes during DKA treatment (reflective of vasogenic CE) do not appear to be substantially affected by the rate of intravenous fluid administration. KEY WORDS Abbreviations: ADC — apparent diffusion coefficient CBF — cerebral blood flow CE Continue reading >>
Neuroimaging Findings In Acute Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a state of severe insulin deficiency and a serious complication in children with diabetes mellitus type 1. In a small number of children, DKA is complicated by injury of the central nervous system. These children have a significant mortality and high long-term neurological morbidity. Cerebral edema is the most common neuroimaging finding in children with DKA and may cause brain herniation. Ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke during the acute DKA episode is less common and accounts for approximately 10% of intracerebral complications of DKA. Here we present the neuroimaging findings of two children with DKA and brain injury. Familiarity with the spectrum of neuroimaging findings seen in pediatric DKA is important to allow early detection as well as initiation of therapy and, hence, prevent complications of the central nervous system. Continue reading >>
How Does Polyphasic Sleep Affect The Brain?
I have been in contact with a few sleep researchers and none of them have done any research on polyphasic sleep and/or how it affects the brain, and none of them know of any research done on the subject. In general I think that they find polyphasic sleep interesting as a concept but it's just a very niche subject in the sleep research field. Millions of people suffer from sleeping disorders all over the world so that is where all funding and focus is directed. Want to know how does polyphasic sleep schedule impacts your brain? The best chance is to try it yourself keeping these 3 simple and easy rules+ going here DeLife for more info on polyphasic sleep schedule and eating raw. I really do believe there is still no clear evidence of any polyphasic sleep schedule is very good or bad. I'd say it can differ from one case to another. Like with everything in your life, you can easily check the impact with your own experience only. This will definitely not kill you and the consequences will be clear enough to feel for you. You can do this wisely, using the advices, which I checked myself. They should help a lot with this kind of experiment. Eat raw. This will save you a lot of energy on digestion and though minimize any bad impact of your experiments. Eating raw also will keep you as far from intoxication as possible. Polyphasic sleep schedules should anyway lead you to feeling good and happy. If it is not going like that, then stop it, it harms you. Or just go here for more information on eating raw DeLife and polyphasic sleep schedules (after some time this info will be included). Continue reading >>
How Does Gut Bacteria Influence The Brain?
How does gut bacteria influence the brain? Bacteria in the human body outnumber our own cells 10:1. Most of those bacteria reside in the gut. Research shows that when the balance between healthy bacteria and disease-causing bacteria is changed (in the gut of rodents), they became more bold or more anxious. In a 2011 study of the "microbiome-gut-brain axis," published in Gastroenterology mice that are breed to be timid, were given an antibiotic. They became bold and adventurous and reverted back to their previous timid selves once the antibiotic was stopped. Mice that were raised in sterile environments (no bacteria), had more stress hormones. When fecal samples from healthy mice were implanted, they became normal in their stress response, but only if the implant took place prior to being weaned. Also in another study, mice that were fed probiotics were more resilient to getting depression. Further gut bacteria research on rodents shows that the gut bacteria influence neural development, brain chemistry and many other behavioral phenomena, including emotional behavior, pain perception and the stress system response. The human gut, is often referred to as the "second brain,", and it is the only organ to have its own independent nervous system embedded in the gut wall. Although the gut bacteria affect our brain (via the immune system and , the brain also affects gut bacteria. Stress alters the bacteria balance and can leave the host open to infections, and other problems, and mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. This is due to the vast number of neurochemicals the gut bacteria produce, for example they produce about 90% of our seratonin (a neurotransmitter responsible for making us feel happy. Research on infant monkeys whose mothers got startled by loud noises d Continue reading >>
Brain Changes May Accompany Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosis In Kids
Complication called ketoacidosis can affect memory, thinking for six months, reports study Please note: This article was published more than one year ago. The facts and conclusions presented may have since changed and may no longer be accurate. And "More information" links may no longer work. Questions about personal health should always be referred to a physician or other health care professional. HealthDay Reporter FRIDAY, May 23, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A serious complication of type 1 diabetes called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can cause temporary changes to the brain matter of children newly diagnosed with the disease, researchers say. What's more, those changes may cause a decrease in memory and attention that persists for at least half a year following the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, the new study reports. "Children and adolescents diagnosed with type 1 diabetes with diabetic ketoacidosis have evidence of brain gray matter shrinkage and white matter swelling," said the study's lead author, Dr. Fergus Cameron, head of diabetes services at Royal Children's Hospital in Victoria, Australia. "While these changes resolve within the first week, there are associated residual cognitive changes -- memory and attention -- that are present six months after diagnosis." Even if they're subtle, these variations "have the potential to affect higher-level learning tasks," he added. Each year, approximately 30,000 U.S. adults and children are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, according to JDRF (formerly the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation). And the incidence of type 1 diabetes has increased dramatically in recent years. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the immune system mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing cells in the body. This leaves the person with type 1 diabetes with Continue reading >>
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious problem that can occur in people with diabetes if their body starts to run out of insulin. This causes harmful substances called ketones to build up in the body, which can be life-threatening if not spotted and treated quickly. DKA mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes, it's important to be aware of the risk and know what to do if DKA occurs. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis Signs of DKA include: needing to pee more than usual being sick breath that smells fruity (like pear drop sweets or nail varnish) deep or fast breathing feeling very tired or sleepy passing out DKA can also cause high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) and a high level of ketones in your blood or urine, which you can check for using home-testing kits. Symptoms usually develop over 24 hours, but can come on faster. Check your blood sugar and ketone levels Check your blood sugar level if you have symptoms of DKA. If your blood sugar is 11mmol/L or over and you have a blood or urine ketone testing kit, check your ketone level. If you do a blood ketone test: lower than 0.6mmol/L is a normal reading 0.6 to 1.5mmol/L means you're at a slightly increased risk of DKA and should test again in a couple of hours 1.6 to 2.9mmol/L means you're at an increased risk of DKA and should contact your diabetes team or GP as soon as possible 3mmol/L or over means you have a very high risk of DKA and should get medical help immediately If you do a urine ketone test, a result of more than 2+ means there's a high chance you have DKA. When to get medical help Go to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department straight away if you think you have DKA, especially if you have a high level of ketones in Continue reading >>
A Preventable Crisis People who have had diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA, will tell you it’s worse than any flu they’ve ever had, describing an overwhelming feeling of lethargy, unquenchable thirst, and unrelenting vomiting. “It’s sort of like having molasses for blood,” says George. “Everything moves so slow, the mouth can feel so dry, and there is a cloud over your head. Just before diagnosis, when I was in high school, I would get out of a class and go to the bathroom to pee for about 10–12 minutes. Then I would head to the water fountain and begin drinking water for minutes at a time, usually until well after the next class had begun.” George, generally an upbeat person, said that while he has experienced varying degrees of DKA in his 40 years or so of having diabetes, “…at its worst, there is one reprieve from its ill feeling: Unfortunately, that is a coma.” But DKA can be more than a feeling of extreme discomfort, and it can result in more than a coma. “It has the potential to kill,” says Richard Hellman, MD, past president of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. “DKA is a medical emergency. It’s the biggest medical emergency related to diabetes. It’s also the most likely time for a child with diabetes to die.” DKA occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body, resulting in high blood glucose; the person is dehydrated; and too many ketones are present in the bloodstream, making it acidic. The initial insulin deficit is most often caused by the onset of diabetes, by an illness or infection, or by not taking insulin when it is needed. Ketones are your brain’s “second-best fuel,” Hellman says, with glucose being number one. If you don’t have enough glucose in your cells to supply energy to your brain, yo Continue reading >>
How Does Type 1 Diabetes Affect Your Brain?
Many tools and tips can help you control your type 1 diabetes. But left unchecked, it can affect several organs, including your brain. Big spikes and dips in blood sugar levels are linked to depression, shortened attention spans, and slowed reaction times, both physically and mentally. More research needs to be done for experts to figure out the exact short-term and long-term effects of diabetes on the brain -- but they're hopeful that they’ll find ways to prevent and even reverse damage. A 2014 study published by the American Diabetes Association shows that really high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) can slow the growth of a brain as it develops. The same is true when a child’s levels swing up and down a lot. Brain scans show differences between a child with diabetes and one without. Still researchers found no major differences in their IQs, mood, behavior, and learning and memory skills. It’s still unknown if the disease can affect things like their muscle movements and how fast they process information. Adults who’ve had type 1 for a long time have slower physical and mental reactions. The condition doesn’t seem to impact a person’s learning and thinking skills, researchers say. But memory and attention span can be affected. Type 1, like type 2, is linked with a high rate of depression. High blood sugar levels and the stress of managing a long-term disease are to blame. The best defense is to control your blood sugar, eat a healthy diet, and follow all of your doctor’s instructions. The longer your levels stay really high or low, or swing to extremes, the more likely your brain will be affected. Continuous glucose monitors are a great tool, since they measure blood sugar every 5 minutes. Continue reading >>
Effects Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis On Visual And Verbal Neurocognitive Function In Young Patients Presenting With New-onset Type 1 Diabetes
Go to: Abstract To evaluate the effects of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) on neurocognitive functions in children and adolescents presenting with new-onset type 1 diabetes. Newly diagnosed patients were divided into two groups: those with DKA and those without DKA (non-DKA). Following metabolic stabilization, the patients took a mini-mental status exam prior to undergoing a baseline battery of cognitive tests that evaluated visual and verbal cognitive tasks. Follow-up testing was performed 8-12 weeks after diagnosis. Patients completed an IQ test at follow-up. Results: There was no statistical difference between the DKA and non-DKA groups neither in alertness at baseline testing nor in an IQ test at follow-up. The DKA group had significantly lower baseline scores than the non-DKA group for the visual cognitive tasks of design recognition, design memory and the composite visual memory index (VMI). At follow-up, Design Recognition remained statistically lower in the DKA group, but the design memory and the VMI tasks returned to statistical parity between the two groups. No significant differences were found in verbal cognitive tasks at baseline or follow-up between the two groups. Direct correlations were present for the admission CO2 and the visual cognitive tasks of VMI, design memory and design recognition. Direct correlations were also present for admission pH and VMI, design memory and picture memory. Pediatric patients presenting with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and severe but uncomplicated DKA showed a definite trend for lower cognitive functioning when compared to the age-matched patients without DKA. Keywords: diabetic ketoacidosis, Cognition, dehydration, neuroinflammation Neurocognitive tasks. Mean (standard deviation) and median (range) of standard scores of Continue reading >>
What Happens To The Human Brain When It Gets Old?
The other Quora participants have focused on the decline that happens with age. While it’s true that nothing last forever, neither brain nor reign, there is some good news about brain aging. Perhaps the most striking brain research today is the strong evidence we now have that exercise may forestall some kinds of mental decline. It may even restore memory. Myriad animal studies have shown that, among other brain benefits, aerobic exercise increases capillary development in the brain, meaning more blood supply, more nutrients and - a big requirement for brain health - more oxygen. The preeminent exercise and brain-health researcher in humans is Arthur Kramer at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In a dozen studies over the past few years, Kramer and his colleagues have proved two critical findings: Fit people have sharper brains, and people who are out of shape, but then get into shape, sharpen up their brains. This second finding is vital. There’s no question that working out makes you smarter, and it does so, Kramer notes, at all stages of life. Just as important, exercise staves off heart disease, obesity, diabetes and other maladies that increase the risk of brain problems as we age. A confirmation of the benefits of aerobic conditioning for brain aging was presented in a cross sectional study. “Aerobic Fitness Reduces Brain Tissue Loss in Aging Humans”, Colcombe and Kramer, 2003. Aerobic fitness of 55 highly educated, cognitively normal persons (aged 55–79 years) was assessed by estimating VO2max . Brain integrity was assessed by MRI scans using VBM methodology. The analysis showed a typical pattern of age related differences: reduced brain tissue density in association with cortical regions (prefrontal, superior and inferior parietal, and inf Continue reading >>
Effects Of Diabetes
In some cases the effects may be short term and can be eliminated through appropriate treatment. In the case of long term complications, any damage sustained tends to be permanent. Whilst there are a lot of ways in which diabetes can affect the body, it’s important to note that the risks of developing health problems can be significantly reduced through good management of diabetes and living a healthy life. Heart Higher than normal blood sugar levels over a period of time can lead to an increase in risk of damage occurring to larger blood vessels in the body. This raises the risk of blood clots forming in blood vessels which can lead to heart attacks – a form of coronary heart disease. Approximately, 600,000 people die of heart disease in the United States every year–that’s 1 in every 4 deaths. Learn more about Heart disease. Brain The brain is another major organ that can pose a threat to life if it is affected by damage or blockages in its blood supply. Elevated blood sugar levels over a long period of time can cause blockages in the blood vessels supplying the brain, resulting in stroke, and can also damage the very small blood vessels in the outer part of the brain, increasing the risk of brain damage and conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. In the short term, too low blood glucose levels can lead to a reduced ability to make decisions and cause confusion and disorientation. Nerves The nerves play a very important part throughout the body. Not only do they allow us to sense touch, nerves also allow our organs to function properly. For instance, nerves are crucial in helping the digestive system to sense how it should respond. If the nerves become damaged we can lose our ability to sense pain in parts of the body that are affected and if nerve damage (ne Continue reading >>
Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>