How Does Deep (diaphragmatic) Breathing Affect The Brain?
When we inhale, the heart beat goes up and when we exhale, the heart beat comes down. The difference between them is called heart rate variability(HRV). When we practice slow & deep diaphragmatic breathing, say 5 breaths per minute with the HRV of minimum 20, heart rate at 60-65 and brain coherence at 100%, we end up in supplying huge amounts of oxygen to our brain. This ensures global activation of brain and lighting up the intricate parts of the frontal cortex of the brain(executive centre) and new neural circuits are formed. Such activation have profound effects on the energy levels, ability to focus, clarity in thinking, decision making etc. I have been doing this study for the past 6 yrs and you can visit one of my recent articles in the website where i have posted some biofeedback images. Happyness Coach: Raise your BP Continue reading >>
What Is It? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially fatal complication of diabetes that occurs when you have much less insulin than your body needs. This problem causes the blood to become acidic and the body to become dangerously dehydrated. Diabetic ketoacidosis can occur when diabetes is not treated adequately, or it can occur during times of serious sickness. To understand this illness, you need to understand the way your body powers itself with sugar and other fuels. Foods we eat are broken down by the body, and much of what we eat becomes glucose (a type of sugar), which enters the bloodstream. Insulin helps glucose to pass from the bloodstream into body cells, where it is used for energy. Insulin normally is made by the pancreas, but people with type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes) don't produce enough insulin and must inject it daily. Your body needs a constant source of energy. When you have plenty of insulin, your body cells can get all the energy they need from glucose. If you don't have enough insulin in your blood, your liver is programmed to manufacture emergency fuels. These fuels, made from fat, are called ketones (or keto acids). In a pinch, ketones can give you energy. However, if your body stays dependent on ketones for energy for too long, you soon will become ill. Ketones are acidic chemicals that are toxic at high concentrations. In diabetic ketoacidosis, ketones build up in the blood, seriously altering the normal chemistry of the blood and interfering with the function of multiple organs. They make the blood acidic, which causes vomiting and abdominal pain. If the acid level of the blood becomes extreme, ketoacidosis can cause falling blood pressure, coma and death. Ketoacidosis is always accompanied by dehydration, which is caused by high Continue reading >>
What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a complication of diabetes that occurs when compounds called ketones build up in the bloodstream. Ketones are produced when the body breaks down fats instead of sugars, which happens when the body does not produce enough insulin to process sugar properly. Ketoacidosis generally develops in people with type 1 diabetes, a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces too little or no insulin. It can also happen, although uncommonly, in those with type 2 diabetes, a chronic condition in which your body is either resistant to insulin or your pancreas does not produce enough insulin. Symptoms worsen over time as the body attempts to use fat instead of sugar for energy. Blood sugar levels generally increase dramatically during the development of diabetic ketoacidosis, as the liver attempts to compensate for the lack of sugar-derived energy. Diabetic ketoacidosis can lead to rapid breathing, flushing, fruity-smelling breath, nausea, vomiting, pain, fatigue, headache, and muscle stiffness. In severe cases, ketoacidosis can lead to a slowing of mental activity that can progress to a coma. The consequences of ketoacidosis can be severe, even life threatening, but modern treatments are usually very effective at preventing serious complications if treatment is obtained early. Seek immediate medical care (call 911) for serious symptoms of ketoacidosis, such as decreased consciousness, difficulty breathing, mental stupor, or unexplained fruity-smelling breath. Seek prompt medical care for any symptoms of diabetes or high blood glucose levels, as early treatment is critical for preventing life-threatening complications. Continue reading >>
What is Kussmaul Breathing? Kussmaul Breathing is the term given to a condition in which the patient builds up an extremely deep and difficult breathing pattern. This is seen mostly in individuals who are diabetic and have severe forms of metabolic acidosis, particularly diabetic ketoacidosis with kidney dysfunction. Kussmaul Breathing can likewise be clarified as a type of hyperventilation which is a condition in which an individual breathes in such a deep pattern, to the point that the level of carbon dioxide reduces in the blood, which is seen for the most part in metabolic acidosis where the breathing turns out to be more quick and shallow and as the condition exacerbates the breathing gets to be distinctly shallow and profound and it looks as though the individual is virtually gasping for breath. This kind of breathing in which the individual is essentially gasping for air is what is named as Kussmaul Breathing. Kussmaul’s Respiration There are diverse medical conditions that can influence the basic/acidic balance in your body, which means your body can turn out to be more basic or acidic. At the point when a man is acidotic, that is to say they are experiencing a pathological process (known as acidosis) that prompts to acidemia, an abnormal low pH of the blood, they may experience Kussmaul’s respiration. Kussmaul’s respiration, as German doctor Adolph Kussmaul himself portrayed, is in fact profound, slow, and labored breathing, which we now know is because of serious acidemia coming from metabolic acidosis. Nonetheless, these days, it is now and again used to portray shallow and rapid breathing examples in instances of less severe acidemia too. Reasons for this breathing pattern happening All things considered, what do you take in? Oxygen, isn’t that so? W Continue reading >>
Dui Or Diabetes?
Was that person arrested for drunk driving truly under the influence of alcohol—or could it be that he was simply a diabetic having a low? The similarity in symptoms caused by alcohol intoxication and low blood glucose levels is striking and commonly leads to easy—but false—conclusions by law enforcement officers. Diabetes is a very common disease in America. Fifteen to 20 percent of all drivers on the road are diabetics. The reactions of a person in the early stages of a low blood glucose attack include dizziness, blurred vision, slurred speech, weakness, loss of coordination and confusion. Coincidentally, these are the symptoms and signs that the patrol officer is looking for in a person who is driving under the influence of alcohol. And the officer’s observations are quickly followed by a failing performance on DUI field sobriety tests. But a Breathalyzer Will Clear a Diabetic, Right? Wrong. Ignoring for the moment the inherent inaccuracy of these breath-alcohol machines, most suffer from a little-known design defect—they do not actually measure the alcohol in the blood. Rather, they use infrared beams of light. The light beams are absorbed by any chemical compound in the breath sample (including ethyl alcohol) that contains the “methyl group” in its molecular structure. The more absorption, the higher the blood-alcohol reading. The machine is programmed to assume that the compound is “probably” alcohol. Unfortunately, thousands of compounds containing the methyl group can register as alcohol. One of these is acetone. And a well-documented byproduct of hyperglycemia is a state called ketoacidosis, which causes the production of acetones in the breath. In other words, the Breathalyzer will read significant levels of alcohol on a diabetic’s breath, Continue reading >>
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> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis
When blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) are too high, it's called hyperglycemia. Glucose is a sugar that comes from foods, and is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each through the bloodstream. But even though we need glucose for energy, too much glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. Hyperglycemia is the hallmark of diabetes — it happens when the body either can't make insulin (type 1 diabetes) or can't respond to insulin properly (type 2 diabetes). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells to be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. If it's not treated, hyperglycemia can cause serious health problems. Too much sugar in the bloodstream for long periods of time can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs. And, too much sugar in the bloodstream can cause other types of damage to body tissues, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes. These problems don't usually show up in kids or teens with diabetes who have had the disease for only a few years. However, they can happen in adulthood in some people, particularly if they haven't managed or controlled their diabetes properly. Blood sugar levels are considered high when they're above someone's target range. The diabetes health care team will let you know what your child's target blood sugar levels are, which will vary based on factors like your child's age. A major goal in controlling diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels as close to the desired range as possible. It's a three-way balancing act of: diabetes medicines (such as in Continue reading >>
Understanding The Presentation Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS) must be considered while forming a differential diagnosis when assessing and managing a patient with an altered mental status. This is especially true if the patient has a history of diabetes mellitus (DM). However, be aware that the onset of DKA or HHNS may be the first sign of DM in a patient with no known history. Thus, it is imperative to obtain a blood glucose reading on any patient with an altered mental status, especially if the patient appears to be dehydrated, regardless of a positive or negative history of DM. In addition to the blood glucose reading, the history — particularly onset — and physical assessment findings will contribute to the formulation of a differential diagnosis and the appropriate emergency management of the patient. Pathophysiology of DKA The patient experiencing DKA presents significantly different from one who is hypoglycemic. This is due to the variation in the pathology of the condition. Like hypoglycemia, by understanding the basic pathophysiology of DKA, there is no need to memorize signs and symptoms in order to recognize and differentiate between hypoglycemia and DKA. Unlike hypoglycemia, where the insulin level is in excess and the blood glucose level is extremely low, DKA is associated with a relative or absolute insulin deficiency and a severely elevated blood glucose level, typically greater than 300 mg/dL. Due to the lack of insulin, tissue such as muscle, fat and the liver are unable to take up glucose. Even though the blood has an extremely elevated amount of circulating glucose, the cells are basically starving. Because the blood brain barrier does not require insulin for glucose to diffuse across, the brain cells are rece Continue reading >>
Diabetes Can Give An Inaccurate Bac Reading
When a diabetic experiences hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar levels, the symptoms are very similar to intoxication. Police officers have been known to mistakenly assume a driver is intoxicated, when in fact they have hypoglycemia. For example, a diabetic experiencing hypoglycemia may have a slow and slurred speech, poor balance, impaired motor abilities and may appear drowsy, flushed and disoriented. Hypoglycemia can even cause the diabetic to stagger, which may be mistaken for intoxication by a police officer. These symptoms are very similar to intoxication and as you may imagine, a person experiencing them will most likely fail the field sobriety tests. Breath tests can even give inaccurate results when someone is a diabetic. Breath testing equipment is designed to measure blood alcohol concentration (BAC), which is the amount of alcohol present in a person’s bloodstream. A ratio is used to convert the alcohol in the breath to alcohol in the body. The testing device uses infrared beams of light that are absorbed by chemical compounds in the breath. Ethyl alcohol is what is found in alcoholic beverages and is what the breath testing equipment is looking for. However, a diabetic with hypoglycemia may develop ketoacidosis, which can cause acetone in the mouth and can be smelled on the breath. A diabetic who has developed ketoacidosis will give a high BAC reading because the breath testing device mistakes the acetone for ethyl alcohol. When a person with diabetes consumes alcohol, it can quickly lead to hypoglycemia. The risk of alcohol causing low glucose is most common for diabetics taking insulin or other antidiabetic agents, as these medications are designed to reduce glucose levels. Since a diabetic has the potential to perform poorly on field sobriety t Continue reading >>
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) happens when your blood sugar is high and your insulin level is low. This imbalance in the body causes a build-up of ketones. Ketones are toxic. If DKA isn’t treated, it can lead to diabetic coma and even death. DKA mainly affects people who have type 1 diabetes. But it can also happen with other types of diabetes, including type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes (during pregnancy). DKA is a very serious condition. If you have diabetes and think you may have DKA, contact your doctor or get to a hospital right away. The first symptoms to appear are usually: frequent urination. The next stage of DKA symptoms include: vomiting (usually more than once) confusion or trouble concentrating a fruity odor on the breath. The main cause of DKA is not enough insulin. A lack of insulin means sugar can’t get into your cells. Your cells need sugar for energy. This causes your body’s glucose levels to rise. To get energy, the body starts to burn fat. This process causes ketones to build up. Ketones can poison the body. High blood glucose levels can also cause you to urinate often. This leads to a lack of fluids in the body (dehydration). DKA can be caused by missing an insulin dose, eating poorly, or feeling stressed. An infection or other illness (such as pneumonia or a urinary tract infection) can also lead to DKA. If you have signs of infection (fever, cough, or sore throat), contact your doctor. You will want to make sure you are getting the right treatment. For some people, DKA may be the first sign that they have diabetes. When you are sick, you need to watch your blood sugar level very closely so that it doesn’t get too high or too low. Ask your doctor what your critical blood sugar level is. Most patients should watch their glucose levels c Continue reading >>
How Does Ketoacidosis Affect The Human Brain?
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is the body’s emergency reaction to glucose starvation in the absence of insulin. It is a disastrous reaction — in general, it makes things worse rather than better, and starts a vicious cycle of blood acidity, rising blood glucose, dehydration, and blood hyperosmolality (high concentration of dissolved stuff) that can be hard to break. One of the hardest-hit organs in DKA is the brain, due to the dehydration and acidic blood entering that sensitive organ. Severe DKA may lead to brain swelling (edema) which is life-threatening. But recent studies have shown that even a short, apparently fully-recovered stint of DKA leads to measurable brain injury. Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life–threatening consequence of diabetes. DKA occurs when there is a lack of insulin in the body causing hyperglycemia. As a result of the inability of glucose to enter the cells, the body must find other means to obtain energy. As such, fat breakdown occurs resulting in the accumulation of fatty acids. The fatty acids are metabolized to ketones that cause the blood to become acidotic (pH less than7.3). Because glucose remains in the blood, there is an increase in thirst and drinking to eliminate the solute load of glucose, which also results in increased urination (polyuria and polydipsia). Thus, the combination of increased serum acidity, weight loss, polyuria, and polydipsia may lead to extreme dehydration, coma, or brain damage. Without a doubt, the most severe acute complication of DKA is cerebral edema. Many cases of new onset type 1 diabetes present DKA (15-70 percent depending on age and geographic region, according to multiple studies), hence the importance of an early diagnosis of diabetes in order to avoid potential consequences. Much research is be Continue reading >>
How Does Deep (diaphragmatic) Breathing Affect Blood Oxygen Levels?
1) It's inaccurate to equate "deep breath" and "diaphragmatic breath". The diaphragm gets activated first and foremost when you take a breath. Diaphragm movement accounts for about 70 - 80% of your inspiratory capacity (i.e. the biggest amount of air you can possibly inhale). So, when you take a normal breath (i.e. not especially deep, but how you normally breathe when you're not under stress and you're not consciously thinking about it), only the diaphragm is involved. When you take a deep breath, first your diaphragm moves, and when that's not enough, the intercostal muscles expand your rib cage, and if you want to breathe in even deeper, you bring the muscles in your abdomen and your neck into the action. 2) Assuming you have healthy lungs and you are breathing normal air (i.e. 79% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.06% carbon dioxide), taking deep breaths won't affect your blood oxygen levels very much at all. Under those conditions, 97 -100% of hemoglobin in your blood is saturated with oxygen, constantly. In a typical breath, you breathe in 21% oxygen, and you exhale ~20% oxygen - there's very little room for extra oxygen in your blood. If you take a deep breath only once every 15 - 30 seconds, your blood oxygen saturation might go down to 90 - 95%. But if you take deep breaths at a frequency that feels comfortable to you, your blood oxygen will stay at ~100%, right where it was before you started taking the deep breaths. Continue reading >>
Diabetic Ketoacidosis Clinical Presentation
History Insidious increased thirst (ie, polydipsia) and urination (ie, polyuria) are the most common early symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Malaise, generalized weakness, and fatigability also can present as symptoms of DKA. Nausea and vomiting usually occur and may be associated with diffuse abdominal pain, decreased appetite, and anorexia. A history of rapid weight loss is a symptom in patients who are newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Patients may present with a history of failure to comply with insulin therapy or missed insulin injections due to vomiting or psychological reasons. Decreased perspiration is another possible symptom of DKA. Altered consciousness in the form of mild disorientation or confusion can occur. Although frank coma is uncommon, it may occur when the condition is neglected or if dehydration or acidosis is severe. Among the symptoms of DKA associated with possible intercurrent infection are fever, dysuria, coughing, malaise, chills, chest pain, shortness of breath, and arthralgia. Acute chest pain or palpitation may occur in association with myocardial infarction. Painless infarction is not uncommon in patients with diabetes and should always be suspected in elderly patients. A study by Crossen et al indicated that in children with type 1 diabetes, those who have had a recent emergency department visit and have undergone a long period without visiting an endocrinologist are more likely to develop DKA. The study included 5263 pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes.  Continue reading >>
Cardiovascular Complications Of Ketoacidosis
US Pharm. 2016;41(2):39-42. ABSTRACT: Ketoacidosis is a serious medical emergency requiring hospitalization. It is most commonly associated with diabetes and alcoholism, but each type is treated differently. Some treatments for ketoacidosis, such as insulin and potassium, are considered high-alert medications, and others could result in electrolyte imbalances. Several cardiovascular complications are associated with ketoacidosis as a result of electrolyte imbalances, including arrhythmias, ECG changes, ventricular tachycardia, and cardiac arrest, which can be prevented with appropriate initial treatment. Acute myocardial infarction can predispose patients with diabetes to ketoacidosis and worsen their cardiovascular outcomes. Cardiopulmonary complications such as pulmonary edema and respiratory failure have also been seen with ketoacidosis. Overall, the mortality rate of ketoacidosis is low with proper and urgent medical treatment. Hospital pharmacists can help ensure standardization and improve the safety of pharmacotherapy for ketoacidosis. In the outpatient setting, pharmacists can educate patients on prevention of ketoacidosis and when to seek medical attention. Metabolic acidosis occurs as a result of increased endogenous acid production, a decrease in bicarbonate, or a buildup of endogenous acids.1 Ketoacidosis is a metabolic disorder in which regulation of ketones is disrupted, leading to excess secretion, accumulation, and ultimately a decrease in the blood pH.2 Acidosis is defined by a serum pH <7.35, while a pH <6.8 is considered incompatible with life.1,3 Ketone formation occurs by breakdown of fatty acids. Insulin inhibits beta-oxidation of fatty acids; thus, low levels of insulin accelerate ketone formation, which can be seen in patients with diabetes. Extr Continue reading >>
Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)
Unfortunately, we veterinarians are seeing an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats. This is likely due to the growing prevalence of obesity (secondary to inactive lifestyle, a high carbohydrate diet, lack of exercise, etc.). So, if you just had a dog or cat diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, what do you do? First, we encourage you to take a look at these articles for an explanation of the disease: Diabetes Mellitus (Sugar Diabetes) in Dogs Once you have a basic understanding of diabetes mellitus (or if you already had one), this article will teach you about life-threatening complications that can occur as a result of the disease; specifically, I discuss a life-threatening condition called diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) so that you know how to help prevent it! What is DKA? When diabetes goes undiagnosed, or when it is difficult to control or regulate, the complication of DKA can occur. DKA develops because the body is so lacking in insulin that the sugar can’t get into the cells -- resulting in cell starvation. Cell starvation causes the body to start breaking down fat in an attempt to provide energy (or a fuel source) to the body. Unfortunately, these fat breakdown products, called “ketones,” are also poisonous to the body. Symptoms of DKA Clinical signs of DKA include the following: Weakness Not moving (in cats, hanging out by the water bowl) Not eating to complete anorexia Large urinary clumps in the litter box (my guideline? If it’s bigger than a tennis ball, it’s abnormal) Weight loss (most commonly over the back), despite an overweight body condition Excessively dry or oily skin coat Abnormal breath (typically a sweet “ketotic” odor) In severe cases DKA can also result in more significant signs: Abnormal breathing pattern Jaundice Ab Continue reading >>
How Does Breathing Affect Chakras?
Breathing actually doesn’t affect the chakras, it is the prana or Qi within the breath which affect the chakras. Science is very skeptical about proving the non-existent. But, chakras are the subjective experience on the human consicousness. Any lock on specific internal organs such as on throat, stomach or in the perineum holding some prana within those affects the rise of Kundalini energy in the upward direction. The resultant experience would be unique for each experience depending upon the energy level associated within the 7 chakras. In my personal experience, if my heart chakra is energized, I feel intense love and compassion for the world. For more clarification, please ‘Bandha’ section of Yoga or look for a master in Kriya yoga because it is pure associated Kriya works primarily on the energy dynamics of human body. Continue reading >>