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How Does Ketoacidosis Affect Breathing

What Is Kussmaul Breathing?

What Is Kussmaul Breathing?

Kussmaul breathing is a deep, labored breathing pattern that indicates that the body or organs have become too acidic. The body is constantly doing work to maintain an average temperature and neutral blood acidity. To make sure this balance happens; the kidneys and cells rely on bases or buffers, chemical compounds that bind with hydrogen ions. Disruptions to these compounds cause Kussmaul breathing, which is typically associated with conditions that cause metabolic disturbances, such as kidney failure and diabetes. Contents of this article: Kussmaul breathing is a type of hyperventilation that is the lung's emergency response to acidosis. Kussmaul breathing causes a labored, deeper breathing rate. It is most commonly associated with conditions that cause metabolic acidosis, particularly diabetes. Because Kussmaul breathing is a sign of severe metabolic acidosis, which is a life-threatening condition, hospitalization is usually necessary. What is Kussmaul breathing? When the body produces or ingests too much acid; or the kidneys or lungs are failing, blood acid levels increase. If the blood becomes too acidic, acidosis occurs, and the body takes action to restore the imbalance. By using deeper, longer breaths, the lungs can expel more acidic carbon dioxide (C02) than normal. The condition takes its name from Adolph Kussmaul, the German physician who first described the breathing pattern in 1874. Symptoms As a type of hyperventilation, some people describe Kussmaul breathing as panicked breathing, where someone appears to be gasping for breath. The deep, powerful breathing associated with Kussmaul breathing often causes inhalation and exhalation to become more evident and loud. Some compare the sound to exaggerated sighing. Symptoms of acidosis Before the deep and labore Continue reading >>

What Does Bad Breath Have To Do With Diabetes?

What Does Bad Breath Have To Do With Diabetes?

Your breath has an interesting ability to provide clues to your overall health. A sweet, fruity odor can be a sign of ketoacidosis, an acute complication of diabetes. An odor of ammonia is associated with kidney disease. Similarly, a very foul, fruity odor may be a sign of anorexia nervosa. Other diseases, such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, and liver disease, also can cause distinct odors on the breath. Bad breath, also called halitosis, can be so telling that doctors may even be able to use it to identify diabetes. Recently, researchers have found that infrared breath analyzers can be effective in identifying prediabetes or early-stage diabetes. Diabetes-related halitosis has two main causes: periodontal disease and high levels of ketones in the blood. Periodontal diseases Periodontal diseases, also called gum diseases, include gingivitis, mild periodontitis, and advanced periodontitis. In these inflammatory diseases, bacteria attack the tissues and bone that support your teeth. Inflammation can affect metabolism and increase your blood sugar, which worsens diabetes. While diabetes can lead to periodontal diseases, these diseases can also create further problems for people with diabetes. According to a report in IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, an estimated one in three people with diabetes will also experience periodontal diseases. Heart disease and stroke, which can be complications of diabetes, are also linked to periodontal disease. Diabetes can damage blood vessels, which can reduce blood flow throughout your body, including your gums. If your gums and teeth aren’t receiving a proper supply of blood, they may become weak and more prone to infection. Diabetes may also raise glucose levels in your mouth, promoting bacteria growth, infection, Continue reading >>

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Cats

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Cats

Diabetes Mellitus with Ketoacidosis in Cats The term “ketoacidosis” refers to a condition in which levels of acid abnormally increased in the blood due to presence of “ketone bodies.” Meanwhile, diabetes is a medical condition in which the body cannot absorb sufficient glucose, thus causing a rise the blood sugar levels. In diabetes with ketoacidosis, ketoacidosis immediately follows diabetes. It should be considered a dire emergency, one in which immediate treatment is required to save the life of the animal. Typically, the type of condition affects older cats; in addition, female cats are more prone diabetes with ketoacidosis than males. Symptoms and Types Weakness Lethargy Depression Lack of appetite (anorexia) Muscle wasting Rough hair coat Dehydration Dandruff Sweet breath odor Causes Although the ketoacidosis is ultimately brought on by the cat's insulin dependency due to diabetes mellitus, underlying factors include stress, surgery, and infections of the skin, respiratory, and urinary tract systems. Concurrent diseases such as heart failure, kidney failure, asthma, cancer may also lead to this type of condition. Diagnosis You will need to give a thorough history of your cat’s health, including the onset and nature of the symptoms, to your veterinarian. He or she will then perform a complete physical examination, as well as a biochemistry profile and complete blood count (CBC). The most consistent finding in patients with diabetes is higher than normal levels of glucose in the blood. If infection is present, white blood cell count will also high. Other findings may include: high liver enzymes, high blood cholesterol levels, accumulation in the blood of nitrogenous waste products (urea) that are usually excreted in the urine (azotemia), low sodium levels Continue reading >>

How Does Deep (diaphragmatic) Breathing Affect The Brain?

How Does Deep (diaphragmatic) Breathing Affect The Brain?

When we inhale, the heart beat goes up and when we exhale, the heart beat comes down. The difference between them is called heart rate variability(HRV). When we practice slow & deep diaphragmatic breathing, say 5 breaths per minute with the HRV of minimum 20, heart rate at 60-65 and brain coherence at 100%, we end up in supplying huge amounts of oxygen to our brain. This ensures global activation of brain and lighting up the intricate parts of the frontal cortex of the brain(executive centre) and new neural circuits are formed. Such activation have profound effects on the energy levels, ability to focus, clarity in thinking, decision making etc. I have been doing this study for the past 6 yrs and you can visit one of my recent articles in the website where i have posted some biofeedback images. Happyness Coach: Raise your BP Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Pre-diabetes (Impaired Glucose Tolerance) article more useful, or one of our other health articles. See also the separate Childhood Ketoacidosis article. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a medical emergency with a significant morbidity and mortality. It should be diagnosed promptly and managed intensively. DKA is characterised by hyperglycaemia, acidosis and ketonaemia:[1] Ketonaemia (3 mmol/L and over), or significant ketonuria (more than 2+ on standard urine sticks). Blood glucose over 11 mmol/L or known diabetes mellitus (the degree of hyperglycaemia is not a reliable indicator of DKA and the blood glucose may rarely be normal or only slightly elevated in DKA). Bicarbonate below 15 mmol/L and/or venous pH less than 7.3. However, hyperglycaemia may not always be present and low blood ketone levels (<3 mmol/L) do not always exclude DKA.[2] Epidemiology DKA is normally seen in people with type 1 diabetes. Data from the UK National Diabetes Audit show a crude one-year incidence of 3.6% among people with type 1 diabetes. In the UK nearly 4% of people with type 1 diabetes experience DKA each year. About 6% of cases of DKA occur in adults newly presenting with type 1 diabetes. About 8% of episodes occur in hospital patients who did not primarily present with DKA.[2] However, DKA may also occur in people with type 2 diabetes, although people with type 2 diabetes are much more likely to have a hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes tends to be more common in older, overweight, non-white people with type 2 diabetes, and DKA may be their Continue reading >>

A Breath Test For Ketoacidosis

A Breath Test For Ketoacidosis

British investigators are researching a non-invasive breath test to quickly diagnose diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a preventable acute complication of type 1 diabetes (DM). It develops rapidly upon interruption of insulin therapy, or when conditions develop that do not allow insulin to work (for example, acute illness). When someone with diabetes doesn't have enough insulin to burn glucose as fuel, their body can start breaking down fat instead. Ketones start building up in the bloodstream. Ketones are acid, and their accumulation in the blood may lead to diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis may be lethal even in this day and age. Children, who depend on parental management of diabetes, are especially susceptible to diabetic ketoacidosis, but anyone with type 1 DM may get it. Home testing for ketones is available, however they currently require either a blood or urine sample. These tests differ from the standard blood sugar tests (fingerstick glucose test for A1c levels). Every patient with type 1 DM (or caregiver) is instructed to check for ketones whenever: • The child does not feel well • They become dehydrated • They have an interruption of insulin therapy • Their blood glucose testing reads high. For more information on how to avoid diabetic ketoacidosis. Researchers in England have developed a potentially easier way to monitor these ketone levels, and curiously enough, the trick may lie in a person's breath. Breath Test Detects Acetone In a recent study at Oxford Children's Hospital,1 researchers tested more than 100 patients with type 1 diabetes between the ages of 7 to 18 years old, measuring gases in their breath and ketone levels in their blood. Researchers found that one gas in particular—acetone— seemed to predict ketone Continue reading >>

Banishing Bad Breath

Banishing Bad Breath

Stinky breath. Halitosis. Fetor oris. Whatever the name, it’s something that no one wants. Bad breath can be mildly annoying (as well as socially upsetting), and while it may be traced back to the 13-garlic-clove chicken dinner you ate last night, it can also indicate something more serious, especially if you have diabetes. Read on to learn more about halitosis, its causes, and what you can do to combat it. What is bad breath? If your breath smells bad to you or to others, you have bad breath, otherwise known as halitosis. We’ve probably all had it at some time or another, perhaps related to a food or beverage that we’ve consumed, or possibly we’ve woken up in the morning with what I call “dragon breath.” At its best, bad breath is unpleasant (to you and to others) and can certainly be embarrassing (who wants bad breath when you’re on a job interview or a first date?). Our society deems bad breath as something to be banished, too: just walk down the aisle of the pharmacy and witness the mouthwashes, toothpastes, and other potions to rid yourself of this condition. Unfortunately, most of these products work temporarily and, in some cases, can actually worsen the condition. How do you know if you have bad breath? Surprising as it may seem, you may not know if you have halitosis. The best way to check your breath is to ask a spouse, family member, or close friend to check out your mouth odor and let you know. If no one is around to help you out, lick your wrist, let it dry, and then smell it. If your wrist smells bad, you have bad breath. What causes bad breath? There are many potential causes of bad breath, ranging from food to oral hygiene to health conditions. Here’s a run-down of the main culprits: Food: Food particles that get stuck in your mouth and t Continue reading >>

Kussmaul Breathing

Kussmaul Breathing

What is Kussmaul Breathing? Kussmaul Breathing is the term given to a condition in which the patient builds up an extremely deep and difficult breathing pattern. This is seen mostly in individuals who are diabetic and have severe forms of metabolic acidosis, particularly diabetic ketoacidosis with kidney dysfunction. Kussmaul Breathing can likewise be clarified as a type of hyperventilation which is a condition in which an individual breathes in such a deep pattern, to the point that the level of carbon dioxide reduces in the blood, which is seen for the most part in metabolic acidosis where the breathing turns out to be more quick and shallow and as the condition exacerbates the breathing gets to be distinctly shallow and profound and it looks as though the individual is virtually gasping for breath. This kind of breathing in which the individual is essentially gasping for air is what is named as Kussmaul Breathing. Kussmaul’s Respiration There are diverse medical conditions that can influence the basic/acidic balance in your body, which means your body can turn out to be more basic or acidic. At the point when a man is acidotic, that is to say they are experiencing a pathological process (known as acidosis) that prompts to acidemia, an abnormal low pH of the blood, they may experience Kussmaul’s respiration. Kussmaul’s respiration, as German doctor Adolph Kussmaul himself portrayed, is in fact profound, slow, and labored breathing, which we now know is because of serious acidemia coming from metabolic acidosis. Nonetheless, these days, it is now and again used to portray shallow and rapid breathing examples in instances of less severe acidemia too. Reasons for this breathing pattern happening All things considered, what do you take in? Oxygen, isn’t that so? W Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia?

What Is The Difference Between Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia?

By Debra A. Sokol-McKay, MS, CVRT, CDE, CLVT, OTR/L, SCLV What Is Hyperglycemia? In relation to diabetes, hyperglycemia refers to chronically high blood glucose levels. Most medical professionals define hyperglycemia by using the blood glucose goals that you and your physician have established and combining those goals with the blood glucose target ranges set by the American Diabetes Association. It's important to understand that you'll probably experience high blood glucose levels from time to time, despite your best efforts at control. As with any chronic disease, talk with your physician and diabetes care team if the pattern of your blood glucose readings is consistently higher or lower than your blood glucose goals. Complications from Hyperglycemia Persistent hyperglycemia can cause a wide range of chronic complications that affect almost every system in your body. When large blood vessels are affected, it can lead to: Stroke (cerebral vascular disease) Heart attack or Congestive Heart Failure (coronary heart disease) Circulation disorders and possible amputation (peripheral vascular disease) When smaller blood vessels are affected, it can lead to: Kidney disease (nephropathy) Nerve damage (neuropathy) Diabetic eye disease (retinopathy) Joseph Monks: Writer, Producer, and Film Director Joseph Monks, who has diabetic retinopathy, creates and produces films for his production company Sight Unseen Pictures. He is also the first blind filmmaker to direct a feature film. Says Joe, "I'm not uncomfortable with the term 'blind.' I'm not thrilled about it, of course, but it's accurate. The lights went out for me in early 2002 as a result of diabetic retinopathy—the death of my retinas. It is what it is, so when it happened, I decided that I wasn't going to let it put an en Continue reading >>

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

When blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) are too high, it's called hyperglycemia. Glucose is a sugar that comes from foods, and is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each through the bloodstream. But even though we need glucose for energy, too much glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. Hyperglycemia is the hallmark of diabetes — it happens when the body either can't make insulin (type 1 diabetes) or can't respond to insulin properly (type 2 diabetes). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells to be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. If it's not treated, hyperglycemia can cause serious health problems. Too much sugar in the bloodstream for long periods of time can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs. And, too much sugar in the bloodstream can cause other types of damage to body tissues, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes. These problems don't usually show up in kids or teens with diabetes who have had the disease for only a few years. However, they can happen in adulthood in some people, particularly if they haven't managed or controlled their diabetes properly. Blood sugar levels are considered high when they're above someone's target range. The diabetes health care team will let you know what your child's target blood sugar levels are, which will vary based on factors like your child's age. A major goal in controlling diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels as close to the desired range as possible. It's a three-way balancing act of: diabetes medicines (such as in Continue reading >>

Kussmaul Breathing

Kussmaul Breathing

Not to be confused with Kussmaul's sign. Graph showing the Kussmaul breathing and other pathological breathing patterns. Kussmaul breathing is a deep and labored breathing pattern often associated with severe metabolic acidosis, particularly diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) but also kidney failure. It is a form of hyperventilation, which is any breathing pattern that reduces carbon dioxide in the blood due to increased rate or depth of respiration. In metabolic acidosis, breathing is first rapid and shallow[1] but as acidosis worsens, breathing gradually becomes deep, labored and gasping. It is this latter type of breathing pattern that is referred to as Kussmaul breathing. Terminology[edit] Adolph Kussmaul, who introduced the term, referred to breathing when metabolic acidosis was sufficiently severe for the respiratory rate to be abnormal or reduced.[2] This definition is also followed by several other sources,[3][4] including for instance Merriam-Webster, which defines Kussmaul breathing as "abnormally slow deep respiration characteristic of air hunger and occurring especially in acidotic states".[5] Other sources, however, use the term Kussmaul respiration also when acidosis is less severe, in which case breathing is rapid.[4][6] Note that Kussmaul breathing occurs only in advanced stages of acidosis, and is fairly rarely reached. In less severe cases of acidosis, rapid, shallow breathing is seen. Kussmaul breathing is a kind of very deep, gasping, desperate breathing. Occasionally, medical literature refers to any abnormal breathing pattern in acidosis as Kussmaul breathing; however, this is inaccurate. History[edit] Kussmaul breathing is named for Adolph Kussmaul,[2] the 19th century German doctor who first noted it among patients with advanced diabetes mellitus. Kussm Continue reading >>

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Unfortunately, we veterinarians are seeing an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats. This is likely due to the growing prevalence of obesity (secondary to inactive lifestyle, a high carbohydrate diet, lack of exercise, etc.). So, if you just had a dog or cat diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, what do you do? First, we encourage you to take a look at these articles for an explanation of the disease: Diabetes Mellitus (Sugar Diabetes) in Dogs Once you have a basic understanding of diabetes mellitus (or if you already had one), this article will teach you about life-threatening complications that can occur as a result of the disease; specifically, I discuss a life-threatening condition called diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) so that you know how to help prevent it! What is DKA? When diabetes goes undiagnosed, or when it is difficult to control or regulate, the complication of DKA can occur. DKA develops because the body is so lacking in insulin that the sugar can’t get into the cells -- resulting in cell starvation. Cell starvation causes the body to start breaking down fat in an attempt to provide energy (or a fuel source) to the body. Unfortunately, these fat breakdown products, called “ketones,” are also poisonous to the body. Symptoms of DKA Clinical signs of DKA include the following: Weakness Not moving (in cats, hanging out by the water bowl) Not eating to complete anorexia Large urinary clumps in the litter box (my guideline? If it’s bigger than a tennis ball, it’s abnormal) Weight loss (most commonly over the back), despite an overweight body condition Excessively dry or oily skin coat Abnormal breath (typically a sweet “ketotic” odor) In severe cases DKA can also result in more significant signs: Abnormal breathing pattern Jaundice Ab Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic ketoacidosis is an acute metabolic complication of diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperketonemia, and metabolic acidosis. Hyperglycemia causes an osmotic diuresis with significant fluid and electrolyte loss. DKA occurs mostly in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). It causes nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain and can progress to cerebral edema, coma, and death. DKA is diagnosed by detection of hyperketonemia and anion gap metabolic acidosis in the presence of hyperglycemia. Treatment involves volume expansion, insulin replacement, and prevention of hypokalemia. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is most common among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and develops when insulin levels are insufficient to meet the body’s basic metabolic requirements. DKA is the first manifestation of type 1 DM in a minority of patients. Insulin deficiency can be absolute (eg, during lapses in the administration of exogenous insulin) or relative (eg, when usual insulin doses do not meet metabolic needs during physiologic stress). Common physiologic stresses that can trigger DKA include Some drugs implicated in causing DKA include DKA is less common in type 2 diabetes mellitus, but it may occur in situations of unusual physiologic stress. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes is a variant of type 2 diabetes, which is sometimes seen in obese individuals, often of African (including African-American or Afro-Caribbean) origin. People with ketosis-prone diabetes (also referred to as Flatbush diabetes) can have significant impairment of beta cell function with hyperglycemia, and are therefore more likely to develop DKA in the setting of significant hyperglycemia. SGLT-2 inhibitors have been implicated in causing DKA in both type 1 and type 2 DM. Continue reading >>

How Does Breathing Affect Chakras?

How Does Breathing Affect Chakras?

Breathing actually doesn’t affect the chakras, it is the prana or Qi within the breath which affect the chakras. Science is very skeptical about proving the non-existent. But, chakras are the subjective experience on the human consicousness. Any lock on specific internal organs such as on throat, stomach or in the perineum holding some prana within those affects the rise of Kundalini energy in the upward direction. The resultant experience would be unique for each experience depending upon the energy level associated within the 7 chakras. In my personal experience, if my heart chakra is energized, I feel intense love and compassion for the world. For more clarification, please ‘Bandha’ section of Yoga or look for a master in Kriya yoga because it is pure associated Kriya works primarily on the energy dynamics of human body. Continue reading >>

Respiratory Failure In Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Respiratory Failure In Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Go to: INTRODUCTION Ketoacidosis in subjects with type 1, or less frequently, type 2 diabetes mellitus remains a potentially life-threatening diabetic manifestation. The subject has justifiably attracted attention in the literature. Sequential reviews[1-9] have documented important changes in the clinical concepts that are related to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and its management. A large number of case series of DKA have addressed various aspects of its clinical presentation and management. For this review, we selected representative studies focused on management, outcome, age differences, gender differences, associated morbid conditions, ethnicity and prominent clinical and laboratory features[10-35]. In recognition of the complexity of treatment, the recommendation to provide this care in intensive care units was made more than 50 years ago[36]. Severe DKA is treated in intensive care units today[31]. Evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and management of DKA have been published and frequently revised in North America[37,38] and Europe[39]. Losses of fluids and electrolytes, which are important causes of morbidity and mortality in DKA, vary greatly between patients. Quantitative methods estimating individual losses and guiding their replacement have also been reported[40,41]. The outcomes of DKA have improved with new methods of insulin administration[42] and adherence to guidelines[43-46]. The aim of treatment is to minimize mortality and prevent sequelae. One study documented that the target of zero mortality is feasible[42]. However, mortality from DKA, although reduced progressively in the early decades after the employment of insulin treatment[1], remains high. Up to fifty plus years ago, mortality from DKA was between 3% and 10%[1,16]. A recent review re Continue reading >>

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