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How Does Glucose Get Converted To Fat Inside Of A Cell

How Are Carbohydrates Converted Into Fat Deposits?

How Are Carbohydrates Converted Into Fat Deposits?

How are carbohydrates converted into fat deposits? There are two ways that carbohydrates and body fat interact. One is directly by turning into body fat, and the other is via insulin. Turning into body fat is like adding fat into the fat cells, whereas carbohydrates spiking insulin does not add anything to fat cells per se, but hinders the release. The former is like a + equation, where the latter is a double negative which results in something that seems positive. There is a process called de novo lipogenesis (literally: Creation of fat from non-fat sources) that can occur in the body. This process turns glucose into lipids, which are then stored as body fat. This process is normally quite inefficient in the body [1] , which suggests that carbohydrates cannot be stored as fat to a high degree. The process can be upregulated (enhanced) if dietary fat comprised almost none of the diet (lesser than 10%, as a rough estimate), if carbohydrate intake is excessively high for a period of a few days, or if one follows an obesogenic diet (diet that is likely to make you fat) for a prolonged period of time. [1] [2] [3] Carbohydrates spike insulin , which is a hormone that mediates glucose metabolism. Insulin is not good or bad, insulin is insulin. It can be thought of as a lever that switches the body from fat burning mode into carbohydrate burning mode. This allows carbohydrates (and glycogen) to be burnt at a greater rate, but directly reduces the ability of fat to be lost. Overall metabolic rate (calories burnt over the course of a day) does not change significantly, just where the calories come from. When insulin is spiked in presence of ingested dietary fat, the dietary fat can go into body fat stores and not be released since glucose from glycogen is being used in place of Continue reading >>

Office Of Science Outreach

Office Of Science Outreach

Part 3: The Consequences of a High-Fructose Diet When fed fructose, the liver builds fatty acids and assembles them into triglycerides. It exports the triglycerides into the bloodstream, so that they can be taken up by fat cells for storage. The triglyceride-carrier protein is LDL, known as "bad cholesterol." It's a carrier of cholesterol, which attains a lower density by carrying additional triglycerides (which, being less dense than water or protein, make the carrier a "low-density" carrier protein.) Elevated triglycerides and cholesterol are associated with heart disease. Triglycerides are a part of the "metabolic syndrome" disease, which eventually manifests itself as Type 2 Diabetes. The transporter in liver cells, that moves triglycerides from the inside of the cell to the outside, and thus into the bloodstream, can only work so fast. If triglycerides are produced faster than the transporter can export them, the triglycerides build up inside liver cells. They form fat droplets. The liver accumulates fat. Now, in force-fed geese, fatty liver is called foie gras, but fatty liver is not what we want to have. Fatty liver is another of the pre-disposing factors to Type 2 Diabetes. Fructose also leads to alterations in the handling of dietary fat. This has been shown directly in mice. There are significant differences in mice fed identical diets, but with some having their diet supplemented with glucose and others having a supplement of fructose in the same caloric quantity. The glucose-fed mice, when subsequently given fat, metabolize the fat in the production of ATP (as illustrated above). The fructose-fed mice don't do this; they import the fat directly into fat cells for storage. Apparently, fructose not only is converted to fat by the liver, but it changes the way Continue reading >>

From Sugar To Fat

From Sugar To Fat

a Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA b Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA a Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA b Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Address for correspondence: Laurie H. Glimcher. Voice: 617-432-0622; fax: 617-432-0084. [email protected] ; Ann-Hwee Lee. Voice: 617-432-0697; fax: 617-432-0697. [email protected] The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Ann N Y Acad Sci See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Lipogenesis occurs primarily in the liver, where dietary carbohydrates control the expression of key enzymes in glycolytic and lipogenic pathways. We have recently discovered that the transcription factor XBP1, best known as a key regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), is required for de novo fatty acid synthesis in the liver, a function unrelated to its role in the UPR. 1 XBP1 protein expression is induced in the liver by a high carbohydrate diet and directly controls the induction of critical genes involved in fatty acid synthesis. Specific deletion of XBP1 in adult liver using an inducible approach results in profound hypocholesterolemia and hypotriglyceridemia, which could be attributed to diminished production of lipids in the liver. Notably, this phenotype is not associated with fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) or significant compromise in protein secretion. XBP1 joins an already rich field of transcriptional regulatory proteins in the control of hepatic lipogenesis. Its function in lipogenesis appears to be highly significant as evidenced by the phen Continue reading >>

Cell Energy And Cell Functions

Cell Energy And Cell Functions

Cells manage a wide range of functions in their tiny package — growing, moving, housekeeping, and so on — and most of those functions require energy. But how do cells get this energy in the first place? And how do they use it in the most efficient manner possible? Cells, like humans, cannot generate energy without locating a source in their environment. However, whereas humans search for substances like fossil fuels to power their homes and businesses, cells seek their energy in the form of food molecules or sunlight. In fact, the Sun is the ultimate source of energy for almost all cells, because photosynthetic prokaryotes, algae, and plant cells harness solar energy and use it to make the complex organic food molecules that other cells rely on for the energy required to sustain growth, metabolism, and reproduction (Figure 1). Cellular nutrients come in many forms, including sugars and fats. In order to provide a cell with energy, these molecules have to pass across the cell membrane, which functions as a barrier — but not an impassable one. Like the exterior walls of a house, the plasma membrane is semi-permeable. In much the same way that doors and windows allow necessities to enter the house, various proteins that span the cell membrane permit specific molecules into the cell, although they may require some energy input to accomplish this task (Figure 2). Complex organic food molecules such as sugars, fats, and proteins are rich sources of energy for cells because much of the energy used to form these molecules is literally stored within the chemical bonds that hold them together. Scientists can measure the amount of energy stored in foods using a device called a bomb calorimeter. With this technique, food is placed inside the calorimeter and heated until it bu Continue reading >>

What Happens To Unburned Carbohydrates?

What Happens To Unburned Carbohydrates?

Your body uses mostly carbohydrates as well as fats for energy. Because the body doesn’t store carbs efficiently, they’re used first. Carbohydrates turn into glucose, which your body burns immediately or converts to glycogen to be stored in the muscles and liver for between meals. If you eat more calories from carbs or other sources than your body can use, the cells store the excess as fat. Of the three major nutrients -- carbohydrates, fat and protein -- the body burns carbs first for energy because they can’t be stored in great quantities. The carbohydrates in food get broken down into glucose, which moves into the small intestine, then the liver and into the blood. As blood sugar rises, the pancreas produces insulin, which signals the cells to take up sugar. Whatever glucose the cells don’t need immediately for energy is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. When the blood sugar levels fall -- such as between meals -- the liver releases glycogen. This cycle keeps your body supplied with a steady source of fuel. Insulin Resistance If you have insulin resistance or diabetes, the sugar-insulin cycle doesn’t work properly, leading to too much sugar and insulin circulating in the blood until eventually your body doesn’t produce enough insulin or is resistant to its effects. This is why people with diabetes or prediabetes often track the carbs they eat; eating too many carbohydrates, especially sugars and refined starches, can cause blood sugar and/or insulin to spike to potentially dangerous levels in people with diabetes. How Carbs Turn Into Fat When you eat too many calories, especially in the form of sugars and quickly burned starches, your body may reach its storage capacity for glycogen. The liver converts the stored sugars into triglycerides, or f Continue reading >>

When Does Glucose Convert To Fat?

When Does Glucose Convert To Fat?

Despite the fact that eating a jelly doughnut seems to deposit fat directly on your hips, converting sugar to fat is actually a relatively complex chemical process. Sugar conversion to fat storage depends not only upon the type of foods you eat, but how much energy your body needs at the time you eat it. Video of the Day Your body converts excess dietary glucose into fat through the process of fatty acid synthesis. Fatty acids are required in order for your body to function properly, playing particularly important roles in proper brain functioning. There are two kinds of fatty acids; essential fatty acids and nonessential fatty acids. Essential fatty acids refer to fatty acids you must eat from your diet, as your body cannot make them. Nonessential fatty acids are made through the process of fatty acid synthesis. Fatty Acid Synthesis Fatty acids are long organic compounds having an acid group at one end and a methyl group at the other end. The location of their first double bond dictates whether they are in the omega 3, 6, or 9 fatty acid family. Fatty acid synthesis takes place in the cytoplasm of cells and requires some energy input. In other words, your body actually has to expend some energy in order to store fat. Glucose is a six-carbon sugar molecule. Your body first converts this molecule into two three-carbon pyruvate molecules through the process of glycolysis and then into acetyl CoA. When your body requires immediate energy, acetyl CoA enters the Citric Acid Cycle creating energy molecules in the form of ATP. When glucose intake exceeds your body's energy needs--for example, you eat an ice-cream sundae and then go relax on the sofa for five hours--your body has no need to create more energy molecules. Therefore, acetyl CoA begins the process of fatty acid syn Continue reading >>

How Does Fat Get Converted To Calories?

How Does Fat Get Converted To Calories?

Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own. Answer by Bart Loews , passionate exercise enthusiast, on Quora : How is fat being converted into calories at cellular level? First lets get some term clarification: A calorie is a measure of energy, specifically heat. Its a measurement of an indirect use of your biological fuels. Your body doesnt really convert things to calories, it converts them to ATP which is used as energy. Calories are, sadly, the best way we have to measure this process.Ill assume that the point of this question is: How does fat turn into energy? Fat is a term used interchangeably with lipids and with adipose tissue. Lipids are molecules that consist of a hydrophobic tail with a hydrophilic head. Because of this polarized set up, they are able to cluster together to form barriers between water and non water, like bubbles. Your cell membranes are composed of lipids. Adipose tissue is what makes you fat. Adipose tissue stores lipids in the form of triglycerides or 3 fatty acid chains with a glycerol backbone. These triglycerides are what is broken down to be used for energy. Adipose tissue is made up of collections of adipocytes or fat cells. Adipose tissue is used for insulation, cushioning, and energy storage. You get a particular number of fat cells (between 30 and 300 billion) during adolescence and childhood. You don't lose them naturally, but you can gain more if they grow more than 4 fold from their original size. They grow and shrink as they take on more energy. Fat cells have a few other roles in the endocrine system, they release the hormone, Leptin when they receive energy from insulin. Leptin signals to your body that you're full. The more fat cells you have, the more leptin is released. It's been found that obese people are lep Continue reading >>

How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy

How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy

All parts of the body (muscles, brain, heart, and liver) need energy to work. This energy comes from the food we eat. Our bodies digest the food we eat by mixing it with fluids (acids and enzymes) in the stomach. When the stomach digests food, the carbohydrate (sugars and starches) in the food breaks down into another type of sugar, called glucose. The stomach and small intestines absorb the glucose and then release it into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, glucose can be used immediately for energy or stored in our bodies, to be used later. However, our bodies need insulin in order to use or store glucose for energy. Without insulin, glucose stays in the bloodstream, keeping blood sugar levels high. Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas. Beta cells are very sensitive to the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. Normally beta cells check the blood's glucose level every few seconds and sense when they need to speed up or slow down the amount of insulin they're making and releasing. When someone eats something high in carbohydrates, like a piece of bread, the glucose level in the blood rises and the beta cells trigger the pancreas to release more insulin into the bloodstream. When insulin is released from the pancreas, it travels through the bloodstream to the body's cells and tells the cell doors to open up to let the glucose in. Once inside, the cells convert glucose into energy to use right then or store it to use later. As glucose moves from the bloodstream into the cells, blood sugar levels start to drop. The beta cells in the pancreas can tell this is happening, so they slow down the amount of insulin they're making. At the same time, the pancreas slows down the amount of insulin that it's releasing into the bloodstream. When this happens, Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, And Blood Sugar

Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, And Blood Sugar

Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, and Blood Sugar The body uses three main nutrients to function carbohydrate , protein , and fat . These nutrients are digested into simpler compounds. Carbohydrates are used for energy (glucose). Fats are used for energy after they are broken into fatty acids. Protein can also be used for energy, but the first job is to help with making hormones, muscle, and other proteins. Nutrients needed by the body and what they are used for Broken down into glucose, used to supply energy to cells. Extra is stored in the liver. Broken down into amino acids , used to build muscle and to make other proteins that are essential for the body to function. Broken down into fatty acids to make cell linings and hormones . Extra is stored in fat cells. After a meal, the blood sugar (glucose) level rises as carbohydrate is digested. This signals the beta cells of the pancreas to release insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin helps glucose enter the body's cells to be used for energy. If all the glucose is not needed for energy, some of it is stored in fat cells and in the liver as glycogen. As sugar moves from the blood to the cells, the blood glucose level returns to a normal between-meal range. Several hormones and processes help regulate the blood sugar level and keep it within a certain range (70 mg/dL to 120 mg/dL). When the blood sugar level falls below that range, which may happen between meals, the body has at least three ways of reacting: Cells in the pancreas can release glucagon , a hormone that signals the body to produce glucose from glycogen in the muscles and liver and release it into the blood. When glycogen is used up, muscle protein is broken down into amino acids. The liver uses amino acids to create glucose through biochemical reactions (gluco Continue reading >>

How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy

How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy

All parts of the body (muscles, brain, heart, and liver) need energy to work. This energy comes from the food we eat. Our bodies digest the food we eat by mixing it with fluids (acids and enzymes) in the stomach. When the stomach digests food, the carbohydrate (sugars and starches) in the food breaks down into another type of sugar, called glucose. The stomach and small intestines absorb the glucose and then release it into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, glucose can be used immediately for energy or stored in our bodies, to be used later. However, our bodies need insulin in order to use or store glucose for energy. Without insulin, glucose stays in the bloodstream, keeping blood sugar levels high. Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas. Beta cells are very sensitive to the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. Normally beta cells check the blood's glucose level every few seconds and sense when they need to speed up or slow down the amount of insulin they're making and releasing. When someone eats something high in carbohydrates, like a piece of bread, the glucose level in the blood rises and the beta cells trigger the pancreas to release more insulin into the bloodstream. When insulin is released from the pancreas, it travels through the bloodstream to the body's cells and tells the cell doors to open up to let the glucose in. Once inside, the cells convert glucose into energy to use right then or store it to use later. As glucose moves from the bloodstream into the cells, blood sugar levels start to drop. The beta cells in the pancreas can tell this is happening, so they slow down the amount of insulin they're making. At the same time, the pancreas slows down the amount of insulin that it's releasing into the bloodstream. When this happens, Continue reading >>

Dynamic Adaptation Of Nutrient Utilization In Humans

Dynamic Adaptation Of Nutrient Utilization In Humans

Most cells use glucose for ATP synthesis, but there are other fuel molecules equally important for maintaining the body's equilibrium or homeostasis. Indeed, although the oxidation pathways of fatty acids, amino acids, and glucose begin differently, these mechanisms ultimately converge onto a common pathway, the TCA cycle, occurring within the mitochondria (Figure 1). As mentioned earlier, the ATP yield obtained from lipid oxidation is over twice the amount obtained from carbohydrates and amino acids. So why don't all cells simply use lipids as fuel? In fact, many different cells do oxidize fatty acids for ATP production (Figure 2). Between meals, cardiac muscle cells meet 90% of their ATP demands by oxidizing fatty acids. Although these proportions may fall to about 60% depending on the nutritional status and the intensity of contractions, fatty acids may be considered the major fuel consumed by cardiac muscle. Skeletal muscle cells also oxidize lipids. Indeed, fatty acids are the main source of energy in skeletal muscle during rest and mild-intensity exercise. As exercise intensity increases, glucose oxidation surpasses fatty acid oxidation. Other secondary factors that influence the substrate of choice for muscle include exercise duration, gender, and training status. Another tissue that utilizes fatty acids in high amount is adipose tissue. Since adipose tissue is the storehouse of body fat, one might conclude that, during fasting, the source of fatty acids for adipose tissue cells is their own stock. Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue cells also utilize glucose in significant proportions, but only at the absorptive stage - that is, right after a regular meal. Other organs that use primarily fatty acid oxidation are the kidney and the liver. The cortex cells of the Continue reading >>

Curiocity - Curiocit | What Is Glucose For?

Curiocity - Curiocit | What Is Glucose For?

This article was originally published on January 23, 2012 and reviewed and updated by the CurioCity team in September 2017. Why can't my diabetic grandmother have sugar in her coffee? The answers to all these questions started at the very beginning of life on earth, before diseases or the ability to taste even existed. Like a dollar at the shopping mall, glucose is a unit of currency. Glucose is a sugar, and its the basic unit of currency for life. At the mall, you can exchange dollars for food, clothes, games and many other things. In your body, glucose can be exchanged for energy energy that is used to make heat, to move muscles, and to sustain all of the chemical reactions that keep you alive. Tiny organelles called mitochondria work inside cells to convert glucose into ATP , which is the universal body energy source. Did you know? Mitochondria have their own special DNA and proteins. Scientists think that when life began, mitochondria were separate organisms that were eventually engulfed by larger cells. This arrangement worked for both the mitochondria and the larger cell, and so it continued for billions of years! Mitochondria are now the main energy powerhouses of cells and use glucose as their fuel. Glucose is also exchangeable for other important materials in the body. For instance, your body converts glucose to fat or glycogen for storage. You can burn that fat by exercising, as the fat gets converted back to glucose (and then energy) to move your muscles. You can even convert proteins and amino acids into glucose, starting with your muscles. This is why athletes and bodybuilders have such large appetites if they don't keep eating, their muscles start to eat themselves! (Of course, if they keep eating the same and aren't exercising, they begin to store glucos Continue reading >>

What Is Glucose?

What Is Glucose?

Glucose comes from the Greek word for "sweet." It's a type of sugar you get from foods you eat, and your body uses it for energy. As it travels through your bloodstream to your cells, it's called blood glucose or blood sugar. Insulin is a hormone that moves glucose from your blood into the cells for energy and storage. People with diabetes have higher-than-normal levels in their blood. Either they don't have enough insulin to move it through or their cells don't respond to insulin as well as they should. High blood glucose for a long period of time can damage your kidneys, eyes, and other organs. How Your Body Makes Glucose It mainly comes from foods rich in carbohydrates, like bread, potatoes, and fruit. As you eat, food travels down your esophagus to your stomach. There, acids and enzymes break it down into tiny pieces. During that process, glucose is released. It goes into your intestines where it's absorbed. From there, it passes into your bloodstream. Once in the blood, insulin helps glucose get to your cells. Energy and Storage Your body is designed to keep the level of glucose in your blood constant. Beta cells in your pancreas monitor your blood sugar level every few seconds. When your blood glucose rises after you eat, the beta cells release insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin acts like a key, unlocking muscle, fat, and liver cells so glucose can get inside them. Most of the cells in your body use glucose along with amino acids (the building blocks of protein) and fats for energy. But it's the main source of fuel for your brain. Nerve cells and chemical messengers there need it to help them process information. Without it, your brain wouldn't be able to work well. After your body has used the energy it needs, the leftover glucose is stored in little bundles Continue reading >>

Nih Study Shows How Insulin Stimulates Fat Cells To Take In Glucose

Nih Study Shows How Insulin Stimulates Fat Cells To Take In Glucose

Findings could aid in understanding diabetes, related conditions. Using high-resolution microscopy, researchers at the National Institutes of Health have shown how insulin prompts fat cells to take in glucose in a rat model. The findings were reported in the Sept. 8 issue of the journal Cell Metabolism. By studying the surface of healthy, live fat cells in rats, researchers were able to understand the process by which cells take in glucose. Next, they plan to observe the fat cells of people with varying degrees of insulin sensitivity, including insulin resistance — considered a precursor to type 2 diabetes (These observations may help identify the interval when someone becomes at risk for developing diabetes. "What we're doing here is actually trying to understand how glucose transporter proteins called GLUT4 work in normal, insulin-sensitive cells," said Karin G. Stenkula, Ph.D., a researcher at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and a lead author of the paper. "With an understanding of how these transporters in fat cells respond to insulin, we could detect the differences between an insulin-sensitive cell and an insulin-resistant cell, to learn how the response becomes impaired. We hope to identify when a person becomes pre-diabetic, before they go on to develop diabetes." Glucose, a simple sugar, provides energy for cell functions. After food is digested, glucose is released into the bloodstream. In response, the pancreas secretes insulin, which directs the muscle and fat cells to take in glucose. Cells obtain energy from glucose or convert it to fat for long-term storage. Like a key fits into a lock, insulin binds to receptors on the cell's surface, causing GLUT4 molecules to come to the cell's surface. As their name impli Continue reading >>

Does Carbohydrate Become Body Fat?

Does Carbohydrate Become Body Fat?

Dear Reader, Ah, poor carbohydrates, maligned by diets such as Atkins’ and the ketogenic diet. However, carbohydrates are your body’s main source of energy — in fact your muscles and brain cells prefer carbs more than other sources of energy (triglycerides and fat, for example). To answer your question: research completed over the last several decades suggests that if you are eating a diet that is appropriate for your levels of daily activity, little to no carbohydrate is converted to fat in your body. For most people (unless you have a metabolic disorder) when you eat carbs they are digested, broken down to glucose, and then transported to all the cells in your body. They are then metabolized and used to support cellular processes. If you’re active and eating appropriately for your activity level, most of the carbs you consume are more or less burned immediately. There are two caveats here: first, if you’re eating a lot more calories per day than you are burning, then yes, your liver will convert excess calories from carbohydrate into fats; second, not all carbs are created equal. If you consume too many calories from simple sugars like sucrose and fructose (think sugary sodas sweetened by sugar and high fructose corn syrup) then your body will more readily take some of those sugars and turn them into triglycerides (fat) in your liver. What happens to excess calories that come from carbs? The answer depends on several things: what kind of carbs you consumed, your genetics, as well as how many extra calories we’re talking about. For those who eat a well-balanced diet and have no metabolic disorders, excess dietary carbohydrates are converted by the liver into complex chains of glucose called glycogen. Glycogen is stored in liver and muscle cells and is a sec Continue reading >>

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