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How Does Diabetes Cause High Plasma Glucose Levels And Ketoacidosis

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What is DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS? What does DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS mean? DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS meaning - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS definition - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine. The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium. Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked. Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection. In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended. Rates of DKA vary around the world. About 4% of people with type 1 diabetes in United Kingdom develop DKA a year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year. DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost universally fatal. The risk of death with adequate and timely treatment is currently around 1–4%. Up to 1% of children with DKA develop a complication known as cerebral edema. The symptoms of an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a period of about 24 hours. Predominant symptoms are nausea and vomiting, pronounced thirst, excessive urine production and abdominal pain that may be severe. Those who measure their glucose levels themselves may notice hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). In severe DKA, breathing becomes labored and of a deep, gasping character (a state referred to as "Kussmaul respiration"). The abdomen may be tender to the point that an acute abdomen may be suspected, such as acute pancreatitis, appendicitis or gastrointestinal perforation. Coffee ground vomiting (vomiting of altered blood) occurs in a minority of people; this tends to originate from erosion of the esophagus. In severe DKA, there may be confusion, lethargy, stupor or even coma (a marked decrease in the level of consciousness). On physical examination there is usually clinical evidence of dehydration, such as a dry mouth and decreased skin turgor. If the dehydration is profound enough to cause a decrease in the circulating blood volume, tachycardia (a fast heart rate) and low blood pressure may be observed. Often, a "ketotic" odor is present, which is often described as "fruity", often compared to the smell of pear drops whose scent is a ketone. If Kussmaul respiration is present, this is reflected in an increased respiratory rate.....

Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Symptoms

A A A Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) results from dehydration during a state of relative insulin deficiency, associated with high blood levels of sugar level and organic acids called ketones. Diabetic ketoacidosis is associated with significant disturbances of the body's chemistry, which resolve with proper therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis usually occurs in people with type 1 (juvenile) diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but diabetic ketoacidosis can develop in any person with diabetes. Since type 1 diabetes typically starts before age 25 years, diabetic ketoacidosis is most common in this age group, but it may occur at any age. Males and females are equally affected. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when a person with diabetes becomes dehydrated. As the body produces a stress response, hormones (unopposed by insulin due to the insulin deficiency) begin to break down muscle, fat, and liver cells into glucose (sugar) and fatty acids for use as fuel. These hormones include glucagon, growth hormone, and adrenaline. These fatty acids are converted to ketones by a process called oxidation. The body consumes its own muscle, fat, and liver cells for fuel. In diabetic ketoacidosis, the Continue reading >>

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  1. ALX

    Hi CT,
    I'm on a low carb diet and I just added 20 minutes of fasted carido in the morning (fast walking on an incline). I take 10 gram of BCAA when I wake up, just before the cardio.
    By the end of the cardio session, I can smell an ammonia odor or it can even smell like cat pee. I did search on google and found it may be caused by Amico Acid and protein breakdown or the low carb diet.
    In any case, I want to know if it's happening because I'm in a catabolic state and if my body is breaking down my muscle for energy. It never happen with weight lifting, in the evening.
    Thanks,

    Alex

  2. Christian_Thibaudeau

    ALX wrote:
    Hi CT,
    I'm on a low carb diet and I just added 20 minutes of fasted carido in the morning (fast walking on an incline). I take 10 gram of BCAA when I wake up, just before the cardio.
    By the end of the cardio session, I can smell an ammonia odor or it can even smell like cat pee. I did search on google and found it may be caused by Amico Acid and protein breakdown or the low carb diet.
    In any case, I want to know if it's happening because I'm in a catabolic state and if my body is breaking down my muscle for energy. It never happen with weight lifting, in the evening.
    Thanks,
    Alex
    You are probably in a catabolic state. Any diet that is deficient in energetic nutrients (carbs or fat) can become catabolic if a lot of training is being performed.

    How is your fat intake? A lot of people who use a low carbs diet consume too little fat. Since they lack a dietary energy source, they will often breakdown amino acids for energy.

  3. ALX

    Around 2800-3000 calorie a day, can be a little bit more or less. I did not count carbs and calorie from veggie (broccoli and spinach)
    Fat: 204 gram (60% of cal)
    Protein: 268 gram (36% of cal) (220 gram from protein and 50 gram from BCAA and I did count 0 calorie from BCAA)
    Carbs: 5 gram (3% of cal)
    I only added cardio this week, hopefully not much harm has been done.

    The only thing I drink before/while doing the cardio session in the morning is 10 gram of BCAA in 16 once of water

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Ketoacidosis: A Diabetes Complication

Ketoacidosis can affect both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes patients. It's a possible short-term complication of diabetes, one caused by hyperglycemia—and one that can be avoided. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are two of the most serious complications of diabetes. These hyperglycemic emergencies continue to be important causes of mortality among persons with diabetes in spite of all of the advances in understanding diabetes. The annual incidence rate of DKA estimated from population-based studies ranges from 4.8 to 8 episodes per 1,000 patients with diabetes. Unfortunately, in the US, incidents of hospitalization due to DKA have increased. Currently, 4% to 9% of all hospital discharge summaries among patients with diabetes include DKA. The incidence of HHS is more difficult to determine because of lack of population studies but it is still high at around 15%. The prognosis of both conditions is substantially worsened at the extremes of age, and in the presence of coma and hypertension. Why and How Does Ketoacidosis Occur? The pathogenesis of DKA is more understood than HHS but both relate to the basic underlying reduction in the net e Continue reading >>

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  1. Ginaoo

    I have no clue where to find those keto sticks everyone is talking about. Can anyone help?

  2. cfine

    I order mine online

  3. LiterateGriffin

    Go to an ACTUAL drug store -- like Rite Aid or CVS -- and look near the diabetic supplies. Grocery-store pharmacies generally won't stock them, but "real" drug stores always carry them.
    Go ahead & buy the (cheaper) generic brands. They all work great.

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Hyperglycemic crises: Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic coma (HHNK) versus DKA. See DKA video here: https://youtu.be/r2tXTjb7EqU This video and similar images/videos are available for instant download licensing here https://www.alilamedicalmedia.com/-/g... Voice by: Penelope Hammet Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved. All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Support us on Patreon and get FREE downloads and other great rewards: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or HHS, is another ACUTE and life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. It develops slower than DKA, typically in the course of several days, but has a much higher mortality rate. Like DKA, HHS is triggered when diabetic patients suffer from ADDITIONAL physiologic stress such as infections, other illness, INadequate diabetic treatment or certain drugs. Similar to DKA, the RISE in COUNTER-regulatory hormones is the major culprit. These hormones stimulate FURTHER production and release of glucose into the blood, causing it to overflow into urine, resulting in excessive LOSS of water and electrolytes. The major DIFFERENCE between HHS and DKA is the ABSENCE of acidosis in HHS. This is because, unlike DKA, the level of insulin in HHS patients is HIGH enough to SUPPRESS lipolysis and hence ketogenesis. This explains why HHS occurs more often in type 2 diabetics, who have more or less normal level of circulating insulin. Reminder: type 2 diabetics DO produce insulin but their cells do NOT respond to insulin and therefore cannot use glucose. Because symptoms of acidosis are NOT present, development of HHS may go UNnoticed until blood glucose levels become EXTREMELY high. Severe dehydration results in INcreased concentrations of solutes in the blood, raising its osmolarity. HyPERosmotic blood plasma drives water OUT of bodys tissues causing cellular dysfunction. Primary symptom of HHS is ALTERED consciousness due to excessive dehydration of brain tissues. This can range from confusion to coma. Emergency treatment consists of intravenous fluid, insulin and potassium similar to those used in DKA.

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis And The Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State

Go to: Pathogenesis In both DKA and HHS, the underlying metabolic abnormality results from the combination of absolute or relative insulin deficiency and increased amounts of counterregulatory hormones. Glucose and lipid metabolism When insulin is deficient, the elevated levels of glucagon, catecholamines and cortisol will stimulate hepatic glucose production through increased glycogenolysis and enhanced gluconeogenesis4 (Fig. 1). Hypercortisolemia will result in increased proteolysis, thus providing amino acid precursors for gluconeogenesis. Low insulin and high catecholamine concentrations will reduce glucose uptake by peripheral tissues. The combination of elevated hepatic glucose production and decreased peripheral glucose use is the main pathogenic disturbance responsible for hyperglycemia in DKA and HHS. The hyperglycemia will lead to glycosuria, osmotic diuresis and dehydration. This will be associated with decreased kidney perfusion, particularly in HHS, that will result in decreased glucose clearance by the kidney and thus further exacerbation of the hyperglycemia. In DKA, the low insulin levels combined with increased levels of catecholamines, cortisol and growth hormone Continue reading >>

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  1. Jaydev Kalivarapu

    This world is huge and limitless. So vast that people are often lost!
    There are unlimited ideas, countless things, millions of known species and incalculable unknown, billions of people and plenty of directions to go. With the multitude of philosophies and endless ideologies, distorted truths, crazy beliefs, silly conceptions how can a person not get lost ?!
    No path is perfect because the world is not so predictable. Every day episodes coupled with space and time complexities in this universe are impossible to understand. In the plethora of events, we usually don't observe much of anything we encounter, we don't understand much of everything we observe and the added complication by our quality of forgetfulness. Added to this the array of human emotions, instincts, choices, thoughts and feelings, how can a wise one not get confused?! (For unwise there is no path or the path is certain at all times - follow the sea)
    Harsh truth of life - isn't it ?
    But the confused are at-least digging for a better understanding of the world around them.
    Given the efforts of understanding, with time things heal - from a state of bewilderment about the enormousness in everything to manageable size of realm of world where we strongly believe the things we care about practically matter to a vast extent. It is then the the world seem not huge and empty but full of possibilities and reasons about what matters and what we passionately care about.
    Ever heard of no free lunch theorem?
    No single strategy is the optimum one for all class of problems. A strategy can hold good only for a certain class of problems.
    This holds good in life. It is only when we minimize our tract of world we care about to a manageable extent, we can derive a strategy, be certain about our path, kickoff with our dreams, pad our hearts with hope with an immense zeal to win - which works most times.

  2. Pete Ashly

    One source of great confusion is paradoxes of existence.
    One might be ignorant of a paradox and then be confused by what's happening when constantly bumbling between one horn of the dilemma to the other. One might deny a paradox by clinging to a narrow solution, in which case one will not feel confused but will look confused to others based on the behavior of denying exceptions with illogical arguments. One might investigate a paradox directly, resulting in surrender to confusion and the paradox's unresolvable power. In this last case the person may seem confused both to themselves and others, even though this could be the clear sighted position.
    Can you think of your own example paradox where this effect is evident?

  3. Armin Hanik

    Because we are not a ONE, we are a quorum with many many dissenting voices.

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