How Does Chloride Cause Metabolic Acidosis?

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What is ALKALOSIS? What does ALKALOSIS mean? ALKALOSIS meaning - ALKALOSIS pronunciation - ALKALOSIS definition - ALKALOSIS explanation - How to pronounce ALKALOSIS? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Alkalosis is the result of a process reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma (alkalemia). In contrast to acidemia (serum pH 7.35 or lower), alkalemia occurs when the serum pH is higher than normal (7.45 or higher). Alkalosis is usually divided into the categories of respiratory alkalosis and metabolic alkalosis or a combined respiratory/metabolic alkalosis. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation, resulting in a loss of carbon dioxide. Compensatory mechanisms for this would include increased dissociation of the carbonic acid buffering intermediate into hydrogen ions, and the related excretion of bicarbonate, both of which lower blood pH. Hyperventilation-induced alkalosis can be seen in several deadly central nervous system diseases such as strokes or Rett syndrome. Metabolic alkalosis can be caused by repeated vomiting, resulting in a loss of hydrochloric acid within the stomach content. Severe dehydration, and the consumption of alkali are other causes. It can also be caused by administration of diuretics and endocrine disorders such as Cushing's syndrome. Compensatory mechanism for metabolic alkalosis involve slowed breathing by the lungs to increase serum carbon dioxide, a condition leaning toward respiratory acidosis. As respiratory acidosis often accompanies the compensation for metabolic alkalosis, and vice versa, a delicate balance is created between these two conditions. Metabolic alkalosis is usually accompanied by low blood potassium concentration, causing, e.g., muscular weakness, muscle pain, and muscle cramps (from disturbed function of the skeletal muscles), and muscle spasms (from disturbed function of smooth muscles). It may also cause low blood calcium concentration. As the blood pH increases, blood transport proteins, such as albumin, become more ionized into anions. This causes the free calcium present in blood to bind more strongly with albumin. If severe, it may cause tetany.

Final Diagnosis -- Hypochloremic Metabolic Alkalosis

FINAL DIAGNOSIS HYPOCHLOREMIC METABOLIC ALKALOSIS. I. INTRODUCTION Metabolic alkalosis is an acid-base disorder in which the pH of the blood is elevated beyond the normal range of 7.35-7.45. This metabolic condition occurs mainly due to decreased hydrogen ion concentration in the blood, leading to compensatory increased levels of serum bicarbonate, or alternatively, as a direct result of increased bicarbonate concentrations. An elevated PaCO2 is often present as a result of compensatory alveolar hypoventilation. II. CAUSES OF METABOLIC ALKALOSIS The five main major causes of metabolic alkalosis are. Loss of hydrogen ions - Vomiting or nasogastric suction Primary mineralocorticoid excess Renal Hydrogen Loss - Primary mineralocorticoid excess Loop or thiazide diuretics Posthypercapnic alkalosis Hypercalcemia and the milk-alkali syndrome Shift of hydrogen ions into intracellular space - Hypokalemia. Alkalotic agents - Alkalotic agents in excess, such as bicarbonate or antacids. Contraction alkalosis - Due to loss of water in the extracellular space from diuretic use. Sweat losses in cystic fibrosis Villous adenoma or factitious diarrhea III. PHYSIOLOGY OF BICARBONATE HOMEOSTASIS IN TH Continue reading >>

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  1. doug684

    Ketosis can cause damage to kidneys and liver

    So I'm about to fire up a keto regiment (again, I always fall off the wagon after about 2 months). Just searching around as it seems the other two times I started it I tend to have diarrhea a lot. Anyway, came across this. Any truth to this?

    When protein is deflected in this manner, it releases nitrogen into the blood stream, placing a burden on the kidneys as they try to excrete excessive urinary water due to sodium loss. When fat is likewise deflected, the breakup releases fatty acids, or ketones, into the bloodstream, further burdening the kidneys. If ketosis continues for long periods of time, serious damage to the liver and kidneys can occur, which is why most low-carbohydrate, or ketogenic diets recommend only short-term use, typically 14 days.

  2. Eileen

    I don't know where to start.
    Okay, I'll start with the assumption that keto is high protein. No, it's not, it's moderate protein compared with standard BB diets. The dangers of protein to the kidneys would apply far more to a 40/40/20 diet than to a keto one. If they applied. But they don't. People with damaged kidneys can not tolerate high levels of protein. So some "experts" have extrapolated this to mean that high levels of protein can damage healthy kidneys. Except there has not been one single case of this ever, in the history of recorded medicine.
    Most keto diets do not recommend 14 days or less, that's the classic way to do it wrong. Most low carb diets recommend making it a lifestyle.
    And again, where is the evidence that ketones do any damage to liver or kidneys or any other organ? Not a single case. The closest to damage from a low carb diet comes from the odd nutcase who tries to combine keto with no liquid, which does put stress on the kidney (just like any other diet which does not include liquid) but because keto is slightly diuretic, you'll see the effects a little quicker.

  3. doug684

    Originally Posted by Eileen
    The closest to damage from a low carb diet comes from the odd nutcase who tries to combine keto with no liquid, which does put stress on the kidney (just like any other diet which does not include liquid) but because keto is slightly diuretic, you'll see the effects a little quicker.

    There are people who try that? I don't see how. Keto makes me thirsty and will often drink constantly as long as my glass of water is full.

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Normal Saline Intoxication - Deranged Physiology

Uncontrolled pancreatic secretions as a cause of acidosis The overzealous administration of sodium chloride causes a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis by decreasing the strong ion difference. This is the archetypal normal anion gap acidosis. Previously discussed calculations suggest that every bag of saline increases the serum chloride by 3mmol/L. In Stewarts terms, normal saline has a strong ion difference of 0mmol/L (given how equal the concentrations of sodium and chloride are), and thus adding it to a body fluid will decrease the strong ion difference. The strong ion difference of Hartmanns, on the other hand, is 28mmol/L, and so it has a much gentler acidifying effect. This has been demonstrated experimentally in a cohort of 5 septic patients; and the theory is discussed in detail here . Change in strong ion difference following the infusion of normal saline The above graph is adopted from Lobo et al, who in 2003 infused a series of healthy volunteers with 2000ml of normal saline to study the difference between sodium chloride and Hartmanns solution. Now, enough saline-bashing. If we remain faithful to the interpretation of acid base disorders in terms of the strong ion dif Continue reading >>

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  1. haznpianist

    Keto sounds great, except for the lack of fruit. Fruit is by far my favorite food group. I am interested, but am not sure if I could deal with giving up my pineapple and oranges. So how do you deal with those kind of cravings?

  2. bevvbevv

    I budget fruit in. A half cup of pineapple has about 9 carbs, and I would be comfortable going to 25 or 30 grams of carbs for that day but not doing that every day. Some people are fine with that amount of carbs every day; I just haven't tried to find my limit and have taken the lazy but pretty foolproof 20 grams of carbs with the occasional higher day.
    I mostly eat raspberries or blueberries and have a serving (10 berries-- not as high carb as pineapple or citrus) almost every day with tea and coconut oil. No problems so far.
    Sometimes I have the dark chocolate with orange peel, which is kind of a twofer with the chocolate and fruit indulgence.

  3. jakelegs

    I still eat blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, and blueberries on occasion. Pineapple and banana seem too sweet to tempt fate.

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Why Is Saline So Acidic (and Does It Really Matter?)

Int J Med Sci 2013; 10(6):747-750. doi:10.7150/ijms.5868 Why Is Saline So Acidic (and Does It Really Matter?) Consultant, Intensive Care Unit, Royal Adelaide Hospital; Clinical Senior Lecturer, Discipline of Acute Care Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License . See for full terms and conditions. Reddi BA. Why Is Saline So Acidic (and Does It Really Matter?). Int J Med Sci 2013; 10(6):747-750. doi:10.7150/ijms.5868. Available from Commercial 0.9% saline solution for infusion has a pH around 5.5. There are many reasons for this acidity, some of them still obscure. It is also true that infusion of normal saline can lead to metabolic acidaemia, yet the link between the acidity of saline solution and the acidaemia it can engender is not straightforward. This commentary draws together the known and putative sources of acidity in saline solutions: it turns out that the acidity of saline solution is essentially unrelated to the acidaemia complicating saline infusion. Keywords: saline, acidaemia, titratable acidity, crystalloid, balanced solution, Grotthuss. One m Continue reading >>

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  1. whitecain

    Hello...new here,
    did LC a couple years ago for 5 mos and lost 60lbs...relapsed because I got stuck on a plateau and "gave up"...
    was curious if a one day carb "blowout"...then back to induction....would shock the body into getting over a plateau?
    when I plateau next time I'd like to know the best way to get over it..

  2. kidnj

    The best way to get through a plateau is to stick with the program. A one-day carb blowout can really throw you off (although some people will tell you they have had luck with a cheat meal once-a-_____, and that's their body's response), and if you just gave up last time, I'm guessing a big cheat day, or carb blowout day would knock you off plan and that you'd have too difficult a time getting back on track.
    Everyone hits stalls from time to time, and stalls quite commonly last a month -- but perseverence will get you through.
    I couldn't recommend a carb blowout, myself, to anyone, as it's got far-reaching health consequences and that's why I do this way of eating - not so much for weightloss. So my approach would just be to commit to the plan for life, and then stick with it.

  3. jadefox26

    It can be very VERY frustrating if you hit a plateau and you seem to be doing everything right I know I lost the majority of my weight in the first 6 months of going on the plan, but that was having one cheat meal per week - ususally on a saturday night after weigh in on a sat morning. it worked well for me till I hit a point too - and then it's been slow going since, I cut out the reward meal about the same time as my weight loss stoped, so I am thinking of introducing it back in.
    I agree with the above post (btw - anyone know why the word MONTH got edited????) in as much as you have to be careful to step right back on plan, but then we're all human and we do have some kind of willpower - so if you, like me can handle that one meal off - then you should try it to see what happens. I think if you use LEGAL carbs on the carb up meal - just adding in some of the things you miss - like fruit or extra carby vegies then you should do fine.

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