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How Does Acidosis Affect Medications

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Anion gap usmle - anion gap metabolic acidosis normal anion gap metabolic acidosis

Acidosis

When your body fluids contain too much acid, it’s known as acidosis. Acidosis occurs when your kidneys and lungs can’t keep your body’s pH in balance. Many of the body’s processes produce acid. Your lungs and kidneys can usually compensate for slight pH imbalances, but problems with these organs can lead to excess acid accumulating in your body. The acidity of your blood is measured by determining its pH. A lower pH means that your blood is more acidic, while a higher pH means that your blood is more basic. The pH of your blood should be around 7.4. According to the American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC), acidosis is characterized by a pH of 7.35 or lower. Alkalosis is characterized by a pH level of 7.45 or higher. While seemingly slight, these numerical differences can be serious. Acidosis can lead to numerous health issues, and it can even be life-threatening. There are two types of acidosis, each with various causes. The type of acidosis is categorized as either respiratory acidosis or metabolic acidosis, depending on the primary cause of your acidosis. Respiratory acidosis Respiratory acidosis occurs when too much CO2 builds up in the body. Normally, the lun Continue reading >>

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  1. doug684

    Ketosis can cause damage to kidneys and liver

    So I'm about to fire up a keto regiment (again, I always fall off the wagon after about 2 months). Just searching around as it seems the other two times I started it I tend to have diarrhea a lot. Anyway, came across this. Any truth to this?

    When protein is deflected in this manner, it releases nitrogen into the blood stream, placing a burden on the kidneys as they try to excrete excessive urinary water due to sodium loss. When fat is likewise deflected, the breakup releases fatty acids, or ketones, into the bloodstream, further burdening the kidneys. If ketosis continues for long periods of time, serious damage to the liver and kidneys can occur, which is why most low-carbohydrate, or ketogenic diets recommend only short-term use, typically 14 days.
    http://www.holisticonline.com/remedi...nd-ketosis.htm

  2. Eileen

    I don't know where to start.
    Okay, I'll start with the assumption that keto is high protein. No, it's not, it's moderate protein compared with standard BB diets. The dangers of protein to the kidneys would apply far more to a 40/40/20 diet than to a keto one. If they applied. But they don't. People with damaged kidneys can not tolerate high levels of protein. So some "experts" have extrapolated this to mean that high levels of protein can damage healthy kidneys. Except there has not been one single case of this ever, in the history of recorded medicine.
    Most keto diets do not recommend 14 days or less, that's the classic way to do it wrong. Most low carb diets recommend making it a lifestyle.
    And again, where is the evidence that ketones do any damage to liver or kidneys or any other organ? Not a single case. The closest to damage from a low carb diet comes from the odd nutcase who tries to combine keto with no liquid, which does put stress on the kidney (just like any other diet which does not include liquid) but because keto is slightly diuretic, you'll see the effects a little quicker.

  3. doug684

    Originally Posted by Eileen
    The closest to damage from a low carb diet comes from the odd nutcase who tries to combine keto with no liquid, which does put stress on the kidney (just like any other diet which does not include liquid) but because keto is slightly diuretic, you'll see the effects a little quicker.

    There are people who try that? I don't see how. Keto makes me thirsty and will often drink constantly as long as my glass of water is full.

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What is BASAL METABOLIC RATE? What does BASAL METABOLIC RATE mean? BASAL METABOLIC RATE meaning - BASAL METABOLIC RATE definition - BASAL METABOLIC RATE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimal rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit time ranging from watt (joule/second) to ml O2/min or joule per hour per kg body mass J/(hkg)). Proper measurement requires a strict set of criteria be met. These criteria include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, while in the post-absorptive state (i.e., not actively digesting food). In bradymetabolic animals, such as fish and reptiles, the equivalent term standard metabolic rate (SMR) is used. It follows the same criteria as BMR, but requires the documentation of the temperature at which the metabolic rate was measured. This makes BMR a variant of standard metabolic rate measurement that excludes the temperature data, a practice that has led to problems in defining "standard" rates of metabolism for many mammals. Metabolism comprises the processes that the body needs to function. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy expressed in calories that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest. Some of those processes are breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth, brain and nerve function, and contraction of muscles. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) affects the rate that a person burns calories and ultimately whether that individual maintains, gains, or loses weight. The basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by individuals. It is influenced by several factors. BMR typically declines by 12% per decade after age 20, mostly due to loss of fat-free mass, although the variability between individuals is high. The body's generation of heat is known as thermogenesis and it can be measured to determine the amount of energy expended. BMR generally decreases with age and with the decrease in lean body mass (as may happen with aging). Increasing muscle mass has the effect of increasing BMR. Aerobic (resistance) fitness level, a product of cardiovascular exercise, while previously thought to have effect on BMR, has been shown in the 1990s not to correlate with BMR when adjusted for fat-free body mass. But anaerobic exercise does increase resting energy consumption (see "aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise"). Illness, previously consumed food and beverages, environmental temperature, and stress levels can affect one's overall energy expenditure as well as one's BMR. BMR is measured under very restrictive circumstances when a person is awake. An accurate BMR measurement requires that the person's sympathetic nervous system not be stimulated, a condition which requires complete rest. A more common measurement, which uses less strict criteria, is resting metabolic rate (RMR).

Metabolic Acidosis

Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid. It can also occur when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body. There are several types of metabolic acidosis. Diabetic acidosis develops when acidic substances, known as ketone bodies, build up in the body. This most often occurs with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes. It is also called diabetic ketoacidosis and DKA. Hyperchloremic acidosis results from excessive loss of sodium bicarbonate from the body. This can occur with severe diarrhea. Lactic acidosis results from a buildup of lactic acid. It can be caused by: Alcohol Cancer Exercising intensely Liver failure Medicines, such as salicylates Other causes of metabolic acidosis include: Kidney disease (distal renal tubular acidosis and proximal renal tubular acidosis) Poisoning by aspirin, ethylene glycol (found in antifreeze), or methanol Continue reading >>

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  1. WhoAteMyPsyche

    I've been trying to find the science between how the body reacts in ketosis vs someone who just tries to keep their carbs low. I know some people can be in ketosis with 50 carbs or less, but I do not think that is the case for most people.
    When I first started losing weight I was keeping my carbs between 40-50, and lost between 80-90 lbs. doing that. I then started doing more research (I stalled for a long time) and switched to keto and keep my carbs below 20. However, I'm working on a blog post trying to explain keto and would like to be able to explain, intelligently, the difference in ketosis vs "lowish" carbs.

    Can anyone point me to good research on this? Thank you!

  2. Fiorella

    Honestly, I think the best data or research is testing your own body, as in n=1. Starting at 20 g carbs is a starter's template. From there, you may need to go lower, or get away with pushing it higher. Let's say someone comes up with a bell curve showing where people have there carbs set at. It will still be a snapshot in time, possibly skewed to men/women only, age groups, metabolic diseases, athletic/sedentary, etc. Also, some people noticed that with time, the carb level requirement changed as their bodies health modified, too.

  3. WhoAteMyPsyche

    I completely agree that everyone is different and that the carb levels can change over time. I know, at least in my experience, just because someone knows about low carb doesn't mean they know what ketosis is. When I first started I was going off a plan I had followed in the 90s (Protein Power Plan) and knew nothing about ketosis. I had heard the term "keto" thrown around by a few people but just thought it was a different way of saying the same thing - Protein Power, Atkins, etc. So I guess the key is telling people WHAT keto is and why lowering your carbs works. They can then take that info and learn for themselves what works for them.

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In this video I discuss what is metabolic rate, how to calculate metabolic rate, and how to calculate calories burned, and how many calories burned in a day. I also discuss basal metabolic rate, and resting metabolic rate. Transcript (partial with notes) In this video, I am going to show you the formula on how to calculate your calories burned in a day (metabolic rate). And give some examples. Lets start off with the term metabolic rate. In this video we are defining metabolic rate as the amount of calories you would burn off in a day (24 hours) while at rest. So, not moving around or being active. In the fitness community, There are 2 popular formulas to calculate this. BMR, basal metabolic rate, and RMR, resting metabolic rate. BMR is taken after 8 hours of sleep and 12 hours of fasting. RMR is taken under less restrictions, and has been shown to be statistically more accurate. Lets look at a couple of examples. Here we have kyle and Samantha, and their metrics are here. Kyle is 44 yrs old, is 58 tall, and weighs 160 pounds. Samantha is 33 yrs old, 54 tall, and weighs 126 pounds. The RMR equation for men is (4.55 x Weight in pounds) + (15.88 x Height in inches) - (5*age) + 5, for women the equation is (4.55 x Weight in pounds) + (15.88 x Height in inches) - (5*age) -161. When we plug in Kyles and Sams #s, we see that Kyles RMR is 1592.84 cal/day, and Sams is 1263.62 cal/day. So, after rounding up, this tells us that if Kyle and Sam were to sit around all day, they would need 1583 and 1264 calories per day to maintain their weights. We know that neither Kyle or Samantha are going to sit around all day. So there is a multiplication factor that we must use next. It is based on each of their lifestyles. The factor is as follows 1.200 = sedentary (little or no exercise) 1.375 = lightly active (light exercise/sports 1-3 days/week, approx. 590 Cal/day) 1.550 = moderately active (moderate exercise/sports 3-5 days/week, approx. 870 Cal/day) 1.725 = very active (hard exercise/sports 6-7 days a week, approx. 1150 Cal/day) 1.900 = extra active (very hard exercise/sports and physical job, approx. 1580 Cal/day) Lets say Kyle is very sedentary, so if we multiply his RMR by 1.2 we have .1911.6 cal/day. Now, Samantha is in the very active category, so we need to multiply her RMR by 1.725, and we get2180.4 cal/day . So, based on these calculations Kyle can consume 1912 calories per day to maintain his current weight, and Samantha can consume 2180 calories per day to maintain her weight. Now, You can use the RMR equation and lifestyle multiplication factor to calculate your baseline. Drawbacks A few of things I need to mention. First, this and any other formula used to calculate your metabolic rate is just an estimate. There is a margin for error. Second, muscle mass is very important. Lets look at Kyle, and Jack, who both weigh the same. However, Jack has much more muscle mass than K, since muscle burns more calories than fat, J will have a higher metabolic rate. Third, the type of diet ( for example consuming whole vs processed foods) is not factored either. Bottom Line I dont believe that counting calories is a path to successfully sustaining weight loss in the long run. However, Using the RMR formula and the lifestyle multiplication factor is extremely helpful in increasing your awareness to how many calories you need to consume per day. Which In turn can lead to a higher awareness of how quickly calories you consume add up. Other sources... http://www.scientificpsychic.com/heal... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15...

Metabolic Acidosis

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find one of our health articles more useful. See also separate Lactic Acidosis and Arterial Blood Gases - Indications and Interpretations articles. Description Metabolic acidosis is defined as an arterial blood pH <7.35 with plasma bicarbonate <22 mmol/L. Respiratory compensation occurs normally immediately, unless there is respiratory pathology. Pure metabolic acidosis is a term used to describe when there is not another primary acid-base derangement - ie there is not a mixed acid-base disorder. Compensation may be partial (very early in time course, limited by other acid-base derangements, or the acidosis exceeds the maximum compensation possible) or full. The Winter formula can be helpful here - the formula allows calculation of the expected compensating pCO2: If the measured pCO2 is >expected pCO2 then additional respiratory acidosis may also be present. It is important to remember that metabolic acidosis is not a diagnosis; rather, it is a metabolic derangement that in Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. DustinX

    Fasting to get into ketosis... faster?

    The other day I remembered that when I was young I had to get a physical. Well to keep the story short, I hadn't eaten much the day before and didn't eat breakfast before I went. After he looked at the urine results I remember him asking if I ate breakfast, he said he asked because I had alot of ketones in my urine.
    I was thinking, would it be possible to do a 24 hour fast to enter ketosis and then the next day continue a keto diet (I'm saying for when you're first starting a keto diet). Maybe 12 hours of fasting would get you into ketosis? I'm not sure, but I figured this could be a quick way to get into ketosis without having to wait 3 or even 4 days when you first begin.

  2. Eileen

    If you are young and active, then you'll get into ketosis quickly. Someone who is older or less active will take longer the first time.
    Fasting will get out into ketosis, but so will eating high fat meals. Don't know about you, but I get very crabby if I miss my breakfast.

  3. jg_girl088

    yeah it sure will. I remember reading in Good Calories Bad Calories that the original recommendation for the ketogenic diet was to start with a 48 hour fast, however, atkins was the one who changed it to a 2 week induction period of minimal carbs.

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