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Nomenclature Of Aldehydes & Ketones

Nomenclature Of Aldehydes & Ketones

Aldehydes and ketones contain the carbonyl group. Aldehydes are considered the most important functional group. They are often called the formyl or methanoyl group. Aldehydes derive their name from the dehydration of alcohols. Aldehydes contain the carbonyl group bonded to at least one hydrogen atom. Ketones contain the carbonyl group bonded to two carbon atoms. Aldehydes and ketones are organic compounds which incorporate a carbonyl functional group, C=O. The carbon atom of this group has two remaining bonds that may be occupied by hydrogen, alkyl or aryl substituents. If at least one of these substituents is hydrogen, the compound is an aldehyde. If neither is hydrogen, the compound is a ketone. Naming Aldehydes The IUPAC system of nomenclature assigns a characteristic suffix -al to aldehydes. For example, H2C=O is methanal, more commonly called formaldehyde. Since an aldehyde carbonyl group must always lie at the end of a carbon chain, it is always is given the #1 location position in numbering and it is not necessary to include it in the name. There are several simple carbonyl containing compounds which have common names which are retained by IUPAC. Also, there is a common method for naming aldehydes and ketones. For aldehydes common parent chain names, similar to those used for carboxylic acids, are used and the suffix –aldehyde is added to the end. In common names of aldehydes, carbon atoms near the carbonyl group are often designated by Greek letters. The atom adjacent to the carbonyl function is alpha, the next removed is beta and so on. If the aldehyde moiety (-CHO) is attached to a ring the suffix –carbaldehyde is added to the name of the ring. The carbon attached to this moiety will get the #1 location number in naming the ring. Aldehydes take their name Continue reading >>

Oxo Compounds

Oxo Compounds

Compounds containing an oxygen atom, =O, doubly bonded to carbon or another element. The term thus embraces aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, sulfonic acids, amides and esters. Oxo used as an adjective (and thus separated by a space) modifying another class of compound, as in oxo carboxylic acids, indicates the presence of an oxo substituent at any position. To indicate a double-bonded oxygen that is part of a ketonic structure, the term keto is sometimes used as a prefix, but such use has been abandoned by IUPAC for naming specific compounds. A traditional use of keto is for indicating oxidation of CHOH to C=O in a parent compound that contains OH groups, such as carbohydrates, e.g. 3-ketoglucose. Cite as: IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. Original PDF version: The PDF version is out of date and is provided for reference purposes only. For some entries, the PDF version may be unavailable. Oxoacids (and its variants oxyacids, oxo acids, oxy-acids, oxiacids, oxacids) is a traditional name for any acid having oxygen in the acidic group. The term stands in contradistinction to `hydracids' (e.g. HCl) lacking oxygen. The term oxoacid now refers to a compound which contains oxygen, at least one other element, and at least one hydrogen bound to oxygen, and which produces a conjugate base by loss of positive hydrogen ion(s) (hydrons). E.g. P(OH)3 , RC(=O)OH , HOSOH , HOCl , HON=O , (HO)2SO2 , RP(=O)(OH)2 . Cite as: IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Continue reading >>

Ketones

Ketones

Nomenclature Formula 3D structure Functional class name = alkyl alkyl ketone Substituent suffix = -one e.g. propan-2-one Substituent prefix = oxo- The root name is based on the longest chain including the carbonyl group. The chain is numbered so as to give the ketone carbonyl the lowest possible number. The ketone suffix is appended after the hydrocarbon suffix minus the "e" : e.g. -ane + -one = -anone or -ene + one = -enone etc. Functional group is a ketone, therefore suffix = -one Hydrocarbon structure is an alkane therefore -ane The longest continuous chain is C5 therefore root = pent The first point of difference rule requires numbering from the left as drawn to make the ketone group locant 2- pentan-2-one or 2-pentanone CH3CH2CH2C(=O)CH3 window1._cover(false)Jmol._Canvas2D (Jmol) "window1"[x]loading... -- required by ClazzNode Continue reading >>

Naming Of Organic Compounds

Naming Of Organic Compounds

Nomenclature rules for different groups of organic compounds and functional groups, together with examples of use of the rules There are millions of different organic compounds and it is obvious that a systematic way of naming them is necessary. This article gives definitions of the different classes of organic compounds and rules for their naming together with many examples of use of the naming rules. See also naming of inorganic binary compounds. Content (links directly to the compound classes) Acyl halides Ethers Alcohols Functional groups priority Aldehydes General naming principles Alkanes Greek numbers used as prefixes Alkenes Haloalkanes (alkylhalides) Alkynes Ketones Amides Nitriles Amines Nitros Aromatics Sulfides (thioethers) Carboxylic acids Thiols (mercaptans) Esters Thiones (thioketones) General naming principles Organic compounds follow a certain naming pattern Prefix = substituent(s) Second Name = type of chain In the naming process we start with the First name: The core skeleton of an organic compound is called its root or parent chain. This refers to the simple skeleton or backbone of the molecule, upon which all the functional groups and substituents are attached. This is the first component to name and identify. The root chain is the longest continuing carbon chain in a molecule. Sometimes the root chain will be written in a simple manner and sometimes the chain will wind and twist. But as long as the carbons are connected, this is considered the parent chain. Then we find the Second name: The second name comes from the saturation of the parent chain, specifically the presence and location of double and triple bonds. These molecules fall into 3 categories: Alkane: Last name -ane Alkene: Last name -ene Alkyne: Last name -yne Then we identify prefixes: Continue reading >>

Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes And Ketones

Introduction We will focus more specifically on the organic compounds that incorporate carbonyl groups: aldehydes and ketones. Key Terms Aldehyde Formyl group Ketone Hydrogen bonding Hydration Hydrate Objectives Identify IUPAC names for simple aldehydes and ketones Describe the boiling point and solubility characteristics of aldehydes and ketones relative to those of alkanes and alcohols Characterize the process of nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group The carbonyl group is shown below in the context of synthesizing alcohols. This functional group is the key component of aldehydes and ketones, which we will discuss here. Nomenclature for Aldehydes and Ketones Aldehydes and ketones are structurally similar; the only difference is that for an aldehyde, the carbonyl group has at most one substituent alkyl group, whereas the carbonyl group in a ketone has two. Several examples of aldehydes and ketones are depicted below. Aldehydes are named by replacing the -e ending of an alkane with -al (similarly to the use of -ol in alcohols). The base molecule is the longest carbon chain ending with the carbonyl group. Furthermore, the carbon atom in the carbonyl group is assumed to be carbon 1, so a number is not needed in the IUPAC name to identify the location of the doubly bonded oxygen atom. If the chain contains two carbonyl groups, one at each end, the correct suffix is -dial (used in the same manner as -diol for compounds with two hydroxyl groups). An example aldehyde is shown below with its IUPAC name. One- and two-carbon aldehydes have common names (one of which you will likely be familiar with) in addition to their systematic names. Both names are acceptable. Sometimes, the carbonyl group plus one proton (called a formyl group) must be treated separately for nomenclatu Continue reading >>

Iupac System And Iupac Rules Of Naming Aldehydes & Ketones

Iupac System And Iupac Rules Of Naming Aldehydes & Ketones

The IUPAC names of open chain aliphatic aldehydes and ketones are derived from the names of the corresponding alkanes by replacing the ending -e with -al and -one respectively. a) The longest carbon chain containing the carbonyl carbon is taken to decide the name of the parent alkane. b) The carbon chain is numbered from the end nearer to the carbonyl group and the substituents are prefixed in alphabetical order along with Arabic numerals including their positions in the carbon chain. The carbon of the aldehydic group and the carbonyl carbon in cyclic ketones always get the number 1. c) When the aldehyde group is attached to a ring, the numbering of the ring carbon atoms starts from the carbon atom attached to the aldehyde group. The suffix carbaldehyde is added after the full name of the hydrocarbon. The simplest aromatic aldehyde carrying the aldehyde group on a benzene ring is benzaldehyde. Other ring substituted aromatic aldehydes are derivatives of benzaldehyde is ortho-hydroxy benzaldehyde. The trivial names of aldehydes are derived from the trivial names of the corresponding carboxylic acids by replacing the ending ic, for acid with aldehyde. The positions of the substituents in the carbon chain are indicated by Greek letters a, b, g, d etc, the a-carbon being the one directly linked to the aldehyde group, theb-carbon the next and on. The common names of ketones are derived by adding the names of the alkyl or aryl groups directly linked to the carbonyl group before the word ketone. The simplest ketone is acetone. The positions of the substituents are indicated by the Greek letters a, a', b', b' and so on. a, a' carbons being the ones directly attached to the carbonyl group. Ketones with a carbonyl group attached to a benzene ring are named as phenones in the IUPA Continue reading >>

Naming Aldehydes

Naming Aldehydes

In the IUPAC system we use the -al ending. The end e is replaced by al. So the common names of the first four aldehydes become: Now this is all pretty simple, but what if there are side chains off the main aldehyde chain. For example, take the molecule pictured on the right. Step 1 The aldehyde forms the root name Step 2 Number the carbons so that the C=O is carbon number 1. Step 3 Name all the substituents in alphabetical order. 3-methylbutanal Consider the example shown on the right. It has two substituent groups, the methyl and hydroxy. The IUPAC name is 4-hydroxy-3-methylbutanal. When naming a ketone we remove the end "e" from the name and replace it with a "one". For example propane becomes propanone. Since the carbonyl group can be located anywhere in the carbon chain a locator number is needed. . With simple molecules, such as propanone, shown on the right, a number is not needed as there can be only one location for the carbonyl group. Now lets look at he steps to derive a IUPAC name. Step 1) Identify the longest carbon chain that contains the carbonyl group and number the carbons so that the carbonyl group is on the lowest carbon. Step 2) Identify the various substituent groups Step 3) Place the substituent groups in the name in alphabetical order and use position numbers to locate the substituent groups and the carbonyl group. Step 4) Change the end e to a one. Lets take the molecule shown on the right as an example. Step 1 The longest carbon chain is pentane Step 2 No substituent groups Step 3 and 4 The carbonyl group is found at carbon number 2 . Hence the name is 2-pentanone What is the IUPAC name of this molecule? Solution What is the IUPAC name of this molecule? Solution What is the IUPAC name of this molecule? Solution Continue reading >>

The Names Of Aromatic Compounds

The Names Of Aromatic Compounds

This page looks at the names of some simple aromatic compounds. An aromatic compound is one which contains a benzene ring. It assumes that you are reasonably confident about naming compounds containing chains of carbon atoms (aliphatic compounds). Note: If you aren't sure about naming aliphatic compounds follow this link before you go on. Naming aromatic compounds isn't quite so straightforward as naming chain compounds. Often, more than one name is acceptable and it's not uncommon to find the old names still in use as well. Background The benzene ring All aromatic compounds are based on benzene, C6H6, which has a ring of six carbon atoms and has the symbol: Each corner of the hexagon has a carbon atom with a hydrogen attached. Note: If you don't understand this structure, it is explained in full in two pages on the structure of benzene elsewhere in this site. Following this link could well take you some time! The phenyl group Remember that you get a methyl group, CH3, by removing a hydrogen from methane, CH4. You get a phenyl group, C6H5, by removing a hydrogen from a benzene ring, C6H6. Like a methyl or an ethyl group, a phenyl group is always attached to something else. Aromatic compounds with only one group attached to the benzene ring Cases where the name is based on benzene chlorobenzene This is a simple example of a halogen attached to the benzene ring. The name is self-obvious. The simplified formula for this is C6H5Cl. You could therefore (although you never do!) call it phenyl chloride. Whenever you draw a benzene ring with one other thing attached to it, you are in fact drawing a phenyl group. In order to attach something else, you have to remove one of the existing hydrogen atoms, and so automatically make a phenyl group. nitrobenzene The nitro group, NO2, i Continue reading >>

Try To Name The Following Compound Using These Conventions�

Try To Name The Following Compound Using These Conventions�

a. Ketones are named by dropping the -e ending of the parent name and adding -one. The substituent name for the O= group is oxo. Ketones can also be named by naming each of the two carbon groups as a separate word followed by a space and the word ketone. b. Ring compounds can be named by dropping the -e ending of the parent name and adding -one. c. Common names that you should know are... d. The Greek letters a, b, g, etc. are used at times to designate attached groups on the second, third and fourth, etc. carbons from the carbonyl. This nomenclature is common for many functional groups such as aldehydes, carboxylic acids and derivatives of carboxylic acids. Copyright � August 2000 by Richard C. Banks...all rights reserved. Continue reading >>

Ketone

Ketone

Not to be confused with ketone bodies. Ketone group Acetone In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) /ˈkiːtoʊn/ is an organic compound with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of carbon-containing substituents. Ketones and aldehydes are simple compounds that contain a carbonyl group (a carbon-oxygen double bond). They are considered "simple" because they do not have reactive groups like −OH or −Cl attached directly to the carbon atom in the carbonyl group, as in carboxylic acids containing −COOH.[1] Many ketones are known and many are of great importance in industry and in biology. Examples include many sugars (ketoses) and the industrial solvent acetone, which is the smallest ketone. Nomenclature and etymology[edit] The word ketone is derived from Aketon, an old German word for acetone.[2][3] According to the rules of IUPAC nomenclature, ketones are named by changing the suffix -ane of the parent alkane to -anone. The position of the carbonyl group is usually denoted by a number. For the most important ketones, however, traditional nonsystematic names are still generally used, for example acetone and benzophenone. These nonsystematic names are considered retained IUPAC names,[4] although some introductory chemistry textbooks use systematic names such as "2-propanone" or "propan-2-one" for the simplest ketone (CH3−CO−CH3) instead of "acetone". The common names of ketones are obtained by writing separately the names of the two alkyl groups attached to the carbonyl group, followed by "ketone" as a separate word. The names of the alkyl groups are written alphabetically. When the two alkyl groups are the same, the prefix di- is added before the name of alkyl group. The positions of other groups are indicated by Greek letters, the α-carbon being th Continue reading >>

Nomenclature Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Nomenclature Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones The chemistry of aldehydes and ketones is influenced by the presence of carbonyl group in them. In aldehydes the carbonyl group is attached to a carbon and hydrogen, whereas in ketones it is bonded to two carbon atoms. In other words, the two remaining bonds of the carbon atom in carbonyl group are taken by hydrogen, alkyl or aryl substituents. If one of the substituent is hydrogen then the compound is called aldehyde and if none of them is hydrogen then it is a ketone. According to the IUPAC system of nomenclature -al is attached as a suffix to parent alkane for the naming of aldehydes. For example, H2C=O is named as per the IUPAC system as methanal, commonly known as formaldehyde. The aldehyde group is always attached at the end of the main carbon chain, and hence the 1st position in the numbering is always assigned to it. It is not always necessary to include numbering in the naming. Instead of IUPAC name aldehydes and ketones are also called by their common names. For aldehydes and ketones the names are reflected in Greek and Latin term. Greek letters such as α, β etc. are used for the location of the substituents in the carbon chain. The α-carbon is directly attached to the aldehyde group, β-carbon is attached to the carbon adjacent to the aldehyde group and so on. Now let’s discuss about the naming of ketones, according to IUPAC guidelines, suffix –one is assigned for the ketones. The carbonyl group can be located anywhere within the main chain and the position is decided by the location number. The numbering of the chain usually starts from the end such that the carbonyl carbon gets the lowest number. But there are some ketones such as propanone and phenylethanone which do not require any number locator as there is on Continue reading >>

Organic Chemistry/ketones And Aldehydes

Organic Chemistry/ketones And Aldehydes

Aldehydes () and ketones () are both carbonyl compounds. They are organic compounds in which the carbonyl carbon is connected to C or H atoms on either side. An aldehyde has one or both vacancies of the carbonyl carbon satisfied by a H atom, while a ketone has both its vacancies satisfied by carbon. 3 Preparing Aldehydes and Ketones Ketones are named by replacing the -e in the alkane name with -one. The carbon chain is numbered so that the ketone carbon, called the carbonyl group, gets the lowest number. For example, would be named 2-butanone because the root structure is butane and the ketone group is on the number two carbon. Alternatively, functional class nomenclature of ketones is also recognized by IUPAC, which is done by naming the substituents attached to the carbonyl group in alphabetical order, ending with the word ketone. The above example of 2-butanone can also be named ethyl methyl ketone using this method. If two ketone groups are on the same structure, the ending -dione would be added to the alkane name, such as heptane-2,5-dione. Aldehydes replace the -e ending of an alkane with -al for an aldehyde. Since an aldehyde is always at the carbon that is numbered one, a number designation is not needed. For example, the aldehyde of pentane would simply be pentanal. The -CH=O group of aldehydes is known as a formyl group. When a formyl group is attached to a ring, the ring name is followed by the suffix "carbaldehyde". For example, a hexane ring with a formyl group is named cyclohexanecarbaldehyde. Aldehyde and ketone polarity is characterized by the high dipole moments of their carbonyl group, which makes them rather polar molecules. They are more polar than alkenes and ethers, though because they lack hydrogen, they cannot participate in hydrogen bonding like Continue reading >>

Parent Chain

Parent Chain

How to name organic compounds using the IUPAC rules In order to name organic compounds you must first memorize a few basic names. These names are listed within the discussion of naming alkanes. In general, the base part of the name reflects the number of carbons in what you have assigned to be the . The suffix of the name reflects the type(s) of functional group(s) present on (or within) the parent chain. Other groups which are attached to the parent chain are called substituents. Alkanes - saturated hydrocarbons The names of the straight chain saturated hydrocarbons for up to a 12 carbon chain are shown below. The names of the substituents formed by the removal of one hydrogen from the end of the chain is obtained by changing the suffix -ane to -yl. Number of Carbons Name 1 methane 2 ethane 3 propane 4 butane 5 pentane 6 hexane 7 heptane 8 octane 9 nonane 10 decane 11 undecane 12 dodecane There are a few common branched substituents which you should memorize. These are shown below. Identify the longest carbon chain. This chain is called the parent chain. Identify all of the substituents (groups appending from the parent chain). Number the carbons of the parent chain from the end that gives the substituents the lowest numbers. When compairing a series of numbers, the series that is the "lowest" is the one which contains the lowest number at the occasion of the first difference. If two or more side chains are in equivalent positions, assign the lowest number to the one which will come first in the name. If the same substituent occurs more than once, the location of each point on which the substituent occurs is given. In addition, the number of times the substituent group occurs is indicated by a prefix (di, tri, tetra, etc.). If there are two or more different substituen Continue reading >>

Organic Chemistry/naming

Organic Chemistry/naming

There are thousands of known organic compounds and millions of others yet to be discovered. Because of the wide variety of compounds a naming system was developed by International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)[1] to give a unique descriptive name to each compound. In this system the name of the compound directly shows its structure through an elaborate system of suffixes and prefixes. Common names are used for compounds that were either around before IUPAC or who have a more widely known name than the IUPAC. For example, trichloromethane is IUPAC name for chloroform, though it is almost universally referred to by students and scientists alike as chloroform. 1 Naming parent chains The IUPAC nomenclature of organic molecules is based on the longest carbon chain in the molecule. For alliphatics, which are hydrocarbons containing chains of C, the following prefixes are used: # of C Stem name Alkyl group name 1 meth methyl 2 eth ethyl 3 prop propyl 4 but butyl 5 pent pentyl 6 hex hexyl 7 hept heptyl 8 oct octyl 9 non nonyl 10 dec decyl 11 undec undecyl 12 dodec dodecyl Alkanes are a compound in which the carbon backbone contains only single bonds. They are named according to the number of carbons they have. Alkanes combust to produce water and carbon dioxide in air. Some familiar alkanes are methane (natural gas), propane (gas used in homes), and butane (blue-flamed cigarette lighters). Alkanes containing four carbons or more can form different chain isomers; that is, they can become "branched," forming, for example, iso-butane. General Alkane Formula: CnH2n+2 Suffix: "ane" Example: CH3CH2CH3 - Propane To name branched molecules, find the longest continuous chain first. This chain forms the base name. Number the carbon atoms, starting at the end closest to the Continue reading >>

1. Nomenclature Of Aldehydes And Ketones

1. Nomenclature Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes and ketones are organic compounds which incorporate a carbonyl functional group, C=O. The carbon atom of this group has two remaining bonds that may be occupied by hydrogen or alkyl or aryl substituents. If at least one of these substituents is hydrogen, the compound is an aldehyde. If neither is hydrogen, the compound is a ketone. The IUPAC system of nomenclature assigns a characteristic suffix to these classes, al to aldehydes and one to ketones. For example, H2C=O is methanal, more commonly called formaldehyde. Since an aldehyde carbonyl group must always lie at the end of a carbon chain, it is by default position #1, and therefore defines the numbering direction. A ketone carbonyl function may be located anywhere within a chain or ring, and its position is given by a locator number. Chain numbering normally starts from the end nearest the carbonyl group. In cyclic ketones the carbonyl group is assigned position #1, and this number is not cited in the name, unless more than one carbonyl group is present. If you are uncertain about the IUPAC rules for nomenclature you should review them now. Examples of IUPAC names are provided (in blue) in the following diagram. Common names are in red, and derived names in black. In common names carbon atoms near the carbonyl group are often designated by Greek letters. The atom adjacent to the function is alpha, the next removed is beta and so on. Since ketones have two sets of neighboring atoms, one set is labeled α, β etc., and the other α', β' etc. Very simple ketones, such as propanone and phenylethanone (first two examples in the right column), do not require a locator number, since there is only one possible site for a ketone carbonyl function. Likewise, locator numbers are omitted for the simple dialdehyde at t Continue reading >>

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