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How Do The Kidneys Compensate Respiratory Acidosis Quizlet

Patho Exam 2 Review

Patho Exam 2 Review

True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. ____ 1. Anaplasia is recognized by loss or organization and a marked increase in nuclear size. ____ 2. A hallmark of cancer cells is their immortality. ____ 3. For the function of tumor suppressor genes to be lost, only one chromosome (allele) of the gene must be inactivated. ____ 4. Most cancers must acquire mutation in six distinct areas: growth signals, antigrowth signals, evading apoptosis, replicating ability, angiogenesis, and invasion and metastasis. ____ 5. There is no current evidence that associates obesity with cancer formation. ____ 6. The term “neoplasm†can refer to a benign tumor. ____ 7. The brain does not require insulin for glucose uptake. ____ 8. Somatostatin produced by the hypothalamus inhibits the release of growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone. ____ 9. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) directly affects melanocyte stimulation. ____ 10. Aldosterone secretion is stimulated by angiotensin I. ____ 11. Antidiuretic hormone has no direct effect on electrolyte levels. ____ 12. A person with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) usually craves cold drinks. ____ 13. Pituitary adenomas are malignant tumors. ____ 14. Abnormal immunologic mechanisms producing autoantibodies are responsible for both Graves’ disease and hypothyroidism. ____ 15. Thyroid carcinoma, although rare, is the most common endocrine malignancy. ____ 16. The most common cause of hypoparathyroidism is damage to the glands during surgery. ____ 17. Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a greater degree of pancreatic changes than individuals with type 1 diabetes. ____ 18. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is characterized by increased levels of anti Continue reading >>

Acid-base Balance Flashcards | Quizlet

Acid-base Balance Flashcards | Quizlet

occurs when there is an excess of any body acid, except H2CO3 (carbonic acid) what are the two causes of metabolic acidosis? excess acid production can occur as a result of many conditions. what conditions? (4) -diabetic ketacidocis from total absence of insulin in the body -lactic acidosis,lack of oxygen in the tissues which cause production of lactic acid in tissues -kidney diseases, which prevent elimination of acid in the body how excess acid can appear in extracellular fluids? (amount of what where) explain what happens as result of these concentrations -as excess of K+ into cells, H+ comes out -excessive diarrhea, which causes the lose of bicarbonate, which is plentiful in intestinal fluid what happens in emphysema? how affect plasma? -alveolar walls disintegrate over time, producing large air spaces that remain filled with gases during expiration -This condition reduces the surface area in the lung available for exchange of O2 and CO2 -As a result of this process, CO2 becomes trapped in the alveoli and plasma levels of CO2 rise what is the cause of respiratory alkalosis? (2) b. elimination of too much CO2 or build up of CO2 in the body Respiratory alkalosis occurs whe too much CO2 is eliminated form the body because of hyperventilation acidosis 2 reasons? (think about levels of H+, base, HCO3-) alkalosis 2 reasons? (think about levels of H+, base, HCO3-) b. urinary reabsorption and generation of HCO3- cause of acidosis? (respiratory related, what rises) -defective exchange of gases in the lungs chemical equation for reaction between CO2 and H2O As a result of respiration alkalosis, which direction will this reaction go? the equilibrium reaction shifts to the left as CO2 is blown off which of the following would be observed in simple, uncompensated respiratory al Continue reading >>

Acid-base Balance Flashcards | Quizlet

Acid-base Balance Flashcards | Quizlet

Acid-base balance is an important determinant of protein ______ & ______ structure, function (When pH goes out of normal range these proteins are denatured ) All enzymatic functions are sensitive to this ion Relationship between respiratory system & acid-base balance -Determines affinity of Hb for O2, in alveolar capillaries - release in tissue capillaries -Respiratory rate directly affected by [H+] in resp center of brainstem + carotid body for rapid regulation of pH and pCO2 -Variations in alveolar ventilation volume cause acidosis and alkalosis Relationship b/w digestive system & acid-base balance -Acid in stomach hydrolyzes protein molecules -Digestive enzymes in stomach dependent on low pH to function (trypsin) -Alkaline secretions of biliary and pancreatic ducts neutralize gastric secretions -Enzymes in duodenum/sb act in a neutral pH environment (amylase lipase) Relationship b/w excretory system & acid-base balance -Acid , -Phos, -SO4 excreted from body by kidneys -Kidneys play role in long term (>24o) pH control -Rate of acid excretion dependent on degree of renal function and hormonal factors -At 37oC [H+] and [OH-] are both 100 nanomoles/L or 0.0000001 moles/L 7.35 to 7.45 (slightly alkaline not neutral) -Inversely related (negative in logarithm equation important) [H+] in plasma higher than normal (already slightly alkaline) quantity of Acid or Alkali required to return the plasma in-vitro to a normal pH (7.4) under standard conditions difference between commonly measured anions and cations i.e unmeasured anions such as lactate, oxalic acid increased in anion gap metabolic acidosis Role of intracellular and extracellular buffer, respiratory, and renal mechanisms in maintaining normal blood pH -Because the lungs can eliminate this it's called respiratory acid Continue reading >>

Acid-base Disorders Flashcards | Quizlet

Acid-base Disorders Flashcards | Quizlet

-accomplished by substances in blood buffering the pH (soaking up H+) *bicarbonate (5%, but most physiologically important) what are two ways to get acid out of the body? -pee it out through renal excretion as H+ *diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis (Increased AG) *diarrhea, renal failure (no change in AG( how does the body compensate for metabolic acidosis? *lungs compensate by increasing respiration (blowing off CO2) *kidneys compensate by excreting more H+ (minimal effect compared to the lungs) -the total concentration of positive molecules (Na+, K+) minus the total concentration of negative molecules (CL-, HCO3-) -many normal minor negative molecules are not counted, which collectively add up -many abnormal molecules have a negative charge (lactic acid, ketones), so there are more positive charges in the calculation and the anion gap increases how does the body compensate for respiratory alkalosis? -kidneys excrete HCO3- and decrease H+ excretion -compensatory abilities of the lung are 100 times greater than the kidney -compensation by both lungs and kidneys takes a while to kick in -in acute stages, you will see relatively large abnormalities of pH -as compensation occurs the pH will return closer to normal, but other values will be abnormal still until the underlying problem is fixed what condition does this describe: decreased pH and increased pCO2 what condition does this describe: decreased pH and decreased pCO2 what condition does this describe: increased pH and decreased pCO2 what condition does this describe: increased pH and increased pCO2 what happens to pH, pCO2 and pO2 at high altitude? -oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin -when there is acidosis, increased amounts of extracellular H+ diffuses into the cells and K+ ions c Continue reading >>

How Does The Renal System Compensate For Conditions Of Respiratory Alkalosis?

How Does The Renal System Compensate For Conditions Of Respiratory Alkalosis?

In order to function normally, your body needs a blood pH of between 7.35 and 7.45. Alkalosis is when you have too much base in your blood, causing your blood pH to rise above 7.45. The lungs and the kidneys are the two main organs involved in maintaining a normal blood pH. The lungs do this by blowing off carbon dioxide, since most of the acid in the body is carbonic acid, which is made from carbon dioxide during metabolic processes. The amount of carbon dioxide removed is controlled by your breathing rate. The kidneys maintain blood pH by controlling the amount of bicarbonate, which is a base that is excreted from the body. The kidneys also control the amount of acids excreted from the body. Respiratory alkalosis occurs when the lungs are blowing off more carbon dioxide than the body is producing. This usually occurs from hyperventilation. Your body's immediate response, after about 10 minutes of respiratory alkalosis, is a process called cell buffering. During cell buffering, hydrogen ions found in hemoglobin, proteins and phosphates, move out of the cells and into the extracellular fluid. There they combine with bicarbonate molecules and form carbonic acid. This process helps to reduce the amount of bicarbonate in the body and increase the amount of acid. However, while cell buffering occurs quickly, it does not have a huge effect on the body's pH. After about two to six hours of respiratory alkalosis the kidneys respond. They begin to limit the excretion of hydrogen and other acids and increase the excretion of bicarbonate. It usually takes the kidneys two or three days to reach a new steady state. In chronic respiratory alkalosis, the pH may constantly be high, but the body learns to adapt to it over time, with the help of the kidneys. Continue reading >>

Response To Disturbances

Response To Disturbances

Chemistry Acid Base Response to disturbances The body tries to minimize pH changes and responds to acid-base disturbances with body buffers, compensatory responses by the lungs and kidney (to metabolic and respiratory disturbances, respectively) and by the kidney correcting metabolic disturbances. Body buffers:There are intracellular and extracellular buffers for primaryrespiratory and metabolic acid-base disturbances. Intracellular buffers include hemoglobin in erythrocytes and phosphates in all cells. Extracellular buffers are carbonate (HCO3) and non-carbonate (e.g. protein, bone) buffers. These immediately buffer the rise or fall in H+. Compensation: This involves responses by the respiratory tract and kidney to primary metabolic and respiratory acid-base disturbances, respectively.Compensation opposes the primary disturbance, although the laboratory changes in the compensatory response parallel those in the primary response. This concept is illustrated in the summary below. Respiratory compensation for a primary metabolic disturbance: Alterations in alveolar ventilation occurs in response to primarymetabolic acid-base disturbances. This begins within minutes to hours of an acute primary metabolic disturbance. Note that complete compensation via this mechanism may take up to 24 hours. Renal compensation for a primary respiratory disturbance:Here, the kidney alters excretion of acid (which influences bases as well) in response to primaryrespiratory disturbances. This begins within hours of an acute respiratory disturbance, but take several days (3-5 days) to take full effect. Correction of acid-base changes:Correction of a primary respiratory acid-base abnormality usually requires medical or surgical intervention of the primary problem causing the acid-base disturba Continue reading >>

Clinical Chemistry Trivia Questions

Clinical Chemistry Trivia Questions

300 Questions |By Amyeickmeyer | Last updated: May 2, 2017 Do you want to know more about clinical chemistry? Take this quiz now and learn more about it! Removing question excerpt is a premium feature Which of the following agencies is involved in protecting the safety of employees in the workplace? Wearing personal protective equipment in the lab Testing all patient specimens for anti-HIV-1/2 Treating all specimens as potentially bioharzardous Washing hands immediately after removing gloves Which of the following provide information on how to clean up a chemical spill? According to the NFPA hazards identification system, what does the red quadrant indicate? Which of the following are bloodborne pathogens? TB and methiciliin resistant Staph auereus Hep C and vancomyocin resistant enterococci A fire that is cuased by discarding a lit cigarette in a trash can is an example of what type of fire? Which of the following is NOT considered presonal protective equipment Respirator fittings are performed to protect employees against what airborne pathogen? A round bottomed glass tube with only 1 marking of 500 mL volume is called a Drain by gravity; do not touch tip of pipet to receiving vessel Drain by gravity; tip agaimst inside of receiving vessel surface Drain by gravity; rinse out with the diluting fluid Drain by gravity; expel last drop of diluent using bulb Which of the following pipets is the most accurate and is used to reconstitute controls and calibratons? Chemistry analytes such as glucose and cholesterol are an example of which of the following? Which of the following concentrations is expressed in moles/liter? The CLS student lab swinging bucket centrifuge is an example of which of the following? What is the formula for relative centrifugal force? A solution conta Continue reading >>

Compensation In Acid/base Imbalances

Compensation In Acid/base Imbalances

Respiratory compensation for metabolic acidosis (HNC excess) produces systemic hypocapnia (low PCO2). CO2 diffuses from CSF to the body causing the CSF pH to increase. This reduces the central chemoreceptor-stimulated ventilation, partly off-setting the increased stimulation of the peripheral chemoreceptors caused by the low arterial pH. Ventilatory stimulation (low arterial pH acting on peripheral chemoreceptors) Ventilatory inhibition (high CSF pH acting on the central chemoreceptor). What is the overall effect of the ventilatory stimulation and ventilatory inhibition? Respiratory compensation stops short of completely correcting the pH. Respiratory compensation cannot fully restore pH, but the kidney can (for metabolic acidosis anyway). For each H+ that is excreted in the urine (after all of the filtered HCO3- has been reabsorbed), and during ammonia production, new HCO3- enters the body. This added HCO3- titrates excess H+ and over 3 to 4 days the added HCO3- restores pH to 7.4. Renal Compensation Seen on Davenport nomogram Trajectory is along the RC line because as HCO3- is slowly added the pH changes, reducing the stimulation of the respiratory system. Summary of Renal Compensation and Respiratory Compensation PCO2 changes back to normal (renal and respiratory compensation working at the same time) pH and HCO3- change back to normal by sliding up or down the RC line in the Davenport nomogram We can estimate the amount of NC acid that caused a metabolic acidosis by seeing how much HCO3-, HB-, and other NC bases would be needed to fix the problem completely. Also, We can estimate the amount of base needed to restore pH back to normal by hypothetically continuing respiratory compensation. How is base excess/deficit measured on the Davenport nomogram? Base deficit an Continue reading >>

Med Surg Test 2 Nclex

Med Surg Test 2 Nclex

1. The nurse assesses a patient with shortness of breath for evidence of long-standing hypoxemia by inspecting:A. Chest excursionB. Spinal curvaturesC. The respiratory patternD. The fingernail and its base D. The fingernail and its baseClubbing, a sign of long-standing hypoxemia, is evidenced by an increase in the angle between the base of the nail and the fingernail to 180 degrees or more, usually accompanied by an increase in the depth, bulk, and sponginess of the end of the finger. 2. The nurse is caring for a patient with COPD and pneumonia who has an order for arterial blood gases to be drawn. Which of the following is the minimum length of time the nurse should plan to hold pressure on the puncture site?A. 2 minutesB. 5 minutesC. 10 minutesD. 15 minutes B. 5 minutesFollowing obtaining an arterial blood gas, the nurse should hold pressure on the puncture site for 5 minutes by the clock to be sure that bleeding has stopped. An artery is an elastic vessel under higher pressure than veins, and significant blood loss or hematoma formation could occur if the time is insufficient. 3. The nurse notices clear nasal drainage in a patient newly admitted with facial trauma, including a nasal fracture. The nurse should:A. test the drainage for the presence of glucose.B. suction the nose to maintain airway clearance.C. document the findings and continue monitoring.D. apply a drip pad and reassure the patient this is normal. A. test the drainage for the presence of glucose.Clear nasal drainage suggests leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The drainage should be tested for the presence of glucose, which would indicate the presence of CSF. 4. When caring for a patient who is 3 hours postoperative laryngectomy, the nurse's highest priority assessment would be:A. Airway patencyB. Continue reading >>

Midterm Patho Quizlet - 1 Confirmation Of Somatic Death Is...

Midterm Patho Quizlet - 1 Confirmation Of Somatic Death Is...

MIDTERM PATHO QUIZLET - 1 Confirmation of somatic death is based on a Presence of algor mortis b Presence of livor mortis c Complete cessation of MIDTERM PATHO QUIZLET - 1 Confirmation of somatic death is... 88% (8) 7 out of 8 people found this document helpful This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 12 pages. 1.Confirmation of somatic death is based on:a. Presence of algor mortisb. Presence of livor mortisc. Complete cessation of respiration and circulationd. Change in skin color to pale yellow2.A 52-year-old diabetic male presents to the ER with lethargy, confusion, and depressed reflexes. His wife indicates that he does not follow the prescribed diet and takes his medication sporadically. Lab results indicate hyperglycemia. Which assessment finding is most likely to occur?a. Clammy skinb. Decreased sodiumc. Decreased urine formationd. Metabolic alkalosis3.A 60-year-old female is diagnosed with hyperkalemia. Which assessment finding should the nurse expect to observe?4.Which patient is most prone to metabolic alkalosis? A patient with:5.Which patient should the nurse assess for both hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis? A patient diagnosed with:6.For a patient experiencing metabolic acidosis, the body will compensate by:a. Excreting H+ through the kidneysb. Hyperventilatingc. Retaining CO2 in the lungsd. Secreting aldosterone7.Which finding would support the diagnosis of respiratory acidosis? 8.A 54-year-old male with a long history of smoking complains of excessive tiredness, shortness of breath, and overall ill feelings. Lab results reveal decreased pH, increased CO2, and normal bicarbonate ion. These findings help to confirm the diagnosis of:9.For a patient with respiratory acidosis, chronic compensation by the body will include:10.A 55-year-old female presents to her Continue reading >>

Shared Flashcard Set

Shared Flashcard Set

Details Title patho test 4 Description patho test 4 Total Cards 296 Subject Biology Level Undergraduate 2 Created 03/31/2014 Click here to study/print these flashcards. Create your own flash cards! Sign up here. Additional Biology Flashcards Cards Term What happens in the lungs when the diaphragm relaxes? a. Air is forced out of the lungs. b. Lung volume increases. c. Intrapulmonic pressure decreases. d. Intrapleural pressure decreases. Definition a Term The respiratory mucosa is continuous through the: 1. upper and lower respiratory tracts 2. nasal cavities and the sinuses 3. nasopharynx and oropharynx 4. middle ear cavity and auditory tube a. 1 only b. 1, 2 c. 2, 3 d. 1, 3, 4 e. 1, 2, 3, 4 Definition e Term Which of the following activities does NOT require muscle contractions and energy? a. quiet inspiration b. forced inspiration c. quiet expiration d. forced expiration Definition c Term The maximum volume of air a person can exhale after a maximum inspiration is termed the: a. expiratory reserve volume b. inspiratory reserve volume c. total lung capacity d. vital capacity Definition d Term Which of the following applies to the blood in the pulmonary artery? a. PCO2 is low. b. PO2 is low. c. Hydrostatic pressure is very high. d. It is flowing into the left atrium. Definition b Term Which of the following causes bronchodilation? a. epinephrine b. histamine c. parasympathetic nervous system d. drugs that block beta-2 adrenergic receptors Definition a Term The central chemoreceptors are normally most sensitive to: a. low oxygen level b. low concentration of hydrogen ions c. elevated oxygen level d. elevated carbon dioxide level Definition d Term 97. Which of the following individuals is NOT considered to be at high risk for developing active tuberculosis? a. homeless in Continue reading >>

Homeostasis: Fluids And Electrolytes Nclex Practice Quiz #1 (30 Questions)

Homeostasis: Fluids And Electrolytes Nclex Practice Quiz #1 (30 Questions)

Homeostasis: Fluids and Electrolytes NCLEX Practice Quiz #1 (30 Questions) This nursing exam covers the concepts of homeostasis, fluids andelectrolytes. Test your knowledge with this 30-item exam. Get that perfect score in your NCLEX with this questionnaire. If you dont go after what you want, youll never have it. If you dont ask, the answer is always no. If you dont step forward, youre always in the same place. Included topics in this practice quiz are: Follow the guidelines below to make the most out of this exam: Read each question carefully and choose the best answer. You are given one minute per question. Spend your time wisely! Answers and rationales are given below. Be sure to read them. If you need more clarifications, please direct them to the comments section. InExam Mode:All questions are shown in random and the results, answers and rationales (if any) will only be given after youve finished the quiz. You are given 1 minute per question, a total of 30minutes in this quiz. Homeostasis, Fluids and Electrolytes (30 Items) Congratulations - you have completed Homeostasis, Fluids and Electrolytes (30 Items). You scored %%SCORE%% out of %%TOTAL%%. Your performance has been rated as %%RATING%% Patient X is diagnosed with constipation. As a knowledgeable nurse, which nursing intervention is appropriate for maintaining normal bowel function? Here are the answers for this exam. Gauge your performance by counter checking your answers to those below. If you have any disputes or clarifications, please direct them to the comments section. Assessing dietary intake provides a foundation for the clients usual practices and may help determine if the client is prone to constipation or diarrhea . Limited physical activity may contribute to constipation due to decreased peristal Continue reading >>

My Jurney : Crne Cgfns

My Jurney : Crne Cgfns

Case Study : Grace, age 18 years, isscheduled for a cholecystectomy. Questions 1 and 2 relate to this scenario. A. After the nurse completes the preoperative teaching, Gracestates, If I lie still and avoid turning, I will avoid pain. Do you think thisis a good idea? What is the nurses best response? A.It is always a good idea to restquietly after surgery. B.You need to turn from side to sideevery 2 hours. C.The doctor will probably order youto lie flat for 24 hours D.Why dont you decide aboutactivity after your return from the recovery room? Rationale: To prevent venous stasis and improve muscle tone,circulation, and respiratory function, the client should be encouraged to movearound after surgery. Pain medication will be administered to permit movement. B.Grace hasreturned from the operating room. When assessing her respiratory status as sherecovers from general anaesthesia, it is of primary importance for the nurse toevaluate the patients ability to: Rationale: Anaesthesia interferes with the gag reflex until the gagreflex returns, the patient cannot swallow without a risk of aspiration. Case study:As a nurse,you are taking care of Mr. Denny, age 59 years, who has been admitted with amyocardial infarction.Questions 3 to 6 related to this scenario. C.You observe that Mr. Dennyis very sad and dejected. He states, Life will never be the same. How wouldyou respond to him? B. Why do you think life will never be the same? C. Could you b a little more hopeful of your recover from thisheart attack? D. Youre concerned when you think about how this will change yourlife? Rationale: The response should be attune to the feelings of sadness anddejection as well as the content of the patients statement. D.What questions would youask to determine his coping abilities? A. What could Continue reading >>

Test: Bstrandable Nclex Miscellaneous 6 | Quizlet

Test: Bstrandable Nclex Miscellaneous 6 | Quizlet

What drugs are given to prevent a thyroid storm? When the nurse describes a client as "that nasty old man in 354," the nurse is exhibiting which of the following? 81.In addition to prevention of pregnancy, oral contraceptives would provide benefits for a client with which of the following problems? Pelvic inflammatory disease Severe facial acne Chloasma Gallbladder diseaseContinue reading >>

Physiology, Acid Base Balance

Physiology, Acid Base Balance

1 Lincoln Memorial University- Debusk COM To maintain homeostasis, the human body employs many physiological adaptations. One of these is maintaining an acid-base balance. In the absence of pathological states, the pH of the human body ranges between 7.35 to 7.45, with the average at 7.40. Why this number? Why not a neutral number of 7.0 instead of a slightly alkaline 7.40? A pH at this level is ideal for many biological processes, one of the most important being the oxygenation of blood. Also, many of the intermediates of biochemical reactions in the body become ionized at a neutral pH, which causes the utilization of these intermediates to be more difficult. A pH below 7.35 is an acidemia,and a pH above 7.45 is an alkalemia. Due to the importance of sustaining a pH level in the needed narrow range, the human body contains compensatory mechanisms. This discussion intends to impart a basic understanding of acid-base balance in the body while providing a systematic way to approach patients who present with conditions causing alterations in pH. The human body experiences four main types of acid-baseddisorders: metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, respiratory acidosis, and respiratory alkalosis. If one of these conditions occurs, the human body should induce a counterbalance in the form of an opposite condition. For example, if a person is experiencing a metabolic acidemia, their body will attempt to induce a respiratory alkalosis to compensate. It is rare for the compensation to make the pH completely normal at 7.4. When using the term acidemia or alkalemia, one is denoting that overall the pH is acidic or alkalotic, respectively. While not necessary, it can be useful to employ this terminology to distinguish between individual processes and the overall pH status of Continue reading >>

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