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How Do The Kidneys Compensate Respiratory Acidosis Quizlet

Res 140

Res 140

Res 140 ex 3 Question Answer Correction of metabolic alkalosis may involve which of the following? D) I, II, and III I. Restoring normal fluid volume II. Administering acidifying agents III. Restoring normal K+ and Cl– levels In order to eliminate the influence of PCO2 changes on plasma HCO3- concentrations, what additional measures of the metabolic component of acid-base balance can be used? D) Standard bicarbonate Which organ system actually excretes H+ from the body? A) Kidneys An ABG result shows the pH to be 7.56 and the HCO3- to be 23 mEq/L. Which of the following is the most likely disorder? D) Respiratory alkalosis What compensates for a metabolic alkalosis? B) Hypoventilation Based on the following ABG results, what is the most likely acid-base diagnosis? pH = 7.43, PCO2 = 39 mm Hg, HCO3- = 25.1 mEq/L A) Acid-base status within normal limits. What explains the lack of an increased anion gap seen in metabolic acidosis caused by HCO3- loss? A) For each HCO3- ion lost, a Cl- ion is reabsorbed by the kidney. Based on the following ABG results, what is the most likely acid-base diagnosis? pH = 7.08, PCO2 = 39 mm Hg, HCO3- = 11.8 mEq/L A) Acute metabolic acidosis What affect does hyperventilation have on the closed buffer systems? B) Causes them to release more H+. A patient has a confirmed metabolic acidosis with a normal PCO2. What inference can you draw from these findings? A) A ventilatory disorder must coexist. What drives the bicarbonate buffer systems enormous ability to buffer acids? D) Ventilation continually removing CO2 from system. Based on the following ABG results, what is the most likely acid-base diagnosis? pH = 7.38, PCO2 = 21 mm Hg, HCO3- = 11.7 mEq/L B) Fully compensated metabolic acidosis With partially compensated respiratory alkalosis, which o Continue reading >>

Chapter 27: Fluids, Electrolytes, Ph Balance

Chapter 27: Fluids, Electrolytes, Ph Balance

Chapter 27: Fluids, Electrolytes, Ph Balance Chapter 27: Fluids, Electrolytes, Ph Balance If dehydration develops, solute concentration in the extracellular fluid ___________, causing water to move ____________ the intracellular fluid and ___________ the extracellular fluid. The respiratory system influences the acid-base balance by utilizing the In order to increase blood pH, which of the following occurs? - An antiport mechanism secretes H+ into the filtrate in exchange for Na+ from the filtrate - HCO3- binds with H+ in the capillaries, decreasing the H+ concentration - The secretion of H+ into the filtrate increases and an antiport mechanism secretes H+ into the filtrate in exchange for Na+ from the filtrate - An antiport mechanism secretes H+ into the filtrate in exchange for Na+ from the filtrate and HCO3- binds with H+ in the capillaries, decreasing the H+ concentration The ____________ fluid compartment of the body consists of all of the fluid inside the cells, while the ______________ fluid compartment consists of fluid outside the cells, such as interstitial fluid and plasma. - osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus to shrink _____ is the most significant solute in determining the distribution of water among fluid compartments Women have a tendency to retain water during part of the menstrual cycle because estrogen mimics the action of _________. The major chemical buffers systems of the body are the ___ systems. When the renal tubules secrete hydrogen ions into the tubular fluid, they ___ at the same time. The pH of the intracellular fluid is buffered mainly by The bicarbonate buffer system would not work very well in the human body if not for the action of the respiratory system, which expels CO2 produced by the buffer system. In acidosis, the membrane potential Continue reading >>

Med Surg Test 2 Nclex

Med Surg Test 2 Nclex

1. The nurse assesses a patient with shortness of breath for evidence of long-standing hypoxemia by inspecting:A. Chest excursionB. Spinal curvaturesC. The respiratory patternD. The fingernail and its base D. The fingernail and its baseClubbing, a sign of long-standing hypoxemia, is evidenced by an increase in the angle between the base of the nail and the fingernail to 180 degrees or more, usually accompanied by an increase in the depth, bulk, and sponginess of the end of the finger. 2. The nurse is caring for a patient with COPD and pneumonia who has an order for arterial blood gases to be drawn. Which of the following is the minimum length of time the nurse should plan to hold pressure on the puncture site?A. 2 minutesB. 5 minutesC. 10 minutesD. 15 minutes B. 5 minutesFollowing obtaining an arterial blood gas, the nurse should hold pressure on the puncture site for 5 minutes by the clock to be sure that bleeding has stopped. An artery is an elastic vessel under higher pressure than veins, and significant blood loss or hematoma formation could occur if the time is insufficient. 3. The nurse notices clear nasal drainage in a patient newly admitted with facial trauma, including a nasal fracture. The nurse should:A. test the drainage for the presence of glucose.B. suction the nose to maintain airway clearance.C. document the findings and continue monitoring.D. apply a drip pad and reassure the patient this is normal. A. test the drainage for the presence of glucose.Clear nasal drainage suggests leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The drainage should be tested for the presence of glucose, which would indicate the presence of CSF. 4. When caring for a patient who is 3 hours postoperative laryngectomy, the nurse's highest priority assessment would be:A. Airway patencyB. Continue reading >>

Remembered3 Quizlet

Remembered3 Quizlet

1. A 12 yo patient would still havewhich primary teeth:K, TC, HB, I S, L 2. Actinomycosis is an infectioncaused by what? 3. Actinomycosis is oftenassociated with what? 4. All of the following come from thedental sac except? 5. The anterior of the left and rightventricles are necrosed. Whatartery is blocked? Anteriorinterventricular artery(aka left anteriordescending artery) 6. The azygos causes an impressionon what? 7. Blastomycosis is an infectioncaused by what? 8. A bullet entering between teh 7thand 8th intercostal ribs wouldpierce which lobe of the lung? 10. Can Rubella be transmitted frommother to fetus? YES It is associated withcongential anomalies 11. Can Rubella be transmitted frommother to fetus? YES It is associated withcongenital anomalies RIGHT SIDEEnlargement of RV commonly fromPulmonary HTNDoes not involve leftside of heart 14. Clinical case: a bullet hit the headabove the ear and came out ofwhere? 16. The connection of fluoride information of hydroxyappatite causeswhat changes in crystals and how isthe solubility affected by acid? Crystals becomediscolored. FluorideLOWERS thesolubilityconstant makingit less soluble inacid 17. Damage to the right condyle willcause deviation to which side? 18. Describe emphysema. Decreasedelasticity Increased lungvolume Barrel chest*Collapse ofalveolar wallswith loss ofdiffusionalsurface area 19. Detergents kill bacteria by interferingwith the function of what cellstructure? Cell membrane(specifically thefatty parts) 20. Do canines have mamelons? NO!21. Dysgeusia can be caused by what? Xerostomia22. Each of the following structures lies between the hyoglossus and themylohyoid muscles EXCEPT one. 23. Esophageal varices are commonlyseen in what? 24. Failure of the left ptyergoid musclecauses the mandible to deviate towhat si Continue reading >>

My Jurney : Crne Cgfns

My Jurney : Crne Cgfns

Case Study : Grace, age 18 years, isscheduled for a cholecystectomy. Questions 1 and 2 relate to this scenario. A. After the nurse completes the preoperative teaching, Gracestates, If I lie still and avoid turning, I will avoid pain. Do you think thisis a good idea? What is the nurses best response? A.It is always a good idea to restquietly after surgery. B.You need to turn from side to sideevery 2 hours. C.The doctor will probably order youto lie flat for 24 hours D.Why dont you decide aboutactivity after your return from the recovery room? Rationale: To prevent venous stasis and improve muscle tone,circulation, and respiratory function, the client should be encouraged to movearound after surgery. Pain medication will be administered to permit movement. B.Grace hasreturned from the operating room. When assessing her respiratory status as sherecovers from general anaesthesia, it is of primary importance for the nurse toevaluate the patients ability to: Rationale: Anaesthesia interferes with the gag reflex until the gagreflex returns, the patient cannot swallow without a risk of aspiration. Case study:As a nurse,you are taking care of Mr. Denny, age 59 years, who has been admitted with amyocardial infarction.Questions 3 to 6 related to this scenario. C.You observe that Mr. Dennyis very sad and dejected. He states, Life will never be the same. How wouldyou respond to him? B. Why do you think life will never be the same? C. Could you b a little more hopeful of your recover from thisheart attack? D. Youre concerned when you think about how this will change yourlife? Rationale: The response should be attune to the feelings of sadness anddejection as well as the content of the patients statement. D.What questions would youask to determine his coping abilities? A. What could Continue reading >>

Full Text Of

Full Text Of "i Am Joe's Body - J. D. Ratcliffe"

I AM JOES BODY J.D.RADCLIFF (A popular science classic - the most successful series every printed in the history of the Readers Digest. Over seven million reprints of these articles were sold!) Foreword Your body undoubtedly, the grandest and most complex machine ever built. It is also the most familiar each one of us lives with his model every moment of his life. Yet most of us take our bodies far too much for granted we don't think twice about them unless something goes wrong. Naturally, we pay a price for such ignorance: by remaining unaware of the marvels of the human body, we fail to appreciate our own magnificence. And even more importantly, there's little question that a knowledge of one's body, its various organs and systems and how they work can be used to maintain health and fitness and thus prolong our enjoyment of our lives The book you're holding is being brought out to dispel precisely this ignorance. Of course it does not pretend to be an exhaustive survey of the human body and the problems it is prone to. That would require a small library of solemn tomes. Our aim is more modest: to introduce you to the most important parts and systems of your body, to some of the more common ailments that afflict it and what you can do about them. As always with the Digest the articles here are thoroughly researched and vividly written, thus providing you with authoritative and up-to-date information presented in a way that you can enjoy and understand. Its a book to read, keep and refer to, again and again. Contents: The book comprises of 33 articles by J D Ratcliff, which formed the most well known series in the history of the Readers Digest magazine. Each article introduces the organs and tissues present in the bodies of Joe and Jane - a typical couple. CELL BRAIN H Continue reading >>

Test: Bstrandable Nclex Miscellaneous 6 | Quizlet

Test: Bstrandable Nclex Miscellaneous 6 | Quizlet

What drugs are given to prevent a thyroid storm? When the nurse describes a client as "that nasty old man in 354," the nurse is exhibiting which of the following? 81.In addition to prevention of pregnancy, oral contraceptives would provide benefits for a client with which of the following problems? Pelvic inflammatory disease Severe facial acne Chloasma Gallbladder diseaseContinue reading >>

Acid-base Balance Flashcards | Quizlet

Acid-base Balance Flashcards | Quizlet

occurs when there is an excess of any body acid, except H2CO3 (carbonic acid) what are the two causes of metabolic acidosis? excess acid production can occur as a result of many conditions. what conditions? (4) -diabetic ketacidocis from total absence of insulin in the body -lactic acidosis,lack of oxygen in the tissues which cause production of lactic acid in tissues -kidney diseases, which prevent elimination of acid in the body how excess acid can appear in extracellular fluids? (amount of what where) explain what happens as result of these concentrations -as excess of K+ into cells, H+ comes out -excessive diarrhea, which causes the lose of bicarbonate, which is plentiful in intestinal fluid what happens in emphysema? how affect plasma? -alveolar walls disintegrate over time, producing large air spaces that remain filled with gases during expiration -This condition reduces the surface area in the lung available for exchange of O2 and CO2 -As a result of this process, CO2 becomes trapped in the alveoli and plasma levels of CO2 rise what is the cause of respiratory alkalosis? (2) b. elimination of too much CO2 or build up of CO2 in the body Respiratory alkalosis occurs whe too much CO2 is eliminated form the body because of hyperventilation acidosis 2 reasons? (think about levels of H+, base, HCO3-) alkalosis 2 reasons? (think about levels of H+, base, HCO3-) b. urinary reabsorption and generation of HCO3- cause of acidosis? (respiratory related, what rises) -defective exchange of gases in the lungs chemical equation for reaction between CO2 and H2O As a result of respiration alkalosis, which direction will this reaction go? the equilibrium reaction shifts to the left as CO2 is blown off which of the following would be observed in simple, uncompensated respiratory al Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory acidosis is a medical emergency in which decreased ventilation (hypoventilation) increases the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and decreases the blood's pH (a condition generally called acidosis). Carbon dioxide is produced continuously as the body's cells respire, and this CO2 will accumulate rapidly if the lungs do not adequately expel it through alveolar ventilation. Alveolar hypoventilation thus leads to an increased PaCO2 (a condition called hypercapnia). The increase in PaCO2 in turn decreases the HCO3−/PaCO2 ratio and decreases pH. Terminology[edit] Acidosis refers to disorders that lower cell/tissue pH to < 7.35. Acidemia refers to an arterial pH < 7.36.[1] Types of respiratory acidosis[edit] Respiratory acidosis can be acute or chronic. In acute respiratory acidosis, the PaCO2 is elevated above the upper limit of the reference range (over 6.3 kPa or 45 mm Hg) with an accompanying acidemia (pH <7.36). In chronic respiratory acidosis, the PaCO2 is elevated above the upper limit of the reference range, with a normal blood pH (7.35 to 7.45) or near-normal pH secondary to renal compensation and an elevated serum bicarbonate (HCO3− >30 mm Hg). Causes[edit] Acute[edit] Acute respiratory acidosis occurs when an abrupt failure of ventilation occurs. This failure in ventilation may be caused by depression of the central respiratory center by cerebral disease or drugs, inability to ventilate adequately due to neuromuscular disease (e.g., myasthenia gravis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Guillain–Barré syndrome, muscular dystrophy), or airway obstruction related to asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation. Chronic[edit] Chronic respiratory acidosis may be secondary to many disorders, including COPD. Hypoventilation Continue reading >>

Anps 20 Lab #10

Anps 20 Lab #10

Sort e Compensation of metabolic alkalosis includes which of the following? a. retaining carbon dioxide through the respiratory system b. conserving bicarbonate ion in the renal system c. excreting bicarbonate ion in the renal system d. conserving bicarbonate ion in the renal system and retaining carbon dioxide through the respiratory system e. excreting bicarbonate ion in the renal system and retaining carbon dioxide through the respiratory system Continue reading >>

How Do The Kidneys Compensate Respiratory Acidosis Quizlet

How Do The Kidneys Compensate Respiratory Acidosis Quizlet

How Do The Kidneys Compensate Respiratory Acidosis Quizlet ian1051gt 8 months ago News diabetes How Do The Kidneys Compensate Respiratory Acidosis Quizlet Chapter 8: Acid-base Imbalances Multiple Choice Because the blood pH is acidic, the condition is an uncompensated state of acidosis. A fruity, acetone smell to the breath likely indicates the presence of ketones. People with type I diabetes may begin to form elevated levels of ketones in certain situations. Ketones are acidic, leading to Carl's state of uncompensated metabolic acidosis. Read each clinical scenario and then drag and drop the suspected acid-base imbalance that is best exemplified by that scenario. May was diagnosed with COPD 7 years ago. She presents with rapid respirations, cyanosis, and tachycardia. She recently had an upper respiratory infection. Her blood pH is acidic. Medical intervention, including respiratory stimulants and bronchodilators, helps stabilize May's breathing and arterial blood gases. Blood pH returns to the normal range. May's symptoms, lab findings and history point to ______________________. In this case, as blood pH has returned to the normal range, the acid-base disorder would be considered as "compensated." Initial pH was listed as acidic and issues such as recent upper respiratory infection and prior COPD diagnosis point to a respiratory condition. Taking all of this into account, Miche Continue reading >> Hello everyone. I am on ketogenic diet for 2 months. I am not diabetic. My body mass index is 24.7 and my health is very good. I chose the ketogenic diet because I am convinced that this is the healthiest one. But for the last week or so I start by curiosity check my blood sugar and I am really surprised. Just let me tell you I am in full keto adaptation and my blood ketone Continue reading >>

Shared Flashcard Set

Shared Flashcard Set

Details Title patho test 4 Description patho test 4 Total Cards 296 Subject Biology Level Undergraduate 2 Created 03/31/2014 Click here to study/print these flashcards. Create your own flash cards! Sign up here. Additional Biology Flashcards Cards Term What happens in the lungs when the diaphragm relaxes? a. Air is forced out of the lungs. b. Lung volume increases. c. Intrapulmonic pressure decreases. d. Intrapleural pressure decreases. Definition a Term The respiratory mucosa is continuous through the: 1. upper and lower respiratory tracts 2. nasal cavities and the sinuses 3. nasopharynx and oropharynx 4. middle ear cavity and auditory tube a. 1 only b. 1, 2 c. 2, 3 d. 1, 3, 4 e. 1, 2, 3, 4 Definition e Term Which of the following activities does NOT require muscle contractions and energy? a. quiet inspiration b. forced inspiration c. quiet expiration d. forced expiration Definition c Term The maximum volume of air a person can exhale after a maximum inspiration is termed the: a. expiratory reserve volume b. inspiratory reserve volume c. total lung capacity d. vital capacity Definition d Term Which of the following applies to the blood in the pulmonary artery? a. PCO2 is low. b. PO2 is low. c. Hydrostatic pressure is very high. d. It is flowing into the left atrium. Definition b Term Which of the following causes bronchodilation? a. epinephrine b. histamine c. parasympathetic nervous system d. drugs that block beta-2 adrenergic receptors Definition a Term The central chemoreceptors are normally most sensitive to: a. low oxygen level b. low concentration of hydrogen ions c. elevated oxygen level d. elevated carbon dioxide level Definition d Term 97. Which of the following individuals is NOT considered to be at high risk for developing active tuberculosis? a. homeless in Continue reading >>

Response To Disturbances

Response To Disturbances

Chemistry Acid Base Response to disturbances The body tries to minimize pH changes and responds to acid-base disturbances with body buffers, compensatory responses by the lungs and kidney (to metabolic and respiratory disturbances, respectively) and by the kidney correcting metabolic disturbances. Body buffers:There are intracellular and extracellular buffers for primaryrespiratory and metabolic acid-base disturbances. Intracellular buffers include hemoglobin in erythrocytes and phosphates in all cells. Extracellular buffers are carbonate (HCO3) and non-carbonate (e.g. protein, bone) buffers. These immediately buffer the rise or fall in H+. Compensation: This involves responses by the respiratory tract and kidney to primary metabolic and respiratory acid-base disturbances, respectively.Compensation opposes the primary disturbance, although the laboratory changes in the compensatory response parallel those in the primary response. This concept is illustrated in the summary below. Respiratory compensation for a primary metabolic disturbance: Alterations in alveolar ventilation occurs in response to primarymetabolic acid-base disturbances. This begins within minutes to hours of an acute primary metabolic disturbance. Note that complete compensation via this mechanism may take up to 24 hours. Renal compensation for a primary respiratory disturbance:Here, the kidney alters excretion of acid (which influences bases as well) in response to primaryrespiratory disturbances. This begins within hours of an acute respiratory disturbance, but take several days (3-5 days) to take full effect. Correction of acid-base changes:Correction of a primary respiratory acid-base abnormality usually requires medical or surgical intervention of the primary problem causing the acid-base disturba Continue reading >>

Compensation In Acid/base Imbalances

Compensation In Acid/base Imbalances

Respiratory compensation for metabolic acidosis (HNC excess) produces systemic hypocapnia (low PCO2). CO2 diffuses from CSF to the body causing the CSF pH to increase. This reduces the central chemoreceptor-stimulated ventilation, partly off-setting the increased stimulation of the peripheral chemoreceptors caused by the low arterial pH. Ventilatory stimulation (low arterial pH acting on peripheral chemoreceptors) Ventilatory inhibition (high CSF pH acting on the central chemoreceptor). What is the overall effect of the ventilatory stimulation and ventilatory inhibition? Respiratory compensation stops short of completely correcting the pH. Respiratory compensation cannot fully restore pH, but the kidney can (for metabolic acidosis anyway). For each H+ that is excreted in the urine (after all of the filtered HCO3- has been reabsorbed), and during ammonia production, new HCO3- enters the body. This added HCO3- titrates excess H+ and over 3 to 4 days the added HCO3- restores pH to 7.4. Renal Compensation Seen on Davenport nomogram Trajectory is along the RC line because as HCO3- is slowly added the pH changes, reducing the stimulation of the respiratory system. Summary of Renal Compensation and Respiratory Compensation PCO2 changes back to normal (renal and respiratory compensation working at the same time) pH and HCO3- change back to normal by sliding up or down the RC line in the Davenport nomogram We can estimate the amount of NC acid that caused a metabolic acidosis by seeing how much HCO3-, HB-, and other NC bases would be needed to fix the problem completely. Also, We can estimate the amount of base needed to restore pH back to normal by hypothetically continuing respiratory compensation. How is base excess/deficit measured on the Davenport nomogram? Base deficit an Continue reading >>

Acid-base Disorders Flashcards | Quizlet

Acid-base Disorders Flashcards | Quizlet

-accomplished by substances in blood buffering the pH (soaking up H+) *bicarbonate (5%, but most physiologically important) what are two ways to get acid out of the body? -pee it out through renal excretion as H+ *diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis (Increased AG) *diarrhea, renal failure (no change in AG( how does the body compensate for metabolic acidosis? *lungs compensate by increasing respiration (blowing off CO2) *kidneys compensate by excreting more H+ (minimal effect compared to the lungs) -the total concentration of positive molecules (Na+, K+) minus the total concentration of negative molecules (CL-, HCO3-) -many normal minor negative molecules are not counted, which collectively add up -many abnormal molecules have a negative charge (lactic acid, ketones), so there are more positive charges in the calculation and the anion gap increases how does the body compensate for respiratory alkalosis? -kidneys excrete HCO3- and decrease H+ excretion -compensatory abilities of the lung are 100 times greater than the kidney -compensation by both lungs and kidneys takes a while to kick in -in acute stages, you will see relatively large abnormalities of pH -as compensation occurs the pH will return closer to normal, but other values will be abnormal still until the underlying problem is fixed what condition does this describe: decreased pH and increased pCO2 what condition does this describe: decreased pH and decreased pCO2 what condition does this describe: increased pH and decreased pCO2 what condition does this describe: increased pH and increased pCO2 what happens to pH, pCO2 and pO2 at high altitude? -oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin -when there is acidosis, increased amounts of extracellular H+ diffuses into the cells and K+ ions c Continue reading >>

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