How Do The Kidneys Compensate For Metabolic Acidosis?

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Respiratory acidosis #sign and symptoms of Respiratory acidosis Respiratory acidosis ABGs Analyse https://youtu.be/L5MWy1iHacI Plz share n subscribe my chanel is a condition that occurs when the lungs cant remove enough of the Suctioning https://youtu.be/hMJGkxvXTW0 carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the body. Excess CO2 causes the pH of blood and other bodily fluids to decrease, making them too acidic. Normally, the body is able to balance the ions that control acidity. This balance is measured on a pH scale from 0 to 14. Acidosis occurs when the pH of the blood falls below 7.35 (normal blood pH is between 7.35 and 7.45).Rinku Chaudhary NSG officer AMU ALIGARH https://www.facebook.com/rinkutch/ Respiratory acidosis is typically caused by an underlying disease or condition. This is also called respiratory failure or ventilatory failure. Suctioning https://youtu.be/hMJGkxvXTW0 Normally, the lungs take in oxygen and exhale CO2. Oxygen passes from the lungs into the blood. CO2 passes from the blood into the lungs. However, sometimes the lungs cant remove enough CO2. This may be due to a decrease in respiratory rate or decrease in air movement due to an underlying condition such as: asthma COPD pneumonia sleep apnea TYPES Forms of respiratory acidosis There are two forms of respiratory acidosis: acute and chronic. Acute respiratory acidosis occurs quickly. Its a medical emergency. Left untreated, symptoms will get progressively worse. It can become life-threatening. Chronic respiratory acidosis develops over time. It doesnt cause symptoms. Instead, the body adapts to the increased acidity. For example, the kidneys produce more bicarbonate to help maintain balance. Chronic respiratory acidosis may not cause symptoms. Developing another illness may cause chronic respiratory acidosis to worsen and become acute respiratory acidosis. SYMPTOMS Symptoms of respiratory acidosis Initial signs of acute respiratory acidosis include: headache anxiety blurred vision restlessness confusion Without treatment, other symptoms may occur. These include: https://www.healthline.com/health/res... sleepiness or fatigue lethargy delirium or confusion shortness of breath coma The chronic form of respiratory acidosis doesnt typically cause any noticeable symptoms. Signs are subtle and nonspecific and may include: memory loss sleep disturbances personality changes CAUSES Common causes of respiratory acidosis The lungs and the kidneys are the major organs that help regulate your bloods pH. The lungs remove acid by exhaling CO2, and the kidneys excrete acids through the urine. The kidneys also regulate your bloods concentration of bicarbonate (a base). Respiratory acidosis is usually caused by a lung disease or condition that affects normal breathing or impairs the lungs ability to remove CO2. Some common causes of the chronic form are: asthma chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) acute pulmonary edema severe obesity (which can interfere with expansion of the lungs) neuromuscular disorders (such as multiple sclerosis or muscular dystrophy) scoliosis Some common causes of the acute form are: lung disorders (COPD, emphysema, asthma, pneumonia) conditions that affect the rate of breathing muscle weakness that affects breathing or taking a deep breath obstructed airways (due to choking or other causes) sedative overdose cardiac arrest DIAGNOSIS How is respiratory acidosis diagnosed? The goal of diagnostic tests for respiratory acidosis is to look for any pH imbalance, to determine the severity of the imbalance, and to determine the condition causing the imbalance. Several tools can help doctors diagnose respiratory acidosis. Blood gas measurement Blood gas is a series of tests used to measure oxygen and CO2 in the blood. A healthcare provider will take a sample of blood from your artery. High levels of CO2 can indicate acidosis.

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory acidosis is an acid-base balance disturbance due to alveolar hypoventilation. Production of carbon dioxide occurs rapidly and failure of ventilation promptly increases the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2). [ 1 ] The normal reference range for PaCO2 is 35-45 mm Hg. Alveolar hypoventilation leads to an increased PaCO2 (ie, hypercapnia). The increase in PaCO2, in turn, decreases the bicarbonate (HCO3)/PaCO2 ratio, thereby decreasing the pH. Hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis ensue when impairment in ventilation occurs and the removal of carbon dioxide by the respiratory system is less than the production of carbon dioxide in the tissues. Lung diseases that cause abnormalities in alveolar gas exchange do not typically result in alveolar hypoventilation. Often these diseases stimulate ventilation and hypocapnia due to reflex receptors and hypoxia. Hypercapnia typically occurs late in the disease process with severe pulmonary disease or when respiratory muscles fatigue. (See also Pediatric Respiratory Acidosis , Metabolic Acidosis , and Pediatric Metabolic Acidosis .) Respiratory acidosis can be acute or chronic. In acute respiratory acidosis, the PaCO2 Continue reading >>

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  1. sarahinparis

    I went away for my anniversary weekend with my husband and had several excellent gourmet meals, including bread and several desserts. I hadn't touched bread for over 9 weeks, and had only had a bite or two of dessert in all that time.
    I knew I'd put myself right back on plan after the weekend, and I have, but i wanted to know how long should I expect the carb-related water retention to remain after a few days off? How long to get back into ketosis?

  2. JerseyGyrl

    There is no one size fits all answer to that question. Everyone's body is different...but...typically, 2-3 days.

  3. Shen

    When I fell out of ketosis with a chicken quesadilla (63g carbs or something like that) my ketone levels were back up within 2 days. (I added some extra exercise too).

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The Pharmacotherapy Preparatory Review Recertification Course Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders PDF at https://www.mediafire.com/view/8kucuu...

Metabolic Acidosis - Endocrine And Metabolic Disorders - Merck Manuals Professional Edition

(Video) Overview of Acid-Base Maps and Compensatory Mechanisms By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending Physician, Brookwood Baptist Health and Saint Vincent’s Ascension Health, Birmingham Metabolic acidosis is primary reduction in bicarbonate (HCO3−), typically with compensatory reduction in carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pco2); pH may be markedly low or slightly subnormal. Metabolic acidoses are categorized as high or normal anion gap based on the presence or absence of unmeasured anions in serum. Causes include accumulation of ketones and lactic acid, renal failure, and drug or toxin ingestion (high anion gap) and GI or renal HCO3− loss (normal anion gap). Symptoms and signs in severe cases include nausea and vomiting, lethargy, and hyperpnea. Diagnosis is clinical and with ABG and serum electrolyte measurement. The cause is treated; IV sodium bicarbonate may be indicated when pH is very low. Metabolic acidosis is acid accumulation due to Increased acid production or acid ingestion Acidemia (arterial pH < 7.35) results when acid load overwhelms respiratory compensation. Causes are classified by their effect on the anion gap (see The Anion Gap and see Table: Causes of Metab Continue reading >>

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  1. cz_dave

    I have been on LCHF and in ketosis for about a month now.
    I am quite pleased with the results in general, though still struggling with how to handle exercise (especially anaerobic), for instance.
    Now, the question is: Is the ketogenic diet sustainable? I would think there must be a reason why the body prefers burning glucose to fats. And so, I wonder if any side effects caused by being in ketosis in the long term will outweigh the improved BS control. I would think that ketosis is kind of an emergency scenario for human metabolism....
    Anyone who has been in ketosis for a long period of time?

  2. robert72

    I've been in ketosis for about 2 years - haven't noticed any side effects (apart from very stable blood sugars).

  3. GeoffersTaylor

    I take the view that my ability to metabolise glucose is severely compromised and so I must revert to ketosis. That is now a given so after that the chips fall where they may.

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(Visit: http://www.uctv.tv/) Eve Van Cauter, Professor of Medicine at the University of Chicago, directs the the Sleep, Metabolism and Health Center. She explores how sleep loss and poor sleep quality are risk factors for obesity and diabetes. Series: "UCSF Center for Obesity Assessment, Study and Treatment" [12/2012] [Health and Medicine] [Show ID: 24581]

Response To Disturbances

The body tries to minimize pH changes and responds to acid-base disturbances with body buffers, compensatory responses by the lungs and kidney (to metabolic and respiratory disturbances, respectively) and by the kidney correcting metabolic disturbances. Body buffers: There are intracellular and extracellular buffers for primary respiratory and metabolic acid-base disturbances. Intracellular buffers include hemoglobin in erythrocytes and phosphates in all cells. Extracellular buffers are carbonate (HCO3–) and non-carbonate (e.g. protein, bone) buffers. These immediately buffer the rise or fall in H+. Compensation: This involves responses by the respiratory tract and kidney to primary metabolic and respiratory acid-base disturbances, respectively. Compensation opposes the primary disturbance, although the laboratory changes in the compensatory response parallel those in the primary response. This concept is illustrated in the summary below. Respiratory compensation for a primary metabolic disturbance: Alterations in alveolar ventilation occurs in response to primary metabolic acid-base disturbances. This begins within minutes to hours of an acute primary metabolic disturbance. Note Continue reading >>

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  1. JKat

    I had a great first week or so then got my period. My mood was aweful and I was hungry constantly. I did over eat a couple times but kept it to nuts and peanut butter. My cravings came flooding back and it surprised me... Does anyone else have trouble. I am permetapausal and my hormones seem to be all over the place during my period. It's like the bottom drops out. I have been journaling regularly so I know there is this 7-10 days that I am really off mood and appetite. I am curious about others or any advice. I a still trying to find my way. I am thinking about trying Judd with NK.
    Thank you for your thoughts. Jodi

  2. SweetMe678

    Oh yes! I have started calling it shark week. The cravings are insane some days. So I've decided.
    A. Not to weight, even if I'm faithful I normally don't lose. This way I'm not discouraged if I don't see a scale change.
    B. To just eat general low carb, and to plan some chocolatey lc desserts and snacks. For some reason my biggest craving is chocolate and creamy. Followed by salty and crunchy.
    In the last year I've started having some premenopausal symptoms as well. So I really sympathize. What used to be pms, is now shark week!
    I'd rather just eat too much lc foods, rather than give into other things and kick myself out of ketosis completely.

  3. MerryKate


    Originally Posted by JKat
    Does anyone else have trouble. I am permetapausal and my hormones seem to be all over the place during my period. It's like the bottom drops out. Ketosis is very much effected by hormone swings, so be kind to yourself - don't get weighed that week, and don't bother testing your ketones. Just stick to the plan as much as possible, and know a few slips along the way will not do you in, as long as you get back to NK when you can.
    I'm also in perimenopause and was starting to think I'd never lose weight again. I had to cut out dairy, limit my nut consumption, and start intermittent fasting (eating only between 1-9 p.m. each day) to get things moving again.
    Something that helps me a great deal is using progesterone cream. Because your body stores excess estrogen in fat cells, weight loss leads to excess estrogen in the bloodstream. When the levels of estrogen & progesterone are seriously out of balance, you get a whole host of fun symptoms, and moodiness, the munchies, and difficulty losing weight are among them. Using progesterone cream during the second half of your cycle can help balance that extra estrogen.
    Be sure to add anti-estrogenic foods to your plan, like chia seeds, cruciferous veggies (cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts, etc.), green leafy vegetables, fermented foods, onions and garlic. The fermented foods are especially important, since a healthy gut helps flush away the excess estrogen.
    I hope things start looking up for you soon!

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