How Do Kidneys Respond To Acidosis?

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Acid-base Balance

pH, Buffers, Acids, and Bases Acids dissociate into H+ and lower pH, while bases dissociate into OH− and raise pH; buffers can absorb these excess ions to maintain pH. Learning Objectives Explain the composition of buffer solutions and how they maintain a steady pH Key Takeaways A basic solution will have a pH above 7.0, while an acidic solution will have a pH below 7.0. Buffers are solutions that contain a weak acid and its a conjugate base; as such, they can absorb excess H+ ions or OH– ions, thereby maintaining an overall steady pH in the solution. pH is equal to the negative logarithm of the concentration of H+ ions in solution: pH = −log[H+]. Key Terms alkaline: having a pH greater than 7; basic acidic: having a pH less than 7 buffer: a solution composed of a weak acid and its conjugate base that can be used to stabilize the pH of a solution Self-Ionization of Water Hydrogen ions are spontaneously generated in pure water by the dissociation (ionization) of a small percentage of water molecules into equal numbers of hydrogen (H+) ions and hydroxide (OH−) ions. The hydroxide ions remain in solution because of their hydrogen bonds with other water molecules; the hydrogen Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. esop

    I purchased both a CVS branded glucose monitor and an Precision xtra glucose monitor.
    While waiting for amazon to deliver the Precision extra I started testing with the one from CVS.
    The tests from the CVS brand had my glucose ranging from the low 70's to the mid 80's. That's great right?
    However, when I started testing with the Precision extra my numbers were 30 points higher! After using a third monitor I borrowed from a friend I decided that the CVS branded monitor is wrong. It was giving glucose readings that were too low.

    I thought I was in ketosis since I tested my ketone levels at 1.9 last week before I received glucose strips for the Precision xtra. So I have high fasting blood sugar of 120 and ketones of 1.9. Can someone help me interpret my numbers?

  2. Psc15771

    I'm relatively new to the forum but I've been reading and doing my own n=1 off and on. I believe that ketone levels greater than .5 indicate your body is in ketosis. Fasting blood sugar of 120 would be in the pre-diabetes T2 range. What I've been shooting for and over the last month have been able to achieve with the keto diet is fasting blood sugar less than 100. My ketones have been between 1.4 and 3.5, so I'm in ketosis but I don't believe my body has fully keto adapted yet.

  3. Psc15771

    I've also noticed that the "dawn" phenomenon of my fasting blood sugar being quite a bit more than my bedtime blood sugar is gone. I used to consistently see a 20 - 30 point rise between my bedtime blood sugar and my morning blood sugar.

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What is renal tubular acidosis (RTA)? RTA is a type of metabolic acidosis caused by the kidneys failure to properly acidify the urine. Find more videos at http://osms.it/more. Study better with Osmosis Prime. Retain more of what youre learning, gain a deeper understanding of key concepts, and feel more prepared for your courses and exams. Sign up for a free trial at http://osms.it/more. Subscribe to our Youtube channel at http://osms.it/subscribe. Get early access to our upcoming video releases, practice questions, giveaways and more when you follow us on social: Facebook: http://osms.it/facebook Twitter: http://osms.it/twitter Instagram: http://osms.it/instagram Thank you to our Patreon supporters: Sumant Nanduri Omar Berrios Alex Wright Sabrina Wong Suzanne Peek Arfan Azam Mingli Fng Osmosis's Vision: Empowering the worlds caregivers with the best learning experience possible.

Renal Tubular Acidosis

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a disease that occurs when the kidneys fail to excrete acids into the urine, which causes a person's blood to remain too acidic. Without proper treatment, chronic acidity of the blood leads to growth retardation, kidney stones, bone disease, chronic kidney disease, and possibly total kidney failure. The body's cells use chemical reactions to carry out tasks such as turning food into energy and repairing tissue. These chemical reactions generate acids. Some acid in the blood is normal, but too much acidacidosiscan disturb many bodily functions. Healthy kidneys help maintain acid-base balance by excreting acids into the urine and returning bicarbonatean alkaline, or base, substanceto the blood. This "reclaimed" bicarbonate neutralizes much of the acid that is created when food is broken down in the body. The movement of substances like bicarbonate between the blood and structures in the kidneys is called transport. One researcher has theorized that Charles Dickens may have been describing a child with RTA in the character of Tiny Tim from A Christmas Carol. Tiny Tim's small stature, malformed limbs, and periods of weakness are all possible consequence Continue reading >>

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  1. SteveFerd

    I'm trying to understand what the difference is between all of the above. Many, many years ago, I did Atkins and had good success with that program. I read the getting started and it seems that keto is higher fat than either of the programs I listed. South Beach is lower fat and less restrictive on whole food carbs. Is there an easy to sum up difference between all of these plans?

  2. tsarz

    Keto and Atkins induction (based on the latest Atkins book) are very similar. I would argue that they are essentially the same, but the keto guidelines here on /r/keto and what you see in the Atkins book will vary a bit. They both limit net carbs to about 20 grams, limit protein consumption to a set amount based on sex/height, and leave the rest as fat.
    Paleo is like keto except the carb counts are higher, more like 100 grams depending on what "version" of paleo you're subscribing to. Paleo also tends to focus on foods that were available to our paleolithic ancestors, and so it avoids foods such as dairy and grains. Lacto-paleo is paleo with dairy. The definitions of what paleo means can vary quite a bit.
    I've never read about South Beach.

  3. omfglauren

    South Beach is low carb, low fat

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franchesca Gaviria Herrera

Acid-base Disorders And The Kidney.

In the normal human body, the extracellular fluid pH of 7.40 is closelyprotected. Any increase in acidity or alkalinity summons forth three lines ofdefense, starting immediately with the blood buffers, followed soon by therespiratory system's control of CO2, and finally purged by the renal excretion ofthe excess acid or base. The complex interrelated processes of the renalresponses require a few days to accomplish maximum compensation. We havepresented the fundamental principles governing maintenance of the acid-baseequilibrium to provide a conceptual framework for understanding the clinicaldisorders of hydrogen ion metabolism. The somewhat elusive concepts of endogenousacid production and net acid balance have also been reviewed to help reveal thepathophysiology of metabolic acidosis caused by renal tubular acidosis, chronicrenal failure, certain infant feedings, and total parenteral nutrition. Thedevelopment and perpetuation of metabolic alkalosis in relationship to chlorideand potassium deficiency have been examined. In the delineation of a clinicalacid-base disorder, the clinician must bear in mind the continual interactions ofelectrolytes and hormonal systems and should be pr Continue reading >>

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  1. Christian

    I read conflicting views about whether or not the human body can create glucose out of fat. Can it?

  2. David

    Only about 5–6% of triglyceride (fat) can be converted to glucose in humans.
    This is because triglyceride is made up of one 3-carbon glycerol molecule and three 16- or 18-carbon fatty acids. The glycerol (3/51-to-57 = 5.2–5.9%) can be converted to glucose in the liver by gluconeogenesis (after conversion to dihydroxyacetone phosphate).
    The fatty acid chains, however, are oxidized to acetyl-CoA, which cannot be converted to glucose in humans. Acetyl-CoA is a source of ATP when oxidized in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, but the carbon goes to carbon dioxide. (The molecule of oxaloacetate produced in the cycle only balances the one acetyl-CoA condenses with to enter the cycle, and so cannot be tapped off to gluconeogenesis.)
    So triglyceride is a poor source of glucose in starvation, and that is not its primary function. Some Acetyl-CoA is converted to ketone bodies (acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate) in starvation, which can replace part — but not all — of the brain’s requirement for glucose.
    Plants and some bacteria can convert fatty acids to glucose because they possess the glyoxylate shunt enzymes that allow two molecules of Acetyl-CoA to be converted into malate and then oxaloacetate. This is generally lacking in mammals, although it has been reported in hibernating animals (thanks to @Roland for the last piece of info).

  3. blu potatos

    To be more detailed it is the irreversibly of the reaction carried by Pyruvate dehydrogenase that makes the conversion of the fatty acid chains to glucose impossible. The fatty acids chains are converted to acetyl-CoA.
    Acetyl-CoA to be converted into pyruvate need an enzyme that can do the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase's inverse reaction (in humans there is no such enzyme). Than the pyruvete inside the mitochondria is converted into glucose(gluconeogenesis).

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