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How Do Kidneys Respond To Acidosis?

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Acid-base Disorders And The Kidney.

In the normal human body, the extracellular fluid pH of 7.40 is closelyprotected. Any increase in acidity or alkalinity summons forth three lines ofdefense, starting immediately with the blood buffers, followed soon by therespiratory system's control of CO2, and finally purged by the renal excretion ofthe excess acid or base. The complex interrelated processes of the renalresponses require a few days to accomplish maximum compensation. We havepresented the fundamental principles governing maintenance of the acid-baseequilibrium to provide a conceptual framework for understanding the clinicaldisorders of hydrogen ion metabolism. The somewhat elusive concepts of endogenousacid production and net acid balance have also been reviewed to help reveal thepathophysiology of metabolic acidosis caused by renal tubular acidosis, chronicrenal failure, certain infant feedings, and total parenteral nutrition. Thedevelopment and perpetuation of metabolic alkalosis in relationship to chlorideand potassium deficiency have been examined. In the delineation of a clinicalacid-base disorder, the clinician must bear in mind the continual interactions ofelectrolytes and hormonal systems and should be pr Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. klkateri

    My SO loves Reddit.com and has become enamored with the idea of Keto. I think it's just Atkins in a new package but he also really liked Atkins but only half-a$$ed it so he never really lost the weight. Needless to say, I've done some reading and some research but now I'd like to turn to you all here for some help.
    1. This doesn't seem to me like a "Life Change". It seems to me like something you do to lose weight but then what? Can this really be kept up in the long term?
    2. I do like that in Keto they advocate (At least from the readings I've done) that not all fat is equal and that you just can't eat a pound of bacon but I'm still concerned that high fat leads to high weight, cholesterol, heart disease, etc.
    3. Is this safe for woman... especially those who may want to conceive in the next year or so?
    4. Any success stories out there and would you please share any issues you may have had that you didn't think of/prepare for/even know of before starting this diet?
    Thanks all!!

  2. rinjin86

    I've been on keto for a 1.5 months now, and have also been on reddit a lot for info/advice/support. To answer your questions:
    1. It depends on what you define as a "Life Change". A lot of people on keto who have been on it long term (and I'm talking 10-15 years) see it as a way of life, and it could be a challenge at first, in my opinion, as you need to change how you view food and how you interact with it. Label checking is a habit for me now, for example. From what I have read, a lot of people see the benefits of a keto diet as more than just weight loss - there are whole communities dedicated to body building on keto, people who are on it to control their blood sugar and cholesterol, etc. So can it be a lifestyle? Sure, if you want it to be.
    2. You still need to be careful about the fats you eat, but saturated fat is not the enemy everyone thinks it is. Transfat, however, is. Along that line, Bacon is not an enemy, too.
    3. There has been threads on reddit asking about this, and while I'm not in a position to provide expert advice, there have been women who are on keto and pregnant, and also breastfeeding mothers in keto. I am not sure if there is enough data on keto to say if it is 100% okay for women looking to conceive/pregnant mothers to be on it, but I don't see how it would be bad.
    4. I've lost 8lbs (3kg) on keto so far, the first time I've actually lost weight on a diet. I'm still doing yoga, same as before, although before I started keto, my weight change had always been +/-1kg. I'm also not hungry all the time like I was before, and my mind is clearer. In the past, I've always had problems staying alert and concentrating after lunch, but not anymore. I live in an environment where everyone around has a carb-laden lunch (rice, noodles..), and they'd all get hungry again in 2 hours, but I have found that I stay full till dinner time.
    As for issues - the first 3-4 days were hard, with the cravings and temptations all around me, but I was okay after that. Some people talk about the "keto flu" where your body tries to adjust to the change of the fuel you're giving it, but I've not experienced that. There are also some who complain about smelly urine/BO.
    Hope that helps! I'm sure there are others who will be able to share their experience with you

  3. aeb09

    Hey Op!
    1. This doesn't seem to me like a "Life Change". It seems to me like something you do to lose weight but then what? Can this really be kept up in the long term? **Yes it can be sustained longterm. It is a lifestyle change for pretty much everyone serious about keto, including myself. I have researched people that have done it for 10-15 years with no plans to stop.
    2. I do like that in Keto they advocate (At least from the readings I've done) that not all fat is equal and that you just can't eat a pound of bacon but I'm still concerned that high fat leads to high weight, cholesterol, heart disease, etc. **This is because there is a huge myth that dietary fat = fat body. The government supports a low fat diet and has for years, but for many that is not the best option to losing weight and getting healthy. The NYT just posted this article including a lot of info about saturated fat: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/02/health/low-carb-vs-low-fat-diet.html?ref=health&_r=0 Also my personal favorites "It's Not the Fat": http://authoritynutrition.com/it-aint-the-fat-people/ and "Top 10 Benefits to Low Carb": http://authoritynutrition.com/10-benefits-of-low-carb-ketogenic-diets/
    3. Is this safe for woman... especially those who may want to conceive in the next year or so? **100% yes. This can really help balance hormones in women.
    4. Any success stories out there and would you please share any issues you may have had that you didn't think of/prepare for/even know of before starting this diet? **I've been living a ketogenic lifestyle for 6 months and I've lost 60 pounds. I know someone else who has been doing it a bit over a year and is down 100. There are countless success stories all over MFP and the internet. You need to make sure you drink plenty of water every day. If you detox from glucose (aka carbs and sugar) very quickly (like, 200g of carbs a day down to 20g) you'll probably go through "keto flu" for a few days - low energy, headache, perhaps nausea. It does not last long and once you push through it, you'll feel your energy levels increase tenfold, you'll sleep better and you will begin to be on your way to being fat-adapted.
    Seriously if you have any questions you can message me. I have a lot of resources bookmarked. The FAQs on Reddit is also really helpful: http://www.reddit.com/r/keto/wiki/faq There is also a sub-Reddit for women on keto, too: http://www.reddit.com/r/xxketo

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Anion gap usmle - anion gap metabolic acidosis normal anion gap metabolic acidosis

Acidosis And Alkolosis

The normal pH value for the body fluids is between pH 7.35 and 7.45. When the pH value of body fluids is below 7.35, the condition is called acidosis, and when the pH is above 7.45, it is called alkalosis. Metabolism produces acidic products that lower the pH of the body fluids. For example, carbon dioxide is a by-product of metabolism, and carbon dioxide combines with water to form carbonic acid. Also, lactic acid is a product of anaerobic metabolism, protein metabolism produces phosphoric and sulfuric acids, and lipid metabolism produces fatty acids. These acidic substances must continuously be eliminated from the body to maintain pH homeostasis. Rapid elimination of acidic products of metabolism results in alkalosis, and the failure to eliminate acidic products of metabolism results in acidosis. The major effect of acidosis is depression of the central nervous system. When the pH of the blood falls below 7.35, the central nervous system malfunctions, and the individual becomes disoriented and possibly comatose as the condition worsens. A major effect of alkalosis is hyperexcitability of the nervous system. Peripheral nerves are affected first, resulting in spontaneous nervous s Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Markette

    Today I learned about ketosis.
    Yesterday, Day 15 for me, I had a lady doctor's appointment wherein they collected a urine sample. My ketones were sky high and prompted my doctor -- who I had never seen before -- to tell me he didn't think I was eating well. I laughed, insisted that I eat quite well, and asked him to explain his concern more fully. He explained that ketones indicate I am passing fat, that I'm not eating well, starving. He insisted that I grab a fruit juice on the way home, push fluids the rest of the night, and follow up with my GP. Let me tell you, that much glucose at once felt weird, but who was I to argue with his quite insistent orders?
    After some Google-fu, I found out that that's not exactly what ketones are, or what high ketones in urine means, but close. They're a byproduct of my body burning fat for energy instead of glucose. They are a warning sign if you're a Type I diabetic (I'm not) or have liver issues (I don't know of any) and can be a tell-tale sign of anorexia or starvation or fasting (uh, no), but for folks on low-carb, high-fat diets, they more often indicate that your metabolism has shifted from processing glucose to processing fat for fuel.
    On top of the high ketone level in my urine, I felt terrible all day long. I couldn't sleep the night before, had another base-of-the-neck migraine-like headache, had the chills, and finally vomited around 3am. I chalked it up to the flu or the issue that had brought me to my doctor to begin with, but after further research, I'm wondering if I might actually be transitioning to a ketogenic metabolism and have a touch of the "ketosis flu".
    I'm not much of an athlete these days, and ketosis certainly isn't the goal of my Whole30. I did some quick research on this forum and saw that other ladies -- mainly pregnant ones -- had doctors who were concerned with high ketones while they were Whole30ing. They increased their caloric intake via more starches. So I also decided to tweak my diet even more this round and increase my starch (yams, bananas, squash, etc.) intake and see how I feel.
    I'm seeing my GP next week -- also for the first time -- and I'd like to be able to ask some pointed questions about the paleo diet and ketosis and ketoacidosis, as I'm sure another urinalysis will reveal the same high ketone levels and probably bring similar concerns. I've been strict paleo since 2011, am 114 pounds, 5'4", and have a very low body fat -- I'm not opposed to remaining in ketosis, but am concerned that I don't have a ton of fat on my frame to burn and want to monitor my diet and health responsibly.
    Has anyone else -- especially ladies -- had high ketone levels in their urine? Any precautions I should be aware of? Any tweaks to a Whole30 you'd recommend?

  2. Tina R

    This has been discussed on this forum http://forum.whole9life.com/topic/2737-why-is-nobody-talking-about-ketosis/. Here is a thread that might help. You can also search google "whole30 Ketosis" for other answers on the forum. Good Luck!

  3. kirkor

    Bonus ketosis! Lucky!
    Several of us are aiming for it here.

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Renal Response To Metabolic Acidosis: Role Of Mrna Stabilization

Renal response to metabolic acidosis: Role of mRNA stabilization Hend Ibrahim , Ph.D., Yeon J. Lee , Ph.D., and Norman P. Curthoys , Ph.D. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523-1870 Direct Correspondence to: Dr. Norman P. Curthoys, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campus Delivery 1870, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1870. Phone: (970) 491-3123, FAX: (970) 491-0494, [email protected] The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Kidney Int See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. The renal response to metabolic acidosis is mediated, in part, by increased expression of the genes encoding key enzymes of glutamine catabolism and various ion transporters that contribute to the increased synthesis and excretion of ammonium ions and the net production and release of bicarbonate ions. The resulting adaptations facilitate the excretion of acid and partially restore systemic acid-base balance. Much of this response may be mediated by selective stabilization of the mRNAs that encode the responsive proteins. For example, the glutaminase mRNA cont Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Desley

    Help! I'm frustrated, I'm into my 2nd week on Induction & I'm still not into Ketosis. I've been keeping my carbs below 20 carbs a day.
    If fact I've been averaging 18. Testing my Urine every 2sd day for the recommended 15 seconds. Anybody got any ideas?

  2. Desley

    Have been reading some old posts (2011) about bringing on Ketosis by upping your fat intake using Coconut Oil. Has anyone got any info on this. What does Atkins think about this?

  3. Helen

    The ketostix are not always accurate. You may be in ketosis when they say you aren't.
    Are you thirsty all the time? Has your hunger gone away? Those are generally the best two ways to recognise that you are in ketosis.
    Saying that, while most people can achieve ketosis in 3-6 days, for some it can take a few weeks, especially if they are insulin resistant.
    Not sure about the Coconut oil (although it is good for you). I have read that it can help in ketogenic diets, but not sure if it will help in the case of Atkins.
    Helen

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