How Ketogenic Diets Curb Inflammation In The Brain
Ketogenic diets – extreme low-carbohydrate, high-fat regimens that have long been known to benefit epilepsy and other neurological illnesses – may work by lowering inflammation in the brain, according to new research by UC San Francisco scientists. The UCSF team has discovered a molecular key to the diet’s apparent effects, opening the door for new therapies that could reduce harmful brain inflammation following stroke and brain trauma by mimicking the beneficial effects of an extreme low-carb diet. “It's a key issue in the field – how to suppress inflammation in the brain after injury,” said Raymond Swanson, MD, a professor of neurology at UCSF, chief of the neurology service at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and senior author of the new study. In the paper, published online Sept. 22 in the journal Nature Communications, Swanson and his colleagues found the previously undiscovered mechanism by which a low-carbohydrate diet reduces inflammation in the brain. Importantly, the team identified a pivotal protein that links the diet to inflammatory genes, which, if blocked, could mirror the anti-inflammatory effects of ketogenic diets. “The ketogenic diet is very difficult to follow in everyday life, and particularly when the patient is very sick,” Swanson said. “The idea that we can achieve some of the benefits of a ketogenic diet by this approach is the really exciting thing here.” Low-Carb Benefits The high-fat, low-carbohydrate regimen of ketogenic diets changes the way the body uses energy. In response to the shortage of carb-derived sugars such as glucose, the body begins breaking down fat into ketones and ketoacids, which it can use as alternative fuels. In rodents, ketogenic diets – and caloric restriction, in general – are Continue reading >>
What Is Ketosis?
Ketosis is a temporary physical condition marked by elevated levels of compounds known as ketone bodies in the body's tissues and fluids. The term "ketone bodies" refers to three different biochemicals: acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetone. The first two molecules transfer energy produced in the liver to the tissues throughout the body; acetone is a breakdown product of acetoacetate, and is responsible for the sweet odor on the breath of people undergoing ketosis. The condition of ketosis typically represents a change in the way the body gets its energy. Normally, the body gets most of its energy by metabolizing glucose (a simple sugar) obtained from carbohydrates or stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. But when unable to convert glucose into energy, the body switches to breaking down fat and converting it into energy. When this happens, the liver metabolizes fatty acids, producing energy-rich ketone bodies. The most common causes of ketosis are physiological, according to a 2000 article in the journal Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews. Fasting, eating a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet and engaging in high-intensity exercise can all lead to ketosis, because these activities deplete the body's stores of glucose. Because ketone bodies are acidic, a prolonged excess of the molecules in the blood can lead to a pathological form of ketosis, called ketoacidosis, in which the blood becomes acidic. Most commonly, ketoacidosis is associated with type 1 diabetes (and type 2 diabetes to a lesser extent). A lack of insulin, a hormone necessary for blood glucose to enter cells, causes glucose and ketone body concentrations to spike, lowering the blood's pH as it becomes more acidic. If left untreated, this condition, called diabetic ketoacidosis, can lead to Continue reading >>
Diabetic Kidney Failure May Be Reversed With Low-carbohydrate Diet
Researchers have found that by administering a low-carb, high-fat diet in mice, that diabetic kidney damage was reversed, and also uncovered an array of genes associated with kidney failure. Researchers from Mount Sinai School of Medicine have for the first time determined that the ketogenic diet, a specialized high-fat, low carbohydrate diet, may reverse impaired kidney function in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. They also identified a previously unreported panel of genes associated with diabetes-related kidney damage, whose changes in expression were reversed by the diet. The findings were published online in the peer-reviewed journal PLoS ONE. Charles Mobbs, PhD, Professor of Neuroscience and Geriatrics and Palliative Care Medicine at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and his research team evaluated mice that were genetically predisposed to have Type 1 or 2 diabetes. The mice were allowed to develop diabetic nephropathy, or kidney damage. Half of the mice were put on the ketogenic diet, while the control group maintained a standard high carbohydrate diet. The researchers found that after eight weeks, molecular and functional indicators of kidney damage were reversed in the mice on the ketogenic diet. Microscopic analysis showed that kidney pathology in the model of Type 2 diabetes was partially reversed. "Our study is the first to show that a dietary intervention alone is enough to reverse this serious complication of diabetes," said Dr. Mobbs. "This finding has significant implications for the tens of thousands of Americans diagnosed with diabetic kidney failure, and possibly other complications, each year." The ketogenic diet is a low-carbohydrate, moderate protein, and high-fat diet typically used to control seizures in children with epilepsy. Many cells can get their e Continue reading >>
Vascular Plaque Reduction With Ketogenic Diet – A Case Study
Does your diet really reverse vascular disease? I mean, will the diet you’re following ACTUALLY reverse the plaque burden that has occurred over the years of eating the SAD diet (Standard American Diet)? It appears that the ketogenic diet does. At least that’s what research is showing, and that’s what I am seeing clinically. Let me give you an example. Reversal of vascular disease is what I saw last week in this patient case study in my office. Meet “Mrs. Plaque” (name has been changed to protect her identity). She is a very pleasant 78 year old female who has been seeing me as a patient for the last 10 years. We identified worsening cholesterol and hyperinsulinemia in this patient a few years ago, and last year, she finally decided to go on a ketogenic diet after we noted slight worsening blood sugar (HbA1c increased to 6.1%), worsening cholesterol and a recent TIA (transient ischemic attack or “mini stroke”). We identified a 44% blockage in her left internal carotid artery and a 21% blockage in the right internal carotid artery putting her at risk for further cerebral ischemic events like a stroke and/or other vascular events like a possible heart attack down the road. She refused STATIN therapy as she had previous myalgia and side effects with their use in the past. Past Medical History: Hyperlipidemia, Impaired Fasting Glucose (Pre-Diabetes),.Asthma, GERD, Irritable Bowel, Generalized Anxiety, Idiopathic Peripheral Neuropathy, Surgical Menopause (Hysterectomy) with Secondary Atrophic Vaginitis, Recent TIA, Cataracts, Appendectomy Medications: Plavix 75mg one daily, Premarin Cream 0.635mg every other day, Xanax 0.5mg at bedtime for anxiety, Lyrica 50mg one nightly for neuropathy, Vitamin D 2000 IU daily , TUMS 750mg twice a day. Her carotid ultrasound a Continue reading >>
Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle
(Acetonemia, Ketonemia) By Thomas H. Herdt, DVM, MS, DACVN, DACVIM, Professor, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences and Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, Michigan State University Ketosis is a common disease of adult cattle. It typically occurs in dairy cows in early lactation and is most consistently characterized by partial anorexia and depression. Rarely, it occurs in cattle in late gestation, at which time it resembles pregnancy toxemia of ewes (see Pregnancy Toxemia in Ewes and Does). In addition to inappetence, signs of nervous dysfunction, including pica, abnormal licking, incoordination and abnormal gait, bellowing, and aggression, are occasionally seen. The condition is worldwide in distribution but is most common where dairy cows are bred and managed for high production. Etiology and Pathogenesis: The pathogenesis of bovine ketosis is incompletely understood, but it requires the combination of intense adipose mobilization and a high glucose demand. Both of these conditions are present in early lactation, at which time negative energy balance leads to adipose mobilization, and milk synthesis creates a high glucose demand. Adipose mobilization is accompanied by high blood serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). During periods of intense gluconeogenesis, a large portion of serum NEFAs is directed to ketone body synthesis in the liver. Thus, the clinicopathologic characterization of ketosis includes high serum concentrations of NEFAs and ketone bodies and low concentrations of glucose. In contrast to many other species, cattle with hyperketonemia do not have concurrent acidemia. The serum ketone bodies are acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). There is speculation that the pathogenesis of ketosis cases oc Continue reading >>
Interventions For Ketosis During Labour
Physical stress compounded by reduced food intake during labour can lead to raised levels of ketones in the blood and urine (ketosis). Ketone bodies transport fat-derived energy from the liver to other organs to provide an alternative source of energy. They also cross the placenta and the effect of ketosis on mother and baby is not clear. It is not clear whether ketosis during labour is a normal physiological response, or if women with ketosis in labour require intervention (such as intravenous and oral fluids). This uncertainty has resulted in differences in opinion and practice. Adverse effects of ketosis for the mother include increased likelihood of augmentation of labour, forceps-assisted delivery and postpartum blood loss. Yet intravenous therapies can have adverse effects, either by interfering with glucose and insulin levels for the mother and infant (causing neonatal hypoglycaemia) or lowering sodium level, for example. Other reported adverse effects include headache, nausea, maternal fluid overload, slowing of labour and difficulty in establishment of breastfeeding, as well as local pain and discomfort and interference with the woman's freedom of movement in labour. The newborn may have acidic blood and increased lactate levels. This review found no information on which to base practice in the treatment of women with ketosis during labour. The authors looked for studies comparing oral intake or intravenous fluids with no intervention (defined as no oral intake, ice chips only or oral intake on demand) and pregnancy outcomes. The only six studies identified focussed on maternal biochemical measures during or shortly after labour and could not be included in the review. The studies were conducted in the late 1970s to mid-1980s. Future trials should examine the u Continue reading >>
Human Nutrition Test 3
Sort List of carbohydrates for classification; which of these has the sweetest taste? Will this sugar offer a Caloric/sweet taste advantage used in cooked foods? Which of these binds cholesterol in the gut? Which of these is stored in the liver? -lactose, galactose, sucrose, starch, maltose, cellulose, glucose, fructose, glycogen -fructose is sweetest, yes -fiber (cellulose) Define 'impaired glucose tolerance' and '2 hour post prandial.' Be able to describe when they are used. -impaired glucose tolerance = pre-diabetic state of hyperglycemia->excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma -a postprandial glucose test is a blood glucose test that determines the amount of a glucose in the blood after a meal -a 2 hour post prandial measures blood glucose exactly 2 hours after eating a meal, timed from the start of the meal -by this point blood sugar has usually gone back down in healthy people, but it may still be elevated in people with diabetes -thus, it serves as a test of whether a person may have diabetes, or of whether a person who has diabetes is successfully controlling their blood sugar Define glycemic effect. Discuss the controversy related to usefulness of glycemic index. glycemic response= how quickly glucose is absorbed after a person eats, how high blood glucose rises, and how quickly it returns to normal -opposition to use of glycemic idex argue that it is not sufficiently supported by scientific research; values vary because of differences in the physical and chemical characteristics of foods, testing methods of laboratories, and digestive processes of individuals -practical utility of GI is limited bc info is neither provided on food labels nor intuitively apparent Jen skips breakfast. About 9:30am she begins to feel hungry and grabs a cola dri Continue reading >>
How Can I Get Back Into Ketosis?
What is the fastest way to get into ketosis? It’s FASTING. When liver glycogen gets depleted, the liver will then start producing ketones that begin to provide energy to the body. You can get into ketosis and stay there if you were to fast and not eat any calories for 3+ days. However, this may not happen even if you try very hard. What stops you from getting into ketosis are elevated blood sugar levels caused by too much cortisol and stress. I’m about to share with you some pointers. Drink salted water during your fast. To control cortisol and balance those electrolytes. Working out may seem reasonable but it can be counterproductive. You don’t need to exercise hard to empty your liver glycogen because they will be depleted within the first day already. This is the fastest way to get into ketosis and start a ketogenic diet as a long term thing. You’ll start reaping the actual benefits only after 3-4 weeks. Check out my video: Continue reading >>
Do Ketogenic Diets Help You Lose Weight?
Is a ketogenic diet effective for weight loss? The answer depends on whether it achieves a reduction in total kilojoule intake or not. What is a ketogenic diet? A classical ketogenic diet follows a strict ratio for total grams of fat to combined grams of carbohydrate and protein and typically has 80-90% of total kilojoules coming from fat, which is very high fat. Carbohydrate intake varies from 20 to 50 grams a day, or 5-10% of total energy, while protein intakes are moderate. The difference between a strict ketogenic diet and diets that are described as low-carb is that ketogenic diets specifically aim to achieve elevated blood levels of ketone bodies which are chemicals produced as a consequence of your body burning fat. Hence general low-carb diets are not as high in fat as classical ketogenic diets. Research on the use of classical ketogenic diets for weight loss is limited. But there are many studies that compare lower-carb diets to other approaches. These show that aiming for a carbohydrate restriction of 20-30 grams a day, without setting a daily kilojoule target, leads to 2-4 kilograms greater weight loss compared to a low kilojoule diet, in studies up to six months. In longer studies with follow-up between one to five years there is no difference in weight loss. A review of weight loss diets with a moderate carbohydrate restriction (45% or less of total energy intake) compared to low fat diets (under 30% fat) found they were equally effective in reducing body weight in studies from six months to two years. How much carbohydrate do we eat? In Australia, current carbohydrate intakes range from approximately 210 to 260 grams a day, or about 45% of total energy intake. More than a third of what Australians currently eat comes from discretionary, or "junk" foods. It Continue reading >>
Keep Yourself In Ketosis
When talking about a Grain Brain lifestyle, and the very similar ketogenic diet, it’s frequently mentioned that we are aiming to keep our bodies in ketosis. However, if you’re new to my work, it may be that you’re not exactly sure what ketosis is, or why we should be worrying about getting our body into this state. Allow me to explain. Ketones are a special type of fat that can stimulate the pathways that enhance the growth of new neural networks in the brain. A ketogenic diet is one that is high in fats, and this diet has been a tool of researchers for years, used notably in a 2005 study on Parkinson’s patients finding an improvement in symptoms after just 28 days. The improvements were on par with those made possible via medication and brain surgery. Other research has shown the ketogenic diet to be remarkably effective in treating some forms of epilepsy, and even brain tumors. Ketones do more than just that though. They increase glutathione, a powerful, brain-protective antioxidant. Ketones facilitate the production of mitochondria, one of the most important actors in the coordinated production that is the human body. And that’s just the tip of the iceberg. Our bodies are said to enter ketosis at the point when blood sugar levels are low and liver glycogen are no longer available to produce glucose as a fuel for cellular energy production. At this point, not only is the body doing the natural thing, and burning off fat, it’s also powering up the brain with a super efficient fuel. We can jump start ourselves into ketosis with a brief fast, allowing our body to quickly burn through the carbs that are in our system, and turn to fat for fuel. A ketogenic diet is one that derives around 80% or more of of its calories from fat, and the rest from carbs and prote Continue reading >>
What is the ketogenic diet? The "classic" ketogenic diet is a special high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that helps to control seizures in some people with epilepsy. It is prescribed by a physician and carefully monitored by a dietitian. It is usually used in children with seizures that do not respond to medications. It is stricter than the modified Atkins diet, requiring careful measurements of calories, fluids, and proteins. Foods are weighed and measured. The name ketogenic means that it produces ketones in the body. (keto = ketone; genic = producing) Ketones are formed when the body uses fat for its source of energy. Usually the body uses carbohydrates (such as sugar, bread, pasta) for its fuel. Because the ketogenic diet is very low in carbohydrates, fats become the primary fuel instead. The body can work very well on ketones (and fats). Ketones are not dangerous. They can be detected in the urine, blood, and breath. Ketones are one of the more likely mechanisms of action of the diet, with higher ketone levels often leading to improved seizure control. However, there are many other theories for why the diet will work. Who will it help? Doctors usually recommend the ketogenic diet for children whose seizures have not responded to several different seizure medicines. The classic diet is usually not recommended for adults, mostly because the restricted food choices make it hard to follow. However, the modified Atkins diet does work well. This also should be done with a good team of adult neurologists and dietitians. The ketogenic diet has been shown in many studies to be particularly helpful for some epilepsy conditions. These include infantile spasms, Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis complex, Dravet syndrome, Doose syndrome, and GLUT-1 deficiency. Using a formula-only Continue reading >>
What Are The Differences Between Shia And Sunni Muslims?
Huge fight emerged after the death of the Prophet Muhammad(PBUH) in 632 and the Muslim community was left without a leader and a successor to the Prophet. Huge clashes and disputes arose over who should succeed Prophet Mohammad(PBUH) and lead the rapidly growing faith. Few thought that a new leader should be chosen by consensus, others thought that only the Prophet’s descendants should become the caliph. The title passed to a trusted aide, Abu Bakr, although some thought it should have gone to Ali, the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law. Ali eventually did become caliph after Abu Bakr’s two successors were assassinated. After Ali also was assassinated, with a poison-laced sword at the mosque in Kufa, what is now Iraq, his sons Hasan and then Hussein claimed the title. But Hussein and many of his relatives were massacred in Karbala, Iraq, in 680. His martyrdom became a central tenet to those who believed that Ali should have succeeded the Prophet. (It is mourned every year during the month of Muharram). The followers became known as Shias, a contraction of the phrase Shiat Ali, or followers of Ali. The Sunnis, however, regard the first three caliphs before Ali as rightly guided and themselves as the true adherents to the Sunnah, or the Prophet’s tradition. Sunni rulers embarked on sweeping conquests that extended the caliphate into North Africa and Europe. The last caliphate ended with the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War-I. The Sunni and Shia sects hold within a wide spectrum of doctrine, opinion thoughts. The branches are in agreement on most aspects of Islam, but there are considerable disagreements within each. Both branches include worshippers who run the spectrum from secular to fundamentalist. The Shias consider Ali and the leaders who came after hi Continue reading >>
Espionage And Spying: How Do You Spot A Secret Agent?
I was told by a professor (I majored and minored in different languages) that one way 'they' caught a lot of spies historically was by finding people who refused to diphthongize (or similarly contract/slur/etc. their language like natives.) Non-native speakers of any language often fall for being over-correct in their speech. So a diphthong is where two or more vowel-sounds make a new sound—we see "bait" and say "bate," not "bayit." Yet nearly all language learners will hold onto the perceived subtle distinction between the two vowels for a long time, taking pride in their refusal to believe the sounds are totally merged. So a spy-hunter would notice something like someone very slightly saying "bayit" or "noyis." Likewise, a linguist would say the V and the B in Spanish make exactly the same sound--but every Spanish learner I've ever met, again even at the Masters level, insists there's a subtle difference only they can hear. (I always notice how often spanish-speakers in the US pronounce their Bs as English-Vs from the corollary of this overcompensation.) In many languages the T and D are almost exactly the same sound, and the P and B -- both of those would be giveaways, as few Americans would ever be willing to eat their plosives... ;) Continue reading >>
Should You Follow The Ketogenic Diet?
The ketogenic diet may be on the rise as far as diet trends go, but the concept isn't new. First identified as a beneficial treatment for epilepsy, the high-fat, very-low-carbohydrate approach has been around for close to 100 years. Recently, the diet has become popular among athletes (LeBron James tried it) and those looking for the next weight-loss cure-all. Followers eat foods like butter, oils, fatty meats and cheese. Proponents claim it can lower cholesterol and improve athletic performance, but before you go "keto," here's a look at the science behind the popular diet. Try It: How to Start a Low-Carb Diet the Healthy Way Ketogenic Diet Basics The keto diet requires the body to rely mostly on fat for energy, rather than the usual carbohydrates (see Carbohydrates vs. Fat for Fuel below). When carb intake is very low, ketones—products of fat breakdown in the liver—must fuel the body. According to John Hawley, Ph.D., director of the Centre for Exercise and Nutrition at Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research in Melbourne, Australia, there is no global definition of the ketogenic diet. In other words, no standard exists for how many grams of carbohydrate, fat, or protein should be consumed when following the diet. Most research around the diet has identified a carbohydrate intake between 25 and 50 grams per day, which is equivalent to two medium apples or one cup of cooked brown rice. This extreme reduction in carbohydrate is very difficult to maintain long-term and makes it impossible to meet the recommended amount of fruit, vegetable and whole-grain servings recommended for a healthy diet. According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, carbohydrates should make up 45 to 60 percent of daily calories, or 130 grams/day, for most people to eat a balanced die Continue reading >>
How Ketosis Helps You Lose Weight Through Suppressed Appetite
One of the reasons The Bulletproof Diet with Bulletproof Coffee works so well for people looking to lose weight is that Bulletproof Intermittent Fasting helps your body to more easily enter a state called cyclical ketosis, which is great for a whole bunch of reasons. Ketosis is a cornerstone of becoming Bulletproof; listen to these recent Bulletproof Radio episodes with ketosis experts Jimmy Moore and Dominic D’Agostino to get the scoop on how and why it works. It’s what happens when your body switches to burning fat instead of sugar for energy, and it only happens when you eat almost no carbohydrates, or when you hack it using certain kinds of oils. Many people first stumble upon the idea of ketosis while looking for a weight loss strategy. That can be a major part of it for so many people out there who have tried just about every other diet out there but haven’t seen the results they’d hoped for. But when people experience the mental clarity and focus that ketosis brings, the game changes! This post walks you through one of the most important yet underrated mechanisms that makes ketosis so effective for people who have tried everything else to lose weight and failed to keep it off: appetite suppression. Ketosis works for weight loss in the short term, but that’s not why it’s so amazing. Short term weight loss is easy (I’ve lost at least 200 pounds of short term weight…because it always roared back on with a vengeance so I could lose it again!) When you look at keeping your weight off forever, ketosis provides a level of appetite suppression that is actually liberating. Ketosis helps you literally stop thinking about food all the time. Why Calorie Counting Is So Ineffective One of the reasons old-fashioned, calorie-restricted diets tend to fail is becau Continue reading >>
- OLIVES: This low-carb snack fights inflammation, Alzheimer’s, Diabetes, and even helps you lose weight
- Reversing Diabetes Through Weight Loss: How Much Should You Lose?
- Type 2 diabetes breakthrough: Scientists create first pill that not only STOPS the condition in its tracks but also helps patients lose weight - and it could be available on the NHS within 3 years