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How Can Ketosis Be Identified

Ketosis

Ketosis

Not to be confused with Ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy. Ketosis is a result of metabolizing fat to provide energy. Ketosis is a nutritional process characterised by serum concentrations of ketone bodies over 0.5 mM, with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose.[1][2] It is almost always generalized with hyperketonemia, that is, an elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood throughout the body. Ketone bodies are formed by ketogenesis when liver glycogen stores are depleted (or from metabolising medium-chain triglycerides[3]). The main ketone bodies used for energy are acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate,[4] and the levels of ketone bodies are regulated mainly by insulin and glucagon.[5] Most cells in the body can use both glucose and ketone bodies for fuel, and during ketosis, free fatty acids and glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis) fuel the remainder. Longer-term ketosis may result from fasting or staying on a low-carbohydrate diet (ketogenic diet), and deliberately induced ketosis serves as a medical intervention for various conditions, such as intractable epilepsy, and the various types of diabetes.[6] In glycolysis, higher levels of insulin promote storage of body fat and block release of fat from adipose tissues, while in ketosis, fat reserves are readily released and consumed.[5][7] For this reason, ketosis is sometimes referred to as the body's "fat burning" mode.[8] Ketosis and ketoacidosis are similar, but ketoacidosis is an acute life-threatening state requiring prompt medical intervention while ketosis can be physiological. However, there are situations (such as treatment-resistant Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet

Ketogenic Diet

What is the ketogenic diet? The "classic" ketogenic diet is a special high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that helps to control seizures in some people with epilepsy. It is prescribed by a physician and carefully monitored by a dietitian. It is usually used in children with seizures that do not respond to medications. It is stricter than the modified Atkins diet, requiring careful measurements of calories, fluids, and proteins. Foods are weighed and measured. The name ketogenic means that it produces ketones in the body. (keto = ketone; genic = producing) Ketones are formed when the body uses fat for its source of energy. Usually the body uses carbohydrates (such as sugar, bread, pasta) for its fuel. Because the ketogenic diet is very low in carbohydrates, fats become the primary fuel instead. The body can work very well on ketones (and fats). Ketones are not dangerous. They can be detected in the urine, blood, and breath. Ketones are one of the more likely mechanisms of action of the diet, with higher ketone levels often leading to improved seizure control. However, there are many other theories for why the diet will work. Who will it help? Doctors usually recommend the ketogenic diet for children whose seizures have not responded to several different seizure medicines. The classic diet is usually not recommended for adults, mostly because the restricted food choices make it hard to follow. However, the modified Atkins diet does work well. This also should be done with a good team of adult neurologists and dietitians. The ketogenic diet has been shown in many studies to be particularly helpful for some epilepsy conditions. These include infantile spasms, Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis complex, Dravet syndrome, Doose syndrome, and GLUT-1 deficiency. Using a formula-only Continue reading >>

A Low-carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet Versus Orlistat For Weight Loss

A Low-carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet Versus Orlistat For Weight Loss

This study compares two types of diet interventions: a low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (Atkins) and a low-fat diet combined with a medication (Orlistat). Overweight and obesity are increasingly prevalent in the veteran population as well as the general public. For patients with obesity-associated illnesses, there are few effective treatment options available after failed attempts at diet and exercise, even though weight loss has been shown to alleviate these conditions. The purpose of this study is to compare the tolerability, safety, and efficacy of a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (Atkins) with a combination of a low-fat diet and Orlistat. The outcomes examined over a 48 week duration will include body weight, risk factors for heart disease (e.g., lipid profiles), and blood sugar. This is a randomized, parallel-intervention trial. Subjects (n=150) will be recruited from the Durham VAMC Ambulatory Care Clinics. All patients receive one of the two intensive weight loss interventions. Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Actual Enrollment : 146 participants Allocation: Randomized Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment Masking: None (Open Label) Primary Purpose: Treatment Official Title: A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet Versus Orlistat for Weight Loss Study Start Date : July 2004 Primary Completion Date : December 2007 Study Completion Date : December 2007 Arm Intervention/treatment Experimental: Low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet Participants receive dietary counseling over 48 weeks aimed at helping them to lower starch and sugar intake. Behavioral: Low carbohydrate ketogenic diet A low-carb diet limits carbohydrates - such as grains, starchy vegetables and fruit - and emphasizes dietary protein and fat. Active Comparator: Low-Fat Diet plus Orlistat Participants Continue reading >>

Episode 10 – Medical Uses Of Ketogenic And Low Carb Diets With Ellen Davis

Episode 10 – Medical Uses Of Ketogenic And Low Carb Diets With Ellen Davis

Short summary: With guest Ellen Davis we discuss the many medical applications of ketogenic and low carb diets, all of which is explored in depth in her 3 books “Fighting Cancer with a Ketogenic Diet”, “The Ketogenic Diet for Type 1 Diabetes” and “Conquering Type 2 Diabetes with a Ketogenic Diet”. Show notes: • Ellen’s books “Fighting Cancer with a Ketogenic Diet”, “The Ketogenic Diet for Type 1 Diabetes” and “Conquering Type 2 Diabetes with a Ketogenic Diet” • Who should NOT follow a ketogenic diet [or fast]? o People with conditions relating to “inborn errors in the enzymes involved in lipid metabolism: from mitochondrial membrane long-chain fatty acids transport mechanism to beta-oxidation and Krebs cycle could be potentially fatal during fasting or KDs” (Paoli et al. 2014) o E.g.: porphyrias, primary carnitine deficiency, β-oxidation defects… o Caution: active gall bladder disease, impaired fat digestion, pregnancy and lactation o As George Henderson says (2015) …“a person with one of these [fatty acid oxidation or ketogenesis] disorders will have impaired metabolism of fatty acids when fasting, and will not produce ketones. Unless the condition is one treatable with L-carnitine, they may require a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet […] The most frequently occurring mitochondrial respiratory disorders impair glucose, rather than fatty acid oxidation and are identified as indications for ketogenic diets” • Ketogenic and low carb diets are a powerful blood sugar and insulin normalizing therapy that is well suited for diabetes, both type 1 and type 2 • Ketogenic and low carb diets are also particularly interesting for treating cancer given the metabolic weak-spots that can be exploited in cancer cells • Epilepsy, Azheimer Continue reading >>

The Beginners Guide To Ketosis: Investigating Low-carb, High-fat Eating

The Beginners Guide To Ketosis: Investigating Low-carb, High-fat Eating

The only hard and fast rule of health is that health is personal and what works well for one person may not work for someone else. Aside from that rule, there are “frameworks” that seem to benefit large groups of people. One more level down from that are alternative strategies that benefit smaller groups. Ketosis is likely one of those alternative strategies that works well for certain, smaller groups of people. So, right off the bat I want you to understand that Ketosis might not be for everyone. I’m going to lay out the case for potential benefits of Ketosis. If it sounds interesting and beneficial to you, then consider trying it. (see our free cheat sheet to help you). What is Ketosis Ketosis occurs when liver glycogen gets depleted and the body burns fatty acids for fuel. The primary driver of this state is a very low carbohydrate intake. Often, it also requires a low protein, higher fat intake. You can also achieve a state of ketosis by not eating altogether. The creation of ketones is a byproduct of this metabolic state. Ketones are a source of fuel, just as glucose is a source of fuel. Ketones tend to have some added benefits, though. What role does Ketosis play in human health? Ketosis allows our bodies to function in the absence of carbohydrates, both physically and mentally. Instead of burning carbohydrates, or converting protein to glucose, the body burns ketones. This is pretty much a survival mechanism. It allows your body to function in a state of caloric deprivation. This is why ketosis often gets bad press (as it’s linked to “starvation”). Being a survival mechanism doesn’t make it invalid as a strategy, though. There can still be potential benefits to be had. Let’s cover a few of them… Ketosis and Accelerated Fat Loss Being in ketosis Continue reading >>

Effects Of The Ketogenic Diet In The Glucose Transporter 1 Deficiency Syndrome.

Effects Of The Ketogenic Diet In The Glucose Transporter 1 Deficiency Syndrome.

Abstract The ketogenic diet (KD), established to treat intractable childhood epilepsy, has emerged as the principal treatment of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (OMIM 606777). This defect of glucose transport into the brain results in hypoglycorrhachia causing epilepsy, developmental delay, and a complex motor disorder in early childhood. Ketones provided by a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet serve as an alternative fuel to the brain. Glucose, lactate, lipids, and ketones in blood and cerebrospinal fluid were investigated in five GLUT1-deficient patients before and on the KD. Hypoglycorrhachia was detected in the non-ketotic and ketotic state. In ketosis, lactate concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid increased moderately. The CSF/blood ratio for acetoacetate was higher compared to beta-hydroxybutyrate. Free fatty acids did not enter the brain in significant amounts. Blood concentrations of essential fatty acids determined in 18 GLUT1-deficient patients on the KD were sufficient in all age groups. The effects of the KD in GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, particularly the course of blood lipids, are discussed in an illustrative case. In this syndrome, the KD effectively restores brain energy metabolism. Ketosis does not influence impaired GLUT1-mediated glucose transport into brain: hypoglycorrhachia, the biochemical hallmark of the disease, can be identified in GLUT1-deficient patients on a KD. The effects of ketosis on the concentrations of glucose, lactate, ketones, and fatty acids in blood and cerebrospinal fluid in this entity are discussed in view of previous data on ketosis in man. Continue reading >>

How Can I Get Back Into Ketosis?

How Can I Get Back Into Ketosis?

What is the fastest way to get into ketosis? It’s FASTING. When liver glycogen gets depleted, the liver will then start producing ketones that begin to provide energy to the body. You can get into ketosis and stay there if you were to fast and not eat any calories for 3+ days. However, this may not happen even if you try very hard. What stops you from getting into ketosis are elevated blood sugar levels caused by too much cortisol and stress. I’m about to share with you some pointers. Drink salted water during your fast. To control cortisol and balance those electrolytes. Working out may seem reasonable but it can be counterproductive. You don’t need to exercise hard to empty your liver glycogen because they will be depleted within the first day already. This is the fastest way to get into ketosis and start a ketogenic diet as a long term thing. You’ll start reaping the actual benefits only after 3-4 weeks. Check out my video: Continue reading >>

What Is Ketosis?

What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis is a temporary physical condition marked by elevated levels of compounds known as ketone bodies in the body's tissues and fluids. The term "ketone bodies" refers to three different biochemicals: acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetone. The first two molecules transfer energy produced in the liver to the tissues throughout the body; acetone is a breakdown product of acetoacetate, and is responsible for the sweet odor on the breath of people undergoing ketosis. The condition of ketosis typically represents a change in the way the body gets its energy. Normally, the body gets most of its energy by metabolizing glucose (a simple sugar) obtained from carbohydrates or stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. But when unable to convert glucose into energy, the body switches to breaking down fat and converting it into energy. When this happens, the liver metabolizes fatty acids, producing energy-rich ketone bodies. The most common causes of ketosis are physiological, according to a 2000 article in the journal Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews. Fasting, eating a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet and engaging in high-intensity exercise can all lead to ketosis, because these activities deplete the body's stores of glucose. Because ketone bodies are acidic, a prolonged excess of the molecules in the blood can lead to a pathological form of ketosis, called ketoacidosis, in which the blood becomes acidic. Most commonly, ketoacidosis is associated with type 1 diabetes (and type 2 diabetes to a lesser extent). A lack of insulin, a hormone necessary for blood glucose to enter cells, causes glucose and ketone body concentrations to spike, lowering the blood's pH as it becomes more acidic. If left untreated, this condition, called diabetic ketoacidosis, can lead to Continue reading >>

10 Signs And Symptoms That You're In Ketosis

10 Signs And Symptoms That You're In Ketosis

The ketogenic diet is a popular, effective way to lose weight and improve health. When followed correctly, this low-carb, high-fat diet will raise blood ketone levels. These provide a new fuel source for your cells, and cause most of the unique health benefits of this diet (1, 2, 3). On a ketogenic diet, your body undergoes many biological adaptions, including a reduction in insulin and increased fat breakdown. When this happens, your liver starts producing large amounts of ketones to supply energy for your brain. However, it can often be hard to know whether you're "in ketosis" or not. Here are 10 common signs and symptoms of ketosis, both positive and negative. People often report bad breath once they reach full ketosis. It's actually a common side effect. Many people on ketogenic diets and similar diets, such as the Atkins diet, report that their breath takes on a fruity smell. This is caused by elevated ketone levels. The specific culprit is acetone, a ketone that exits the body in your urine and breath (4). While this breath may be less than ideal for your social life, it can be a positive sign for your diet. Many ketogenic dieters brush their teeth several times per day, or use sugar-free gum to solve the issue. If you're using gum or other alternatives like sugar-free drinks, check the label for carbs. These may raise your blood sugar levels and reduce ketone levels. The bad breath usually goes away after some time on the diet. It is not a permanent thing. The ketone acetone is partly expelled via your breath, which can cause bad or fruity-smelling breath on a ketogenic diet. Ketogenic diets, along with normal low-carb diets, are highly effective for losing weight (5, 6). As dozens of weight loss studies have shown, you will likely experience both short- and long Continue reading >>

Ketosis & Measuring Ketones

Ketosis & Measuring Ketones

Generally, ketone concentrations are lower in the morning and higher in the evening. Whatever time you pick to measure ketone levels, make sure to keep it consistent. Also, do not measure your ketone levels right after exercise. Ketone levels tend to be lower while your glucose levels higher so you won't get representative numbers. Keep in mind there are daily fluctuations caused by changes in hormone levels. Don't get discouraged! Another aspect that affects the level of ketones is the amount of fat in your diet. Some of you may show higher concentration of ketones after a high-fat meal. Coconut oil contains MCTs that will help you boost ketones. To easily increase your fat intake on a ketogenic diet, try fat bombs - snacks with at least 80% fat content. Ketone levels tend to be higher after extensive aerobic exercise as your body depletes glycogen stores. Exercise may help you get into ketosis faster. ketogenic "fruity" breath is not pleasant for most people. To avoid this, drink a lot of water, mint tea and make sure you eat foods rich in electrolytes. Avoid too many chewing gums and mints, as it may put you out of ketosis; there may be hidden carbs affecting your blood sugar. Increase your electrolyte intake, especially potassium. You are likely going to lose some sodium and potassium when switching to the keto diet. Finally, if you find it hard to lose weight on a ketogenic diet, there may be plenty other reasons than the level of ketone bodies: Not Losing Weight on Low-Carb Ketogenic Diet? Don’t Give Up and Read Further. Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Tweet Ketosis is a state the body may find itself in either as a result of raised blood glucose levels or as a part of low carb dieting. Low levels of ketosis is perfectly normal. However, high levels of ketosis in the short term can be serious and the long term effects of regular moderate ketosis are only partially known at the moment. What is ketosis? Ketosis is a state the body goes into if it needs to break down body fat for energy. The state is marked by raised levels of ketones in the blood which can be used by the body as fuel. Ketones which are not used for fuel are excreted out of the body via the kidneys and the urine. Is ketosis the same as ketoacidosis? There is often confusion as to the difference between ketosis and ketoacidosis. Ketosis is the state whereby the body is producing ketones. In ketosis, the level of ketones in the blood can be anything between normal to very high. Diabetic ketoacidosis, also known as DKA, only describes the state in which the level of ketones is either high or very high. In ketoacidosis, the amount of ketones in the blood is sufficient to turn the blood acidic, which is a dangerous medical state. When does ketosis occur? Ketosis will take place when the body needs energy and there is not sufficient glucose available for the body. This can typically happen when the body is lacking insulin and blood glucose levels become high. Other causes can be the result of being on a low carb diet. A low level of carbohydrate will lead to low levels of insulin, and therefore the body will produce ketones which do not rely on insulin to get into and fuel the body’s cells. A further cause of ketosis, less relevant to people with diabetes, is a result of excessive alcohol consumption. Is ketosis dangerous? The NHS describes ketosis as a pote Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Tweet Ketosis is a state the body may find itself in either as a result of raised blood glucose levels or as a part of low carb dieting. Low levels of ketosis is perfectly normal. However, high levels of ketosis in the short term can be serious and the long term effects of regular moderate ketosis are only partially known at the moment. What is ketosis? Ketosis is a state the body goes into if it needs to break down body fat for energy. The state is marked by raised levels of ketones in the blood which can be used by the body as fuel. Ketones which are not used for fuel are excreted out of the body via the kidneys and the urine. Is ketosis the same as ketoacidosis? There is often confusion as to the difference between ketosis and ketoacidosis. Ketosis is the state whereby the body is producing ketones. In ketosis, the level of ketones in the blood can be anything between normal to very high. Diabetic ketoacidosis, also known as DKA, only describes the state in which the level of ketones is either high or very high. In ketoacidosis, the amount of ketones in the blood is sufficient to turn the blood acidic, which is a dangerous medical state. When does ketosis occur? Ketosis will take place when the body needs energy and there is not sufficient glucose available for the body. This can typically happen when the body is lacking insulin and blood glucose levels become high. Other causes can be the result of being on a low carb diet. A low level of carbohydrate will lead to low levels of insulin, and therefore the body will produce ketones which do not rely on insulin to get into and fuel the body’s cells. A further cause of ketosis, less relevant to people with diabetes, is a result of excessive alcohol consumption. Is ketosis dangerous? The NHS describes ketosis as a pote Continue reading >>

Side Effects On The Ketogenic Diet: Identification And Treatment

Side Effects On The Ketogenic Diet: Identification And Treatment

History of the diet and its side effects Perhaps one of the least discussed but most important of the changes in ketogenic diet research in the past decade has been the identification of its side effect profile. During the 1920s and 1930s, when the ketogenic diet was one of the most popular anticonvulsant therapies, side effects such as acidosis (low bicarbonate levels in the blood), constipation, and abnormal menstrual periods (in adult women) were discussed and were just starting to be investigated. However, over the following 60 years, research into the ketogenic diet focused nearly exclusively on demonstrating that it worked in order to answer its critics, rather than researching side effects. All this has changed in the past decade, and now that the ketogenic diet is no longer perceived as an alternative treatment, as James Wheless, MD, titled his editorial in 2001, the ketogenic diet is a “medical therapy with side effects”, and researchers have agreed.(1) Although most of the side effects I will discuss are important to be observant for, and can be bothersome, it is rare to have to stop the diet because of them. What are the side effects? The most common, almost “expected”, side effects of the diet are constipation, acidosis (especially with illness), and decreased weight gain (not often weight loss). These are often addressed immediately when the diet is started, especially using Miralax™ for constipation. The less common side effects, generally occurring in 1 in 20 children, include high cholesterol, kidney stones, growth slowing, and gastrointestinal upset. In 2001, Peter Kwiterovich, MD, reported in JAMA our experience at Johns Hopkins Hospital in regards to cholesterol of children on the diet.(2) In general, most children have a 30% increase in tot Continue reading >>

Nutrition And Traumatic Brain Injury: Improving Acute And Subacute Health Outcomes In Military Personnel.

Nutrition And Traumatic Brain Injury: Improving Acute And Subacute Health Outcomes In Military Personnel.

Go to: Since their development to treat epileptic children in 1921, ketogenic diets have been most studied in the context of pediatric epilepsy syndromes (Kossoff et al., 2009), but the ketogenic diet has been further shown to be neuroprotective in animal models of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease, hypoxia, glutamate toxicity, ischemia, and traumatic brain injury (TBI) (see Prins, 2008, for a review). Neurodegenerative disorders and other CNS injuries share some common pathophysiological events with the metabolic injury cascade that follows TBI, such as the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction. Despite evidence of efficacy and a track record of clinical use and animal research on the ketogenic diet’s antiepileptic action, the mechanisms by which the ketogenic diet confers neuroprotection are still poorly understood. The effect of the ketogenic diet on energy metabolism is believed to be a key contributor to the diet’s neuroprotective action, possibly by increasing resistance to metabolic stress and resilience to neuronal loss through the upregulation of energy metabolism genes, stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and enhancement of alternative energy substrates (Bough, 2008; Bough et al., 2006; Davis et al., 2008; Gasior et al., 2006). The ketogenic diet is also hypothesized to promote neuroinhibitory actions. One aspect of this hypothesis is an associated modification of the tricarboxylic acid cycle to increase the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), leading to neuronal hyperpolarization (Bough and Rho, 2007). GABA is the primary inhibitor of neurotransmission, making a neuron more refractory to abnormal firing Continue reading >>

What Is Ketosis?

What Is Ketosis?

"Ketosis" is a word you'll probably see when you're looking for information on diabetes or weight loss. Is it a good thing or a bad thing? That depends. Ketosis is a normal metabolic process, something your body does to keep working. When it doesn't have enough carbohydrates from food for your cells to burn for energy, it burns fat instead. As part of this process, it makes ketones. If you're healthy and eating a balanced diet, your body controls how much fat it burns, and you don't normally make or use ketones. But when you cut way back on your calories or carbs, your body will switch to ketosis for energy. It can also happen after exercising for a long time and during pregnancy. For people with uncontrolled diabetes, ketosis is a sign of not using enough insulin. Ketosis can become dangerous when ketones build up. High levels lead to dehydration and change the chemical balance of your blood. Ketosis is a popular weight loss strategy. Low-carb eating plans include the first part of the Atkins diet and the Paleo diet, which stress proteins for fueling your body. In addition to helping you burn fat, ketosis can make you feel less hungry. It also helps you maintain muscle. For healthy people who don't have diabetes and aren't pregnant, ketosis usually kicks in after 3 or 4 days of eating less than 50 grams of carbohydrates per day. That's about 3 slices of bread, a cup of low-fat fruit yogurt, or two small bananas. You can start ketosis by fasting, too. Doctors may put children who have epilepsy on a ketogenic diet, a special high-fat, very low-carb and protein plan, because it might help prevent seizures. Adults with epilepsy sometimes eat modified Atkins diets. Some research suggests that ketogenic diets might help lower your risk of heart disease. Other studies show sp Continue reading >>

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