diabetestalk.net

How Can Ketosis Be Identified

Google Users Can’t Stop Searching For The Ketogenic Diet

Google Users Can’t Stop Searching For The Ketogenic Diet

Recently released Google search data suggests we’re about to start hearing a lot more about ketogenic diets, but do they actually work? Oliver Lee Bateman Jan 4 2017, 4:30pm Eat up. Image: Anna Hoychuk/Shutterstock At nutrition industry trade shows such as the Arnold Classic in Columbus, Ohio, and the Olympia Fitness & Performance Expo in Las Vegas, one term has bulked larger than all the others: "ketogenic diet." The ketogenic diet, several versions of which placed among Google's top 2016 search terms for diets, entails eating high-fat, low-carbohydrate foods while moderating the consumption of protein. Although some form of this diet has existed for centuries, the modern version of the ketogenic diet was developed during the 1920s and was successfully used to treat patients who suffered from epilepsy. Advertisement Anthony Roberts, a fitness journalist and co-author of Anabolic Steroids: Ultimate Research Guide, highlighted the ketogenic diet's long history as a way of explaining its recent resurgence. "It's an old diet—it's essentially the Atkins Diet," he told Motherboard. "These new variants are perhaps a little more extreme, but the foundation for the diet has already been laid over the past half century. People already have a considerable amount of intellectual currency in terms of the diet, so it's easily understood. Combine that with the fact that results are immediate for most people, and we have the perfect storm for a viral diet." Quest Nutrition co-founder Tom Bilyeu concurs. "You have to have a ketogenic product line—that's where everything is going, and rightly so—and we're at the forefront of that," he said to a gathering of reporters at last year's Mr. Olympia Expo. "And we have the full complement of items ready to go: high-fat, low-calories co Continue reading >>

Effects Of The Ketogenic Diet In The Glucose Transporter 1 Deficiency Syndrome.

Effects Of The Ketogenic Diet In The Glucose Transporter 1 Deficiency Syndrome.

Abstract The ketogenic diet (KD), established to treat intractable childhood epilepsy, has emerged as the principal treatment of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (OMIM 606777). This defect of glucose transport into the brain results in hypoglycorrhachia causing epilepsy, developmental delay, and a complex motor disorder in early childhood. Ketones provided by a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet serve as an alternative fuel to the brain. Glucose, lactate, lipids, and ketones in blood and cerebrospinal fluid were investigated in five GLUT1-deficient patients before and on the KD. Hypoglycorrhachia was detected in the non-ketotic and ketotic state. In ketosis, lactate concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid increased moderately. The CSF/blood ratio for acetoacetate was higher compared to beta-hydroxybutyrate. Free fatty acids did not enter the brain in significant amounts. Blood concentrations of essential fatty acids determined in 18 GLUT1-deficient patients on the KD were sufficient in all age groups. The effects of the KD in GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, particularly the course of blood lipids, are discussed in an illustrative case. In this syndrome, the KD effectively restores brain energy metabolism. Ketosis does not influence impaired GLUT1-mediated glucose transport into brain: hypoglycorrhachia, the biochemical hallmark of the disease, can be identified in GLUT1-deficient patients on a KD. The effects of ketosis on the concentrations of glucose, lactate, ketones, and fatty acids in blood and cerebrospinal fluid in this entity are discussed in view of previous data on ketosis in man. Continue reading >>

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

(Acetonemia, Ketonemia) By Thomas H. Herdt, DVM, MS, DACVN, DACVIM, Professor, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences and Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, Michigan State University Ketosis is a common disease of adult cattle. It typically occurs in dairy cows in early lactation and is most consistently characterized by partial anorexia and depression. Rarely, it occurs in cattle in late gestation, at which time it resembles pregnancy toxemia of ewes (see Pregnancy Toxemia in Ewes and Does). In addition to inappetence, signs of nervous dysfunction, including pica, abnormal licking, incoordination and abnormal gait, bellowing, and aggression, are occasionally seen. The condition is worldwide in distribution but is most common where dairy cows are bred and managed for high production. Etiology and Pathogenesis: The pathogenesis of bovine ketosis is incompletely understood, but it requires the combination of intense adipose mobilization and a high glucose demand. Both of these conditions are present in early lactation, at which time negative energy balance leads to adipose mobilization, and milk synthesis creates a high glucose demand. Adipose mobilization is accompanied by high blood serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). During periods of intense gluconeogenesis, a large portion of serum NEFAs is directed to ketone body synthesis in the liver. Thus, the clinicopathologic characterization of ketosis includes high serum concentrations of NEFAs and ketone bodies and low concentrations of glucose. In contrast to many other species, cattle with hyperketonemia do not have concurrent acidemia. The serum ketone bodies are acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). There is speculation that the pathogenesis of ketosis cases oc Continue reading >>

Interventions For Ketosis During Labour

Interventions For Ketosis During Labour

Physical stress compounded by reduced food intake during labour can lead to raised levels of ketones in the blood and urine (ketosis). Ketone bodies transport fat-derived energy from the liver to other organs to provide an alternative source of energy. They also cross the placenta and the effect of ketosis on mother and baby is not clear. It is not clear whether ketosis during labour is a normal physiological response, or if women with ketosis in labour require intervention (such as intravenous and oral fluids). This uncertainty has resulted in differences in opinion and practice. Adverse effects of ketosis for the mother include increased likelihood of augmentation of labour, forceps-assisted delivery and postpartum blood loss. Yet intravenous therapies can have adverse effects, either by interfering with glucose and insulin levels for the mother and infant (causing neonatal hypoglycaemia) or lowering sodium level, for example. Other reported adverse effects include headache, nausea, maternal fluid overload, slowing of labour and difficulty in establishment of breastfeeding, as well as local pain and discomfort and interference with the woman's freedom of movement in labour. The newborn may have acidic blood and increased lactate levels. This review found no information on which to base practice in the treatment of women with ketosis during labour. The authors looked for studies comparing oral intake or intravenous fluids with no intervention (defined as no oral intake, ice chips only or oral intake on demand) and pregnancy outcomes. The only six studies identified focussed on maternal biochemical measures during or shortly after labour and could not be included in the review. The studies were conducted in the late 1970s to mid-1980s. Future trials should examine the u Continue reading >>

What Are The Differences Between Shia And Sunni Muslims?

What Are The Differences Between Shia And Sunni Muslims?

Huge fight emerged after the death of the Prophet Muhammad(PBUH) in 632 and the Muslim community was left without a leader and a successor to the Prophet. Huge clashes and disputes arose over who should succeed Prophet Mohammad(PBUH) and lead the rapidly growing faith. Few thought that a new leader should be chosen by consensus, others thought that only the Prophet’s descendants should become the caliph. The title passed to a trusted aide, Abu Bakr, although some thought it should have gone to Ali, the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law. Ali eventually did become caliph after Abu Bakr’s two successors were assassinated. After Ali also was assassinated, with a poison-laced sword at the mosque in Kufa, what is now Iraq, his sons Hasan and then Hussein claimed the title. But Hussein and many of his relatives were massacred in Karbala, Iraq, in 680. His martyrdom became a central tenet to those who believed that Ali should have succeeded the Prophet. (It is mourned every year during the month of Muharram). The followers became known as Shias, a contraction of the phrase Shiat Ali, or followers of Ali. The Sunnis, however, regard the first three caliphs before Ali as rightly guided and themselves as the true adherents to the Sunnah, or the Prophet’s tradition. Sunni rulers embarked on sweeping conquests that extended the caliphate into North Africa and Europe. The last caliphate ended with the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War-I. The Sunni and Shia sects hold within a wide spectrum of doctrine, opinion thoughts. The branches are in agreement on most aspects of Islam, but there are considerable disagreements within each. Both branches include worshippers who run the spectrum from secular to fundamentalist. The Shias consider Ali and the leaders who came after hi Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diets And Alzheimer’s Disease

Ketogenic Diets And Alzheimer’s Disease

1. Introduction Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia, accounting for over 50% of individuals affected [1]. This disease is characterized by progressive memory impairment and cognitive decline interfering with daily life activities. The most common early symptom of AD is difficulty remembering recent events. The symptoms of patients with advancing disease can include executive dysfunction, disorientation, problems with language, mood swings, behavioral changes and impaired self-care [2]. Age-standardized prevalence for individuals aged over 60 years varied between 5% and 7% in most world regions [3]. An estimated 35.6 million people lived with dementia worldwide in 2010, with numbers expected to almost double every 20 years [3]. AD has a long preclinical phase of several decades and the most important risk factor for AD is increasing age. Impaired vascular health has been shown to be another major risk factor for cognitive decline and interventions for cardiovascular risk may therefore improve cognitive health at the population level [4,5]. Other lifestyle-related factors, such as obesity, diabetes, smoking, diet, physical and mental inactivity, have been suggested to play a role in dementia, and potential preventive measures related to these risk factors should be investigated [6]. AD is neuropathologically defined by neuronal loss and the accumulation of extracellular amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)-containing plaques and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau protein-containing neurofibrillary tangles in the brain [7]. The accumulation of abnormally folded Aβ and tau proteins in amyloid plaques and neuronal tangles, respectively, appear to be causally associated with the neurodegeneration in AD [8]. However, Continue reading >>

Ketosis & Measuring Ketones

Ketosis & Measuring Ketones

Generally, ketone concentrations are lower in the morning and higher in the evening. Whatever time you pick to measure ketone levels, make sure to keep it consistent. Also, do not measure your ketone levels right after exercise. Ketone levels tend to be lower while your glucose levels higher so you won't get representative numbers. Keep in mind there are daily fluctuations caused by changes in hormone levels. Don't get discouraged! Another aspect that affects the level of ketones is the amount of fat in your diet. Some of you may show higher concentration of ketones after a high-fat meal. Coconut oil contains MCTs that will help you boost ketones. To easily increase your fat intake on a ketogenic diet, try fat bombs - snacks with at least 80% fat content. Ketone levels tend to be higher after extensive aerobic exercise as your body depletes glycogen stores. Exercise may help you get into ketosis faster. ketogenic "fruity" breath is not pleasant for most people. To avoid this, drink a lot of water, mint tea and make sure you eat foods rich in electrolytes. Avoid too many chewing gums and mints, as it may put you out of ketosis; there may be hidden carbs affecting your blood sugar. Increase your electrolyte intake, especially potassium. You are likely going to lose some sodium and potassium when switching to the keto diet. Finally, if you find it hard to lose weight on a ketogenic diet, there may be plenty other reasons than the level of ketone bodies: Not Losing Weight on Low-Carb Ketogenic Diet? Don’t Give Up and Read Further. Continue reading >>

Ketosis, Ketogenic Diet And Food Intake Control: A Complex Relationship

Ketosis, Ketogenic Diet And Food Intake Control: A Complex Relationship

Go to: Role of nutrients in food intake control The hypothalamus is the brain's main center responsible for hunger/satiety (H/S) control. In the theory that Mayer proposed more than 60 years ago, he assigned a central role to glucose levels in the H/S control: the so-called “glucostatic theory” (Mayer, 1955). Mayer suggested that depletion of carbohydrate availability leads to hunger, and the hypothalamic centers with receptors sensitive to glucose levels might be involved in the short-term regulation of energy intake (Mayer, 1955). The “feeding center” in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), according to the glucostatic theory, reacts to the between-meal fall of blood glucose and stimulates food intake. The LHA contains glucose-inhibited neurons that are stimulated by hypoglycemia, a process crucial to mediating the hyperphagia normally induced by hypoglycemia. The subsequent post-prandial hyperglycemia activates the “satiety center” in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), which contains glucose-excited neurons and inhibits both “feeding center” and food intake. In 1953, Kennedy proposed the lipostatic hypothesis suggesting that lipid metabolites could also be involved in food regulation (Kennedy, 1953), and in 1956, Mellinkoff studied the effects of protein metabolism suggesting an aminostatic hypothesis (Mellinkoff et al., 1956). Glucose-sensitive neurons have been identified in a number of CNS regions including the metabolic control centers of the hypothalamus. Medeiros et. al. have used patch-clamp electrophysiology to examine whether neurons in a specific specialized region known as the subfornical organ (SFO), an area where the blood-brain barrier is not present, are also glucose sensitive or not. These experiments demonstrated that SFO neurons ar Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet

Ketogenic Diet

What is the ketogenic diet? The "classic" ketogenic diet is a special high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that helps to control seizures in some people with epilepsy. It is prescribed by a physician and carefully monitored by a dietitian. It is usually used in children with seizures that do not respond to medications. It is stricter than the modified Atkins diet, requiring careful measurements of calories, fluids, and proteins. Foods are weighed and measured. The name ketogenic means that it produces ketones in the body. (keto = ketone; genic = producing) Ketones are formed when the body uses fat for its source of energy. Usually the body uses carbohydrates (such as sugar, bread, pasta) for its fuel. Because the ketogenic diet is very low in carbohydrates, fats become the primary fuel instead. The body can work very well on ketones (and fats). Ketones are not dangerous. They can be detected in the urine, blood, and breath. Ketones are one of the more likely mechanisms of action of the diet, with higher ketone levels often leading to improved seizure control. However, there are many other theories for why the diet will work. Who will it help? Doctors usually recommend the ketogenic diet for children whose seizures have not responded to several different seizure medicines. The classic diet is usually not recommended for adults, mostly because the restricted food choices make it hard to follow. However, the modified Atkins diet does work well. This also should be done with a good team of adult neurologists and dietitians. The ketogenic diet has been shown in many studies to be particularly helpful for some epilepsy conditions. These include infantile spasms, Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis complex, Dravet syndrome, Doose syndrome, and GLUT-1 deficiency. Using a formula-only Continue reading >>

How Can I Keep Muscle While In Ketosis?

How Can I Keep Muscle While In Ketosis?

Ketogenic diets are great for shocking the body and work very well when body fat levels are somewhat higher (over 12%). Below that, and considering you need to keep protein intake at high levels, muscle retention will suffer as your metabolism will start dropping and your body will prefer to use and break down your much-more-energy-demanding muscle fiber, instead of your necessary-for-survival fat pockets (according to your dna's blueprint). Switch to a high protein diet (0.9 - 1gr of protein per pound of weight daily) with some decent carbs (cycling them between lifting and rest days) to maintain decent testosterone levels, which you need for muscle retention and to avoid the flat look. As long as you are on a deficit (20-25% below maintenance) and your protein is high, while lifting as heavy as before at least twice a week (you might want to leave some additional rest time too), you're golden. Throw in some carb up days on heavy lifting days, as well as occasional diet breaks (every 2 months at least) for a linear drop down to single digits. Continue reading >>

What Is Ketosis?

What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis is a temporary physical condition marked by elevated levels of compounds known as ketone bodies in the body's tissues and fluids. The term "ketone bodies" refers to three different biochemicals: acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetone. The first two molecules transfer energy produced in the liver to the tissues throughout the body; acetone is a breakdown product of acetoacetate, and is responsible for the sweet odor on the breath of people undergoing ketosis. The condition of ketosis typically represents a change in the way the body gets its energy. Normally, the body gets most of its energy by metabolizing glucose (a simple sugar) obtained from carbohydrates or stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. But when unable to convert glucose into energy, the body switches to breaking down fat and converting it into energy. When this happens, the liver metabolizes fatty acids, producing energy-rich ketone bodies. The most common causes of ketosis are physiological, according to a 2000 article in the journal Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews. Fasting, eating a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet and engaging in high-intensity exercise can all lead to ketosis, because these activities deplete the body's stores of glucose. Because ketone bodies are acidic, a prolonged excess of the molecules in the blood can lead to a pathological form of ketosis, called ketoacidosis, in which the blood becomes acidic. Most commonly, ketoacidosis is associated with type 1 diabetes (and type 2 diabetes to a lesser extent). A lack of insulin, a hormone necessary for blood glucose to enter cells, causes glucose and ketone body concentrations to spike, lowering the blood's pH as it becomes more acidic. If left untreated, this condition, called diabetic ketoacidosis, can lead to Continue reading >>

A Low-carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet Versus Orlistat For Weight Loss

A Low-carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet Versus Orlistat For Weight Loss

This study compares two types of diet interventions: a low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (Atkins) and a low-fat diet combined with a medication (Orlistat). Overweight and obesity are increasingly prevalent in the veteran population as well as the general public. For patients with obesity-associated illnesses, there are few effective treatment options available after failed attempts at diet and exercise, even though weight loss has been shown to alleviate these conditions. The purpose of this study is to compare the tolerability, safety, and efficacy of a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (Atkins) with a combination of a low-fat diet and Orlistat. The outcomes examined over a 48 week duration will include body weight, risk factors for heart disease (e.g., lipid profiles), and blood sugar. This is a randomized, parallel-intervention trial. Subjects (n=150) will be recruited from the Durham VAMC Ambulatory Care Clinics. All patients receive one of the two intensive weight loss interventions. Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Actual Enrollment : 146 participants Allocation: Randomized Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment Masking: None (Open Label) Primary Purpose: Treatment Official Title: A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet Versus Orlistat for Weight Loss Study Start Date : July 2004 Primary Completion Date : December 2007 Study Completion Date : December 2007 Arm Intervention/treatment Experimental: Low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet Participants receive dietary counseling over 48 weeks aimed at helping them to lower starch and sugar intake. Behavioral: Low carbohydrate ketogenic diet A low-carb diet limits carbohydrates - such as grains, starchy vegetables and fruit - and emphasizes dietary protein and fat. Active Comparator: Low-Fat Diet plus Orlistat Participants Continue reading >>

Episode 10 – Medical Uses Of Ketogenic And Low Carb Diets With Ellen Davis

Episode 10 – Medical Uses Of Ketogenic And Low Carb Diets With Ellen Davis

Short summary: With guest Ellen Davis we discuss the many medical applications of ketogenic and low carb diets, all of which is explored in depth in her 3 books “Fighting Cancer with a Ketogenic Diet”, “The Ketogenic Diet for Type 1 Diabetes” and “Conquering Type 2 Diabetes with a Ketogenic Diet”. Show notes: • Ellen’s books “Fighting Cancer with a Ketogenic Diet”, “The Ketogenic Diet for Type 1 Diabetes” and “Conquering Type 2 Diabetes with a Ketogenic Diet” • Who should NOT follow a ketogenic diet [or fast]? o People with conditions relating to “inborn errors in the enzymes involved in lipid metabolism: from mitochondrial membrane long-chain fatty acids transport mechanism to beta-oxidation and Krebs cycle could be potentially fatal during fasting or KDs” (Paoli et al. 2014) o E.g.: porphyrias, primary carnitine deficiency, β-oxidation defects… o Caution: active gall bladder disease, impaired fat digestion, pregnancy and lactation o As George Henderson says (2015) …“a person with one of these [fatty acid oxidation or ketogenesis] disorders will have impaired metabolism of fatty acids when fasting, and will not produce ketones. Unless the condition is one treatable with L-carnitine, they may require a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet […] The most frequently occurring mitochondrial respiratory disorders impair glucose, rather than fatty acid oxidation and are identified as indications for ketogenic diets” • Ketogenic and low carb diets are a powerful blood sugar and insulin normalizing therapy that is well suited for diabetes, both type 1 and type 2 • Ketogenic and low carb diets are also particularly interesting for treating cancer given the metabolic weak-spots that can be exploited in cancer cells • Epilepsy, Azheimer Continue reading >>

The Process Of Ketosis

The Process Of Ketosis

Ketosis is a form of acidosis, a disruption in the pH balance of your body, that results from the presence of excessive ketones in your blood. Ketones, or ketone bodies, are a byproduct of fat metabolism. They are released when fat is broken down for energy. Ketosis is a condition that is common during starvation and acute attacks of diabetes. The presence of large amounts of ketone bodies in your bloodstream may lead to a condition called ketoacidosis, which may result in adverse side effects. Ketogenic diets, when supervised by qualified medical professionals, can lead to significant amounts of weight loss in obese individuals, and they have proved promising in the treatment and management of epilepsy and certain forms of cancer. Video of the Day Ketosis results from the buildup of ketone bodies, which are a byproduct of fat metabolism. When blood sugar is not available for your body to be used as energy, your body will begin breaking down fat instead. When fat is broken down into glucose to be used for energy, ketone bodies are produced as a result, and circulate throughout your bloodstream, causing a state of ketosis. The ketone bodies are produced in your liver, and can be re-used for other metabolic processes involved in energy production, or excreted from your body through your urine. Ketone bodies have a positive ionic charge, making them very acidic. Your body normally maintains the acid-base balance in your bloodstream by bi-carbonate buffering and varying the amounts of CO2 in your bloodstream through respiration. However, when too many ketone bodies are present in your bloodstream, your body will not be able to balance the acids and bases, making your blood slightly acidic, a condition known as ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis may place excess stress on your liver Continue reading >>

Do Ketogenic Diets Help You Lose Weight?

Do Ketogenic Diets Help You Lose Weight?

Is a ketogenic diet effective for weight loss? The answer depends on whether it achieves a reduction in total kilojoule intake or not. What is a ketogenic diet? A classical ketogenic diet follows a strict ratio for total grams of fat to combined grams of carbohydrate and protein and typically has 80-90% of total kilojoules coming from fat, which is very high fat. Carbohydrate intake varies from 20 to 50 grams a day, or 5-10% of total energy, while protein intakes are moderate. The difference between a strict ketogenic diet and diets that are described as low-carb is that ketogenic diets specifically aim to achieve elevated blood levels of ketone bodies which are chemicals produced as a consequence of your body burning fat. Hence general low-carb diets are not as high in fat as classical ketogenic diets. Research on the use of classical ketogenic diets for weight loss is limited. But there are many studies that compare lower-carb diets to other approaches. These show that aiming for a carbohydrate restriction of 20-30 grams a day, without setting a daily kilojoule target, leads to 2-4 kilograms greater weight loss compared to a low kilojoule diet, in studies up to six months. In longer studies with follow-up between one to five years there is no difference in weight loss. A review of weight loss diets with a moderate carbohydrate restriction (45% or less of total energy intake) compared to low fat diets (under 30% fat) found they were equally effective in reducing body weight in studies from six months to two years. How much carbohydrate do we eat? In Australia, current carbohydrate intakes range from approximately 210 to 260 grams a day, or about 45% of total energy intake. More than a third of what Australians currently eat comes from discretionary, or "junk" foods. It Continue reading >>

More in ketosis