New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows
The author is a dairy practitioner and owner/partner in Countryside Veterinary Clinic, Lowville, N.Y. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs for maintenance and milk production, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. One common form of ketosis (Type I) occurs when a cow is in negative energy balance. She is not consuming enough energy to meet her metabolic needs. This generally occurs in early lactation when the cow's feed intake is unable to keep up with climbing milk production. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. The liver is the necessary organ to convert fat into usable energy (sugar). Think of the liver as a factory with an output limit. It can only convert so much fat into sugar. Once this pathway is overwhelmed, the liver produces ketones. Ketones can be used as an energy source, but they are much less efficient, and they cause the cow to feel sick. This becomes a downward spiral . . . the cow does not feel well, eats less, burns more fat, and makes more ketones. She now has clinical ketosis. Two other forms of ketosis can occur as a result of either "fat cow syndrome" or the consumption of forages high in butyric acid. "Fat cow" (or Type II) ketosis occurs when dry matter intake declines before freshening. This most commonly occurs in overconditioned cows but can also occur when dry matter intake is restricted to cows prior to freshening. This often is the result of overcrowding or improperly balanced prefresh rations. Cows with Type II ketosis are very difficult to manage and don't respond well to treatment. Butyric acid-induced ketosis is caused by the direct consumption of ketones in the diet. This causes poor dry matter intake and the obvious downward spiral as Continue reading >>
How Ketogenic Diets Curb Inflammation In The Brain
Ketogenic diets – extreme low-carbohydrate, high-fat regimens that have long been known to benefit epilepsy and other neurological illnesses – may work by lowering inflammation in the brain, according to new research by UC San Francisco scientists. The UCSF team has discovered a molecular key to the diet’s apparent effects, opening the door for new therapies that could reduce harmful brain inflammation following stroke and brain trauma by mimicking the beneficial effects of an extreme low-carb diet. “It's a key issue in the field – how to suppress inflammation in the brain after injury,” said Raymond Swanson, MD, a professor of neurology at UCSF, chief of the neurology service at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and senior author of the new study. In the paper, published online Sept. 22 in the journal Nature Communications, Swanson and his colleagues found the previously undiscovered mechanism by which a low-carbohydrate diet reduces inflammation in the brain. Importantly, the team identified a pivotal protein that links the diet to inflammatory genes, which, if blocked, could mirror the anti-inflammatory effects of ketogenic diets. “The ketogenic diet is very difficult to follow in everyday life, and particularly when the patient is very sick,” Swanson said. “The idea that we can achieve some of the benefits of a ketogenic diet by this approach is the really exciting thing here.” Low-Carb Benefits The high-fat, low-carbohydrate regimen of ketogenic diets changes the way the body uses energy. In response to the shortage of carb-derived sugars such as glucose, the body begins breaking down fat into ketones and ketoacids, which it can use as alternative fuels. In rodents, ketogenic diets – and caloric restriction, in general – are Continue reading >>
Tweet Ketosis is a state the body may find itself in either as a result of raised blood glucose levels or as a part of low carb dieting. Low levels of ketosis is perfectly normal. However, high levels of ketosis in the short term can be serious and the long term effects of regular moderate ketosis are only partially known at the moment. What is ketosis? Ketosis is a state the body goes into if it needs to break down body fat for energy. The state is marked by raised levels of ketones in the blood which can be used by the body as fuel. Ketones which are not used for fuel are excreted out of the body via the kidneys and the urine. Is ketosis the same as ketoacidosis? There is often confusion as to the difference between ketosis and ketoacidosis. Ketosis is the state whereby the body is producing ketones. In ketosis, the level of ketones in the blood can be anything between normal to very high. Diabetic ketoacidosis, also known as DKA, only describes the state in which the level of ketones is either high or very high. In ketoacidosis, the amount of ketones in the blood is sufficient to turn the blood acidic, which is a dangerous medical state. When does ketosis occur? Ketosis will take place when the body needs energy and there is not sufficient glucose available for the body. This can typically happen when the body is lacking insulin and blood glucose levels become high. Other causes can be the result of being on a low carb diet. A low level of carbohydrate will lead to low levels of insulin, and therefore the body will produce ketones which do not rely on insulin to get into and fuel the body’s cells. A further cause of ketosis, less relevant to people with diabetes, is a result of excessive alcohol consumption. Is ketosis dangerous? The NHS describes ketosis as a pote Continue reading >>
How Can I Keep Muscle While In Ketosis?
Ketogenic diets are great for shocking the body and work very well when body fat levels are somewhat higher (over 12%). Below that, and considering you need to keep protein intake at high levels, muscle retention will suffer as your metabolism will start dropping and your body will prefer to use and break down your much-more-energy-demanding muscle fiber, instead of your necessary-for-survival fat pockets (according to your dna's blueprint). Switch to a high protein diet (0.9 - 1gr of protein per pound of weight daily) with some decent carbs (cycling them between lifting and rest days) to maintain decent testosterone levels, which you need for muscle retention and to avoid the flat look. As long as you are on a deficit (20-25% below maintenance) and your protein is high, while lifting as heavy as before at least twice a week (you might want to leave some additional rest time too), you're golden. Throw in some carb up days on heavy lifting days, as well as occasional diet breaks (every 2 months at least) for a linear drop down to single digits. Continue reading >>
How Many Carbs In Total Can An Athlete Get Away With To Be In Ketosis?
To answer your question directly: 50g is the maximum level generally advised by Phinney and Volek (researchers in this area) in their bookto not interfere with ketosis and the desired liver, muscle and other adaptations one is trying to promote. And this is a general level, not specific for athletes, So for an athlete, particularly one training as frequently as you, 50g should in theory be just fine. (I should mention, though I suppose you already know this, that in general many advise particularly in the first few weeks/months, to limit carb intake even further, to no more than 25g ideally, as some people are extremely sensitive to the presence of carbs and even such a slight increase can severely hamper the liver and muscle adaptations you’re trying to promote.) So, the slightly more nuanced answer would be that it really depends on your particular metabolism is at this point, the level of carbs you’re interested in, and the quantity and type of exercise you do and how this affects your glycogen stores. Consequently, ideally you should do a bit of self experimentation and find out whether 50g of carbs cause you trouble or not. But again, 50g is really not that much, and you do quite a lot of exercise, so all else being equal I’d be surprised if 50g (or even somewhat more) cause you trouble given the amount of exercise you do. The good news is that eventually (if my own experience is anything to go by) you should find you can be a lot more loose with that quantity and frequency of carbs you consume, if you do sufficient amounts of exercise to offset the carbs you consume. Peter Attia also mentions this in his talk “An Advantaged Metabolic State: Human Performance, Resilience & Health” (from about minute 44–47, but really the entire video is worth watchin Continue reading >>
What Are The Differences Between Shia And Sunni Muslims?
Huge fight emerged after the death of the Prophet Muhammad(PBUH) in 632 and the Muslim community was left without a leader and a successor to the Prophet. Huge clashes and disputes arose over who should succeed Prophet Mohammad(PBUH) and lead the rapidly growing faith. Few thought that a new leader should be chosen by consensus, others thought that only the Prophet’s descendants should become the caliph. The title passed to a trusted aide, Abu Bakr, although some thought it should have gone to Ali, the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law. Ali eventually did become caliph after Abu Bakr’s two successors were assassinated. After Ali also was assassinated, with a poison-laced sword at the mosque in Kufa, what is now Iraq, his sons Hasan and then Hussein claimed the title. But Hussein and many of his relatives were massacred in Karbala, Iraq, in 680. His martyrdom became a central tenet to those who believed that Ali should have succeeded the Prophet. (It is mourned every year during the month of Muharram). The followers became known as Shias, a contraction of the phrase Shiat Ali, or followers of Ali. The Sunnis, however, regard the first three caliphs before Ali as rightly guided and themselves as the true adherents to the Sunnah, or the Prophet’s tradition. Sunni rulers embarked on sweeping conquests that extended the caliphate into North Africa and Europe. The last caliphate ended with the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War-I. The Sunni and Shia sects hold within a wide spectrum of doctrine, opinion thoughts. The branches are in agreement on most aspects of Islam, but there are considerable disagreements within each. Both branches include worshippers who run the spectrum from secular to fundamentalist. The Shias consider Ali and the leaders who came after hi Continue reading >>
How To Detect Ketosis
How can you tell if your low-carbing efforts have been effective enough to induce ketosis? Learn how to check your ketones! The state of ketosis The state of ketosis means that the body has switched from depending on carbohydrates for energy to burning fats for fuel. This means not only dietary fats (olive oil, guacamole, deep-fried pig ears), but also all the jiggly bits around your waist — clearly a desirable state for anyone looking to shed extra weight. When the body metabolizes fat, it generates molecules called ketones (also known as ketone bodies). As you restrict carbohydrate intake and amp up the dietary fat, more fat is metabolized and a greater quantity of ketones are created. Most of the cells in your body — including those in your brain — are able to use ketones for energy, although many people experience a few days’ adjustment period, often called the low carb flu. One of the varieties of ketones generated — acetone — cannot be used by the body and is excreted as waste, mostly in the urine and the breath. Conveniently, this makes it very simple to measure whether or not you are in ketosis. Upon entering ketosis, some people report a distinct change in the smell of their breath as a result of the extra released acetone. It could be “fruity” — it’s been likened to overripe apples — or even “metallic.” If you notice this happening during your first few days of changing your diet, it could be a good sign you’re in ketosis. The unusual smell isn’t anything dangerous, but it could be annoying. Drinking plenty of water should help, or get yourself some sugar-free gum. Most people report “keto-breath” diminishing after the first few weeks. Detecting ketones in urine The more accurate way — and the one we recommend — to check f Continue reading >>
The Process Of Ketosis
Ketosis is a form of acidosis, a disruption in the pH balance of your body, that results from the presence of excessive ketones in your blood. Ketones, or ketone bodies, are a byproduct of fat metabolism. They are released when fat is broken down for energy. Ketosis is a condition that is common during starvation and acute attacks of diabetes. The presence of large amounts of ketone bodies in your bloodstream may lead to a condition called ketoacidosis, which may result in adverse side effects. Ketogenic diets, when supervised by qualified medical professionals, can lead to significant amounts of weight loss in obese individuals, and they have proved promising in the treatment and management of epilepsy and certain forms of cancer. Video of the Day Ketosis results from the buildup of ketone bodies, which are a byproduct of fat metabolism. When blood sugar is not available for your body to be used as energy, your body will begin breaking down fat instead. When fat is broken down into glucose to be used for energy, ketone bodies are produced as a result, and circulate throughout your bloodstream, causing a state of ketosis. The ketone bodies are produced in your liver, and can be re-used for other metabolic processes involved in energy production, or excreted from your body through your urine. Ketone bodies have a positive ionic charge, making them very acidic. Your body normally maintains the acid-base balance in your bloodstream by bi-carbonate buffering and varying the amounts of CO2 in your bloodstream through respiration. However, when too many ketone bodies are present in your bloodstream, your body will not be able to balance the acids and bases, making your blood slightly acidic, a condition known as ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis may place excess stress on your liver Continue reading >>
How Can I Get Back Into Ketosis?
What is the fastest way to get into ketosis? It’s FASTING. When liver glycogen gets depleted, the liver will then start producing ketones that begin to provide energy to the body. You can get into ketosis and stay there if you were to fast and not eat any calories for 3+ days. However, this may not happen even if you try very hard. What stops you from getting into ketosis are elevated blood sugar levels caused by too much cortisol and stress. I’m about to share with you some pointers. Drink salted water during your fast. To control cortisol and balance those electrolytes. Working out may seem reasonable but it can be counterproductive. You don’t need to exercise hard to empty your liver glycogen because they will be depleted within the first day already. This is the fastest way to get into ketosis and start a ketogenic diet as a long term thing. You’ll start reaping the actual benefits only after 3-4 weeks. Check out my video: Continue reading >>
Vascular Plaque Reduction With Ketogenic Diet – A Case Study
Does your diet really reverse vascular disease? I mean, will the diet you’re following ACTUALLY reverse the plaque burden that has occurred over the years of eating the SAD diet (Standard American Diet)? It appears that the ketogenic diet does. At least that’s what research is showing, and that’s what I am seeing clinically. Let me give you an example. Reversal of vascular disease is what I saw last week in this patient case study in my office. Meet “Mrs. Plaque” (name has been changed to protect her identity). She is a very pleasant 78 year old female who has been seeing me as a patient for the last 10 years. We identified worsening cholesterol and hyperinsulinemia in this patient a few years ago, and last year, she finally decided to go on a ketogenic diet after we noted slight worsening blood sugar (HbA1c increased to 6.1%), worsening cholesterol and a recent TIA (transient ischemic attack or “mini stroke”). We identified a 44% blockage in her left internal carotid artery and a 21% blockage in the right internal carotid artery putting her at risk for further cerebral ischemic events like a stroke and/or other vascular events like a possible heart attack down the road. She refused STATIN therapy as she had previous myalgia and side effects with their use in the past. Past Medical History: Hyperlipidemia, Impaired Fasting Glucose (Pre-Diabetes),.Asthma, GERD, Irritable Bowel, Generalized Anxiety, Idiopathic Peripheral Neuropathy, Surgical Menopause (Hysterectomy) with Secondary Atrophic Vaginitis, Recent TIA, Cataracts, Appendectomy Medications: Plavix 75mg one daily, Premarin Cream 0.635mg every other day, Xanax 0.5mg at bedtime for anxiety, Lyrica 50mg one nightly for neuropathy, Vitamin D 2000 IU daily , TUMS 750mg twice a day. Her carotid ultrasound a Continue reading >>
Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?
Ketosis is a normal metabolic process. When the body does not have enough glucose for energy, it burns stored fats instead; this results in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body. Some people encourage ketosis by following a diet called the ketogenic or low-carb diet. The aim of the diet is to try and burn unwanted fat by forcing the body to rely on fat for energy, rather than carbohydrates. Ketosis is also commonly observed in patients with diabetes, as the process can occur if the body does not have enough insulin or is not using insulin correctly. Problems associated with extreme levels of ketosis are more likely to develop in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with type 2 diabetes patients. Ketosis occurs when the body does not have sufficient access to its primary fuel source, glucose. Ketosis describes a condition where fat stores are broken down to produce energy, which also produces ketones, a type of acid. As ketone levels rise, the acidity of the blood also increases, leading to ketoacidosis, a serious condition that can prove fatal. People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to develop ketoacidosis, for which emergency medical treatment is required to avoid or treat diabetic coma. Some people follow a ketogenic (low-carb) diet to try to lose weight by forcing the body to burn fat stores. What is ketosis? In normal circumstances, the body's cells use glucose as their primary form of energy. Glucose is typically derived from dietary carbohydrates, including: sugar - such as fruits and milk or yogurt starchy foods - such as bread and pasta The body breaks these down into simple sugars. Glucose can either be used to fuel the body or be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. If there is not enough glucose available to meet energy demands, th Continue reading >>
Human Nutrition Test 3
Sort List of carbohydrates for classification; which of these has the sweetest taste? Will this sugar offer a Caloric/sweet taste advantage used in cooked foods? Which of these binds cholesterol in the gut? Which of these is stored in the liver? -lactose, galactose, sucrose, starch, maltose, cellulose, glucose, fructose, glycogen -fructose is sweetest, yes -fiber (cellulose) Define 'impaired glucose tolerance' and '2 hour post prandial.' Be able to describe when they are used. -impaired glucose tolerance = pre-diabetic state of hyperglycemia->excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma -a postprandial glucose test is a blood glucose test that determines the amount of a glucose in the blood after a meal -a 2 hour post prandial measures blood glucose exactly 2 hours after eating a meal, timed from the start of the meal -by this point blood sugar has usually gone back down in healthy people, but it may still be elevated in people with diabetes -thus, it serves as a test of whether a person may have diabetes, or of whether a person who has diabetes is successfully controlling their blood sugar Define glycemic effect. Discuss the controversy related to usefulness of glycemic index. glycemic response= how quickly glucose is absorbed after a person eats, how high blood glucose rises, and how quickly it returns to normal -opposition to use of glycemic idex argue that it is not sufficiently supported by scientific research; values vary because of differences in the physical and chemical characteristics of foods, testing methods of laboratories, and digestive processes of individuals -practical utility of GI is limited bc info is neither provided on food labels nor intuitively apparent Jen skips breakfast. About 9:30am she begins to feel hungry and grabs a cola dri Continue reading >>
Ketosis & Measuring Ketones
Generally, ketone concentrations are lower in the morning and higher in the evening. Whatever time you pick to measure ketone levels, make sure to keep it consistent. Also, do not measure your ketone levels right after exercise. Ketone levels tend to be lower while your glucose levels higher so you won't get representative numbers. Keep in mind there are daily fluctuations caused by changes in hormone levels. Don't get discouraged! Another aspect that affects the level of ketones is the amount of fat in your diet. Some of you may show higher concentration of ketones after a high-fat meal. Coconut oil contains MCTs that will help you boost ketones. To easily increase your fat intake on a ketogenic diet, try fat bombs - snacks with at least 80% fat content. Ketone levels tend to be higher after extensive aerobic exercise as your body depletes glycogen stores. Exercise may help you get into ketosis faster. ketogenic "fruity" breath is not pleasant for most people. To avoid this, drink a lot of water, mint tea and make sure you eat foods rich in electrolytes. Avoid too many chewing gums and mints, as it may put you out of ketosis; there may be hidden carbs affecting your blood sugar. Increase your electrolyte intake, especially potassium. You are likely going to lose some sodium and potassium when switching to the keto diet. Finally, if you find it hard to lose weight on a ketogenic diet, there may be plenty other reasons than the level of ketone bodies: Not Losing Weight on Low-Carb Ketogenic Diet? Don’t Give Up and Read Further. Continue reading >>
Nutrition And Traumatic Brain Injury: Improving Acute And Subacute Health Outcomes In Military Personnel.
Go to: Since their development to treat epileptic children in 1921, ketogenic diets have been most studied in the context of pediatric epilepsy syndromes (Kossoff et al., 2009), but the ketogenic diet has been further shown to be neuroprotective in animal models of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease, hypoxia, glutamate toxicity, ischemia, and traumatic brain injury (TBI) (see Prins, 2008, for a review). Neurodegenerative disorders and other CNS injuries share some common pathophysiological events with the metabolic injury cascade that follows TBI, such as the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction. Despite evidence of efficacy and a track record of clinical use and animal research on the ketogenic diet’s antiepileptic action, the mechanisms by which the ketogenic diet confers neuroprotection are still poorly understood. The effect of the ketogenic diet on energy metabolism is believed to be a key contributor to the diet’s neuroprotective action, possibly by increasing resistance to metabolic stress and resilience to neuronal loss through the upregulation of energy metabolism genes, stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and enhancement of alternative energy substrates (Bough, 2008; Bough et al., 2006; Davis et al., 2008; Gasior et al., 2006). The ketogenic diet is also hypothesized to promote neuroinhibitory actions. One aspect of this hypothesis is an associated modification of the tricarboxylic acid cycle to increase the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), leading to neuronal hyperpolarization (Bough and Rho, 2007). GABA is the primary inhibitor of neurotransmission, making a neuron more refractory to abnormal firing Continue reading >>
The Beginners Guide To Ketosis: Investigating Low-carb, High-fat Eating
The only hard and fast rule of health is that health is personal and what works well for one person may not work for someone else. Aside from that rule, there are “frameworks” that seem to benefit large groups of people. One more level down from that are alternative strategies that benefit smaller groups. Ketosis is likely one of those alternative strategies that works well for certain, smaller groups of people. So, right off the bat I want you to understand that Ketosis might not be for everyone. I’m going to lay out the case for potential benefits of Ketosis. If it sounds interesting and beneficial to you, then consider trying it. (see our free cheat sheet to help you). What is Ketosis Ketosis occurs when liver glycogen gets depleted and the body burns fatty acids for fuel. The primary driver of this state is a very low carbohydrate intake. Often, it also requires a low protein, higher fat intake. You can also achieve a state of ketosis by not eating altogether. The creation of ketones is a byproduct of this metabolic state. Ketones are a source of fuel, just as glucose is a source of fuel. Ketones tend to have some added benefits, though. What role does Ketosis play in human health? Ketosis allows our bodies to function in the absence of carbohydrates, both physically and mentally. Instead of burning carbohydrates, or converting protein to glucose, the body burns ketones. This is pretty much a survival mechanism. It allows your body to function in a state of caloric deprivation. This is why ketosis often gets bad press (as it’s linked to “starvation”). Being a survival mechanism doesn’t make it invalid as a strategy, though. There can still be potential benefits to be had. Let’s cover a few of them… Ketosis and Accelerated Fat Loss Being in ketosis Continue reading >>