Canine Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)
Canine diabetic ketoacidosis, sometimes known as DKA, is a potentially fatal disease that most commonly occurs in dogs with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, although in rare cases it has been known to appear in nondiabetic dogs. This condition symptomatically resembles that of diabetes but usually goes unnoticed until a near-fatal situation is at hand. For this reason, it is important to understand the causes, symptoms and treatment options. How Canine Diabetic Ketoacidosis Develops Under normal conditions, the pancreas is responsible for producing insulin, which helps to regulate the level of glucose in the blood cells. When the pancreas is ineffectively able to create enough insulin, a dog becomes diabetic. By default, a dog's body will begin looking for alternative fuel sources, such as fat. The problem is that when too much fat is consumed by the body, the liver then begins to produce ketones. This excessive level of ketones causes the condition known as canine diabetic ketoacidosis. There are two scenarios in which this can occur: in dogs with poorly controlled diabetes and in dogs with undiagnosed diabetes. Recognizing the Symptoms Because of the potentially deadly side effects, it is crucially important that dog owners be aware of the symptoms of canine diabetic ketoacidosis. One of the more common problems associated with this illness is the extreme similarity of the warning signs to a diabetic condition. While both conditions are harmful, canine diabetic ketoacidosis represents the last step taken by the body before it surrenders to the condition. The following are some of the recognizable symptoms of canine diabetic ketoacidosis: Drinking or urinating more than usual Sudden, excessive weight loss attributed to loss of appetite General fatigue Vomiting Sudden on Continue reading >>
What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a buildup of acids in your blood. It can happen when your blood sugar is too high for too long. It could be life-threatening, but it usually takes many hours to become that serious. You can treat it and prevent it, too. It usually happens because your body doesn't have enough insulin. Your cells can't use the sugar in your blood for energy, so they use fat for fuel instead. Burning fat makes acids called ketones and, if the process goes on for a while, they could build up in your blood. That excess can change the chemical balance of your blood and throw off your entire system. People with type 1 diabetes are at risk for ketoacidosis, since their bodies don't make any insulin. Your ketones can also go up when you miss a meal, you're sick or stressed, or you have an insulin reaction. DKA can happen to people with type 2 diabetes, but it's rare. If you have type 2, especially when you're older, you're more likely to have a condition with some similar symptoms called HHNS (hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome). It can lead to severe dehydration. Test your ketones when your blood sugar is over 240 mg/dL or you have symptoms of high blood sugar, such as dry mouth, feeling really thirsty, or peeing a lot. You can check your levels with a urine test strip. Some glucose meters measure ketones, too. Try to bring your blood sugar down, and check your ketones again in 30 minutes. Call your doctor or go to the emergency room right away if that doesn't work, if you have any of the symptoms below and your ketones aren't normal, or if you have more than one symptom. You've been throwing up for more than 2 hours. You feel queasy or your belly hurts. Your breath smells fruity. You're tired, confused, or woozy. You're having a hard time breathing. Continue reading >>
How Can Flu Be Fatal?
People at great risk for serious complications are those over 65 years and those with chronic medical illnesses . Influenza A is the most severe strain. Influenza B tends to be milder. Pneumonia is the major complication of influenza and can be very serious. It can develop about 5 days after viral influenza. More than 90% of the deaths caused by influenza and pneumonia occur among older adults. Flu-related pneumonia occurs in high-risk individuals, such as the following: People with weak immune systems, such as AIDS Elderly patients Very young children Hospitalized patients And anyone with serious medical conditions, such as diabetes, heart, circulation, or lung disorders, particularly chronic lung disease Combinations of these factors further increase the risk. It should be noted that pneumonia is an uncommon outcome of influenza in healthy adults. Influenza increases the risk for complications in the central nervous system of small children. Febrile seizures are the most common neurologic complication in children especially infants . Continue reading >>
High Blood Sugars (ketoacidosis)
Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome Severe high blood sugars, ketosis (the presence of ketones prior to acidification of the blood), and ketoacidosis (DKA) are serious and potentially life-threatening medical problems which can occur in diabetes. High blood sugars become life-threatening in Type 1 or long-term Type 2 diabetes only when that person does not receive enough insulin from injections or an insulin pump. This can be caused by skipping insulin or not receiving enough insulin when large amounts are required due to an infection or other major stress. Ketoacidosis surprisingly occurs almost as often in Type 2 diabetes as it does in Type 1. However, people with Type 2 diabetes also encounter another dangerous condition called hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome, which is roughly translated as thick blood due to very high blood sugars. Here, coma and death can occur simply because the blood sugar is so high. The blood will have ketones at higher levels but does not become acidotic. HHS usually occurs with blood sugar readings above 700 mg/dl (40 mmol) as the brain and other functions begin to shut down. When insulin levels are low, the body cannot use glucose present at high levels in the blood. The body then starts burning excessive amounts of fat which causes the blood to become acidic as excess ketone byproducts are produced. Even though the blood pH which measures acidity only drops from its normal level of 7.4 down to 7.1 or 7.0, this small drop is enough to inactivate enzymes that depend on a precise acid-base balance to operate. High blood sugars and ketoacidosis can be triggered by: not taking insulin severe infection severe illness bad insulin In Type 1 diabetes, ketoacidosis often occurs under the duress of an infection, and is also freque Continue reading >>
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious problem that can occur in people with diabetes if their body starts to run out of insulin. This causes harmful substances called ketones to build up in the body, which can be life-threatening if not spotted and treated quickly. DKA mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes, it's important to be aware of the risk and know what to do if DKA occurs. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis Signs of DKA include: needing to pee more than usual being sick breath that smells fruity (like pear drop sweets or nail varnish) deep or fast breathing feeling very tired or sleepy passing out DKA can also cause high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) and a high level of ketones in your blood or urine, which you can check for using home-testing kits. Symptoms usually develop over 24 hours, but can come on faster. Check your blood sugar and ketone levels Check your blood sugar level if you have symptoms of DKA. If your blood sugar is 11mmol/L or over and you have a blood or urine ketone testing kit, check your ketone level. If you do a blood ketone test: lower than 0.6mmol/L is a normal reading 0.6 to 1.5mmol/L means you're at a slightly increased risk of DKA and should test again in a couple of hours 1.6 to 2.9mmol/L means you're at an increased risk of DKA and should contact your diabetes team or GP as soon as possible 3mmol/L or over means you have a very high risk of DKA and should get medical help immediately If you do a urine ketone test, a result of more than 2+ means there's a high chance you have DKA. When to get medical help Go to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department straight away if you think you have DKA, especially if you have a high level of ketones in Continue reading >>
How Do You Get Abs?
Short Answer: Watch what you eat! Detailed answer: All types of fat don’t actually make you fat. If you have a belly that you’re finding hard to get rid of, despite a low-fat diet; chances are, you’re consuming a lot of carbohydrates. Lemme break it down. There are two types of carbohydrates. Simple carbs – Composed only of sugar (glucose and fructose) which break down much faster in the body leading to fast and increased blood sugar levels. Complex carbs – Carbs that have a more complex sugar structure - contain fiber, vitamins and mineral which take a longer time to digest which means, the rise in blood-sugar is slower and gradual. When we eat, Insulin is released from our pancreas, signalling that the body has just been fed. It travels in the blood stream and opens up the cells (in various muscles and tissues) in our body to transport the required amounts of glucose (blood-sugar) to them. At this point, our body starts using the nutrients that we’ve just consumed and stops burning the stored fat. These cells need only a certain amount of glucose and cannot store everything that has been consumed. Once these cells fill up, the transport is stopped and all of the remaining blood-sugar that HAS TO BE put away somewhere, is driven into the adipose tissues in your body a.k.a fat cells i.e. insulin now drives accumulation of fat. RECAP: Simple carbs are broken down faster and spike your insulin levels higher. Higher your insulin levels, more fat gain over time. Something that not a lot of us know about is what they call ‘Glycemic Index’ – An index that ranks carbohydrates on a scale of 0-100 based on how fast these carbs are broken down and how soon blood-sugar levels rise in our body, 100 being the fastest. Carbs that have a rating of 55 or less are cons Continue reading >>
Ketoacidosis: A Complication Of Diabetes
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious condition that can occur as a complication of diabetes. People with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) have high blood sugar levels and a build-up of chemicals called ketones in the body that makes the blood more acidic than usual. Diabetic ketoacidosis can develop when there isn’t enough insulin in the body for it to use sugars for energy, so it starts to use fat as a fuel instead. When fat is broken down to make energy, ketones are made in the body as a by-product. Ketones are harmful to the body, and diabetic ketoacidosis can be life-threatening. Fortunately, treatment is available and is usually successful. Symptoms Ketoacidosis usually develops gradually over hours or days. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis may include: excessive thirst; increased urination; tiredness or weakness; a flushed appearance, with hot dry skin; nausea and vomiting; dehydration; restlessness, discomfort and agitation; fruity or acetone smelling breath (like nail polish remover); abdominal pain; deep or rapid breathing; low blood pressure (hypotension) due to dehydration; and confusion and coma. See your doctor as soon as possible or seek emergency treatment if you develop symptoms of ketoacidosis. Who is at risk of diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis usually occurs in people with type 1 diabetes. It rarely affects people with type 2 diabetes. DKA may be the first indication that a person has type 1 diabetes. It can also affect people with known diabetes who are not getting enough insulin to meet their needs, either due to insufficient insulin or increased needs. Ketoacidosis most often happens when people with diabetes: do not get enough insulin due to missed or incorrect doses of insulin or problems with their insulin pump; have an infection or illne Continue reading >>
Can Invokana Trigger Diabetic Ketoacidosis?
Invokana Research has shown that taking the diabetes drug Invokana (canagliflozin) can trigger diabetic ketoacidosis, a potentially fatal condition. Invokana is used to treat Type 2 diabetes. There are more than 450,000 Invokana prescriptions filled every three months in the United States. The drug is made and marketed by Janssen, a partner of Johnson & Johnson. It was the first drug of its kind to treat Type 2 diabetes and drug makers were hopeful it would help patients who did not respond to other diabetes drugs. Sadly, it has been linked to many medical risks, including potentially deadly diabetic ketoacidosis. Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is a disease that affects the body’s ability to process insulin. The disease affects about nine million Americans. Over time, it can lead to high blood pressure, heart disease, blindness, kidney disease, damage to the feet and hands, and other health problems. In order for the body to manage sugar and turn it into energy, insulin must help cells absorb it. When this does not happen because of problems with insulin, sugar remains in the blood system, causing blood glucose levels to raise to unhealthy levels. This is why diabetics must pay attention to their blood sugar. About Invokana Invokana is part of a group of drugs known as SGLT2 anti-diabetics. It works by preventing glucose from being reabsorbed by the kidneys. It also allows excess sugar to be let out in urine. Studies have shown Invokana users excrete up to 450 calories of extra sugar in urine. Despite Invokana working for some users, it comes with a variety of side effects. Most are mild and might be a problem with all diabetes medications, including: Yeast infection Urinary tract infection Nausea Fatigue Photosensitivity Increased LDL (bad) cholesterol One of the bi Continue reading >>
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious complications of untreated diabetes. In this complication, severely insufficient insulin levels in the body results into high blood sugar that leads to the production and buildup of ketones in the blood. These ketones are slightly acidic, and large amounts of them can lead to ketoacidosis. If remained untreated, the condition leads to diabetic coma and may be fatal. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) gets triggered by a stressful event on the body, such as an illness or severe lack of insulin. DKA is more common in people with type 1 diabetes. In some cases, identification of DKA is the first indication that a person has diabetes. Early Sluggish and extreme tiredness Fruity smell to breath (like acetone) Extreme thirst, despite large fluid intake Constant urination/bedwetting Extreme weight loss Presence of Oral Thrush or yeast infections that fail to go away Muscle wasting Agitation / Irritation / Aggression / Confusion Late At this stage, Diabetic ketoacidosis reaches a life-threatening level: Vomiting. Although this can be a sign of hyperglycemia and isn't always a late-stage sign, it can occur with or without ketoacidosis. Confusion Abdominal pain Loss of appetite Flu-like symptoms Unconsciousness (diabetic coma) Being lethargic and apathetic Extreme weakness Kussmaul breathing (air hunger). In this condition, patients breathe more deeply and/or more rapidly The major risk factors accelerating on set of diabetic ketoacidosis include the following: Diabetes mellitus: Type 1 diabetics are at a higher risk of DKA, because they must rely on outside insulin sources for survival. DKA can occur in patients with type 2, particularly in obese children. Age: DKA may occur at any age, but younger people below 19 years of age are more susceptib Continue reading >>
How Can Sepsis Be Fatal?
Sepsis is a life-threatening illness caused by your body’s response to an infection. Your immune system protects you from many illnesses and infections, but it’s also possible for it to go into overdrive in response to an infection. Sepsis develops when the chemicals the immune system releases into the bloodstream to fight an infection cause inflammation throughout the entire body instead. Severe cases of sepsis can lead toseptic shock , which is a medical emergency. People may experience: Whole body: chills, dizziness, fatigue, fever, flushing, low blood pressure, low body temperature, or shivering Respiratory: fast breathing, rapid breathing, respiratory distress, or shortness of breath Cognitive: altered level of consciousness or mental confusion Also common: delirium, fast heart rate, insufficient urine production, organ dysfunction, skin discolouration, or sleepiness Significantly decreased urine output Abrupt change in mental status Decrease in platelet count Difficulty breathing Abnormal heart pumping function Abdominal pain When organs get’s damaged they function improperly and we all know that to live healthy our organs should work properly. Heart,Brain,Lungs,Kidneys,Liver are vital organs.Any damage to them will cause improper functioning in body and severity will ultimately leads to death! Continue reading >>
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)
Diabetic ketoacidosis, also called DKA, is a life-threatening complication occurring with undiagnosed and/or untreated Type 1 diabetes in adults and children. DKA symptoms often remain undiagnosed because they can look like (mimic) influenza, a stomach bug, strep infections, and other common illnesses and conditions. However, someone may actually have a common illness and DKA at the same time, causing the common illness symptoms to hide (mask) the underlying DKA symptoms. Either way, untreated Type 1 diabetes and DKA are 100% fatal. IMPORTANT: Diabetic ketoacidosis is LIFE-THREATENING and can progress quickly–often within 24 hours! If you or a loved one have any of the following symptoms with VOMITING AND LETHARGY COMBINED WITH LABORED BREATHING, do not consume sugar and seek emergency medical care immediately. Insist medical personnel Test One Drop of blood or urine for glucose (sugar) levels. DKA can be fatal! SYMPTOMS OF DKA: excessive thirst frequent urination or bedwetting increased appetite or sugar cravings abdominal pain irritability, grouchiness, or mood changes headaches and/or vision changes itchy skin/genitals (yeast or thrush) sudden weight loss flushed, hot, dry skin nausea and vomiting* fruity/acetone scented breath* lethargy, drowsiness, or fatigue* labored, rapid, and/or deep breathing* confusion, stupor, or unconsciousness* *A combination of any of these symptoms can be life-threatening. Seek EMERGENCY CARE. When new onset Type 1 diabetes remains undiagnosed and untreated the shortage of insulin causes blood glucose (sugar) levels to climb above the normal range. Without adequate insulin to regulate levels of glucose in the blood, high levels of acids called ketones build up in the body causing diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketones are toxic and if l Continue reading >>
Diabetic Ketoacidosis Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, And Complications
Diabetic ketoacidosis definition and facts Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening complication of type 1 diabetes (though rare, it can occur in people with type 2 diabetes) that occurs when the body produces high levels of ketones due to lack of insulin. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body cannot produce enough insulin. The signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include Risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis are type 1 diabetes, and missing insulin doses frequently, or being exposed to a stressor requiring higher insulin doses (infection, etc). Diabetic ketoacidosis is diagnosed by an elevated blood sugar (glucose) level, elevated blood ketones and acidity of the blood (acidosis). The treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis is insulin, fluids and electrolyte therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis can be prevented by taking insulin as prescribed and monitoring glucose and ketone levels. The prognosis for a person with diabetic ketoacidosis depends on the severity of the disease and the other underlying medical conditions. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a severe and life-threatening complication of diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the cells in our body do not receive the sugar (glucose) they need for energy. This happens while there is plenty of glucose in the bloodstream, but not enough insulin to help convert glucose for use in the cells. The body recognizes this and starts breaking down muscle and fat for energy. This breakdown produces ketones (also called fatty acids), which cause an imbalance in our electrolyte system leading to the ketoacidosis (a metabolic acidosis). The sugar that cannot be used because of the lack of insulin stays in the bloodstream (rather than going into the cell and provide energy). The kidneys filter some of the glucose (suga Continue reading >>
Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and β-hydroxybutyrate. Ketoacidosis is a pathological metabolic state marked by extreme and uncontrolled ketosis. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal. Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. Prolonged alcoholism may lead to alcoholic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be smelled on a person's breath. This is due to acetone, a direct by-product of the spontaneous decomposition of acetoacetic acid. It is often described as smelling like fruit or nail polish remover. Ketosis may also give off an odor, but the odor is usually more subtle due to lower concentrations of acetone. Treatment consists most simply of correcting blood sugar and insulin levels, which will halt ketone production. If the severity of the case warrants more aggressive measures, intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion can be given to raise blood pH back to an acceptable range. However, serious caution must be exercised with IV sodium bicarbonate to avoid the risk of equally life-threatening hypernatremia. Cause Three common causes of ketoacidosis are alcohol, starvation, and diabetes, resulting in alcoholic ketoacidosis, starvation ketoacidosis, and diabetic ketoacidosis respectively. In diabetic ketoacidosis, a high concentration of ketone bodies is usually accomp Continue reading >>
Diabetic Ketoacidosis Explained
Twitter Summary: DKA - a major complication of #diabetes – we describe what it is, symptoms, who’s at risk, prevention + treatment! One of the most notorious complications of diabetes is diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA. First described in the late 19th century, DKA represented something close to the ultimate diabetes emergency: In just 24 hours, people can experience an onset of severe symptoms, all leading to coma or death. But DKA also represents one of the great triumphs of the revolution in diabetes care over the last century. Before the discovery of insulin in 1920, DKA was almost invariably fatal, but the mortality rate for DKA dropped to below 30 percent within 10 years, and now fewer than 1 percent of those who develop DKA die from it, provided they get adequate care in time. Don’t skip over that last phrase, because it’s crucial: DKA is very treatable, but only as long as it’s diagnosed promptly and patients understand the risk. Table of Contents: What are the symptoms of DKA? Does DKA occur in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes? What Can Patients do to Prevent DKA? What is DKA? Insulin plays a critical role in the body’s functioning: it tells cells to absorb the glucose in the blood so that the body can use it for energy. When there’s no insulin to take that glucose out of the blood, high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) results. The body will also start burning fatty acids for energy, since it can’t get that energy from glucose. To make fatty acids usable for energy, the liver has to convert them into compounds known as ketones, and these ketones make the blood more acidic. DKA results when acid levels get too high in the blood. There are other issues too, as DKA also often leads to the overproduction and release of hormones like glucagon and adrenaline Continue reading >>
How Many Fatal Accidents Can Be Traced To Pilots Failing A Crosswind Landing?
The viral nature of the embedded video makes a question like this inevitable, and I'm happy to dig into it a bit for you. At the same time, I have to tell you that I'm not entirely comfortable with the "hero captain" references I've seen accompanying at least some of the coverage of it. I don't know what his company policies are regarding crosswind landings, and I don't know what his fuel state was, and I don't know the exact crosswind limitations are for a Boeing 777, but I have to wonder whether he even should have started the approach in the first place, let alone gotten so close to touchdown before deciding to go around. That's some scary last-minute stuff, and the decision-making leading up to it should at least be inquired into a bit. Okay -- that's the investigator in me venting. All better now! I decided to inquire into the NTSB database regarding this issue, because landing accidents still are among the most common types of accidents. The leading factor in landing accidents is an "unstabilized" approach, which usually refers to a situation where the proper airspeed and rate of descent haven't been established and maintained throughout final approach. In my experience, the presence of crosswinds hasn't been addressed with any real urgency in the context of landing accidents in general or unstabilized approaches in particular, so I was curious as to what the data would show. During the ten-year period from 2003 through 2012, there were just under 4,000 fatal accidents in the NTSB database. However, when I searched that timeframe for all types of accidents (both fatal and non-fatal) where the word "crosswind" was in the report, I was shocked to find more than 1,300 events returned. I changed the search parameters to look only for fatal accidents, and still got 113 Continue reading >>