diabetestalk.net

How Can Ketoacidosis Be Fatal

Diabetes Life Expectancy

Diabetes Life Expectancy

Tweet After diabetes diagnosis, many type 1 and type 2 diabetics worry about their life expectancy. Death is never a pleasant subject but it's human nature to want to know 'how long can I expect to live'. There is no hard and fast answer to the question of ‘how long can I expect to live’ as a number of factors influence one’s life expectancy. How soon diabetes was diagnosed, the progress of diabetic complications and whether one has other existing conditions will all contribute to one’s life expectancy - regardless of whether the person in question has type 1 or type 2 diabetes. How long can people with diabetes expect to live? Diabetes UK estimates in its report, Diabetes in the UK 2010: Key Statistics on Diabetes[5], that the life expectancy of someone with type 2 diabetes is likely to be reduced, as a result of the condition, by up to 10 years. People with type 1 diabetes have traditionally lived shorter lives, with life expectancy having been quoted as being reduced by over 20 years. However, improvement in diabetes care in recent decades indicates that people with type 1 diabetes are now living significantly longer. Results of a 30 year study by the University of Pittsburgh, published in 2012, noted that people with type 1 diabetes born after 1965 had a life expectancy of 69 years.[76] How does diabetic life expectancy compare with people in general? The Office for National Statistics estimates life expectancy amongst new births to be: 77 years for males 81 years for females. Amongst those who are currently 65 years old, the average man can expect to live until 83 years old and the average woman to live until 85 years old. What causes a shorter life expectancy in diabetics? Higher blood sugars over a period of time allow diabetic complications to set in, su Continue reading >>

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a buildup of acids in your blood. It can happen when your blood sugar is too high for too long. It could be life-threatening, but it usually takes many hours to become that serious. You can treat it and prevent it, too. It usually happens because your body doesn't have enough insulin. Your cells can't use the sugar in your blood for energy, so they use fat for fuel instead. Burning fat makes acids called ketones and, if the process goes on for a while, they could build up in your blood. That excess can change the chemical balance of your blood and throw off your entire system. People with type 1 diabetes are at risk for ketoacidosis, since their bodies don't make any insulin. Your ketones can also go up when you miss a meal, you're sick or stressed, or you have an insulin reaction. DKA can happen to people with type 2 diabetes, but it's rare. If you have type 2, especially when you're older, you're more likely to have a condition with some similar symptoms called HHNS (hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome). It can lead to severe dehydration. Test your ketones when your blood sugar is over 240 mg/dL or you have symptoms of high blood sugar, such as dry mouth, feeling really thirsty, or peeing a lot. You can check your levels with a urine test strip. Some glucose meters measure ketones, too. Try to bring your blood sugar down, and check your ketones again in 30 minutes. Call your doctor or go to the emergency room right away if that doesn't work, if you have any of the symptoms below and your ketones aren't normal, or if you have more than one symptom. You've been throwing up for more than 2 hours. You feel queasy or your belly hurts. Your breath smells fruity. You're tired, confused, or woozy. You're having a hard time breathing. Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis?: Signs, Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis?: Signs, Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) refers to a serious diabetes complication which happens when your body produces high amount of blood acids known as ketones. It is a very serious medical condition that could lead to diabetic coma or death. This life threatening medical condition happens when the body cells are unable to get the glucose they need for energy, because of a deficiency in insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose, a main source of energy for muscles and tissue, enter the body cells. When glucose cannot get into the body cells, it remains in the blood. The kidney will then filter some of the glucose from the blood, then excrete it from the body through the urine. When your body cells do not receive energy from glucose, they start to break body fat down into energy. When that happens, fatty acids or ketones are produced which then enter the bloodstream. This will lead to a chemical imbalance that causes DKA. Diabetic ketoacidosis mostly affect people with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in people with type 2 diabetes. The reason for this is because people with type 1 diabetes cannot produce enough insulin on their own. Lack of insulin allows your blood to become acidic. Because your body cells cannot make it under acidic conditions, the liver will secrete glucose to help the starving cells. Research shows that there are over 200,000 cases of patients suffering from DKA every year in the US alone. Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms There are signs and symptoms you can look out for to know if you have diabetic ketoacidosis. These signs and symptoms usually develop quickly and could indicate you have diabetes. If you are experiencing symptoms of DKA, you need to call your doctor immediately. If not treated, DKA can be fa Continue reading >>

Is Invokana More Dangerous Than Type 2 Diabetes?

Is Invokana More Dangerous Than Type 2 Diabetes?

New drug celebrated, side effects downplayed When it arrived on the market in March 2013, Invokana was hailed as a breakthrough way to treat Type 2 diabetes. It lowered blood sugar by excreting the excess in urine. Until it was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), all drugs for diabetes were designed to control insulin levels in the blood. Just as marvelous, according to TV commercials about Invokana, patients might lose weight and lower their blood pressure. Both were off label benefits not approved by the FDA. During the 4th quarter of 2014, little more than a year after it was approved, Invokana (in tandem with Invokamet) racked up $201 million in sales for Johnson & Johnson. It’s estimated that more than 29 million Americans have diabetes. The majority have Type 2 Diabetes, putting scores at risk for complications caused by Invokana and other SGLT2 drugs. Invokana’s cardiovascular risks initially downplayed Even as Invokana made its debut, Johnson & Johnson, the drug’s manufacturer, knew that it could pose serious cardiovascular risks. So did the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). But the federal agency did not require the drug company to list the risks on Invokana’s label. It stated that their significance was “unclear” even though clinical trials conducted before the drug was approved showed that within 30 days, it increased LDL and HDL cholesterol. A month after the FDA approved Invokana, doctors involved in the approval process said they had mixed opinions of the drug, urging more studies to address “unanswered safety questions” - in particular Invokana’s effect on the heart. Since then, numerous lawsuits have been filed nationwide by victims who say it caused their heart problems. Invokana causes ketoacidosis – a da Continue reading >>

What Is The Ph Of The Blood In A Diabetic Patient When His Glucose Levels Are Appropriate?

What Is The Ph Of The Blood In A Diabetic Patient When His Glucose Levels Are Appropriate?

Diabetes causes your body's pH levels to become more acidic and develop a condition called ketoacidosis, the American Diabetes Association explains. Your body's pH level refers to the acidity or alkalinity of the fluids in your body. Diabetes impairs your body's ability to properly utilize the glucose in your blood. Instead, your body is forced to convert fat into energy through a process that develops into ketoacidosis. Diagnosing ketoacidosis involves testing blood for the presence of ketones, the University of Maryland Medical Center explains. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is congenital, and its symptoms appear as early as childhood, MayoClinic.com explains. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by your body's inability to produce insulin, the hormone needed for cells to metabolize glucose into energy. Type 2 diabetes is essentially defined by acquired insulin resistance that usually manifests in adulthood. Both types of diabetes cause increased thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, hypertension and ketoacidosis. Left untreated, both types of diabetes lead to complications that damage your cardiovascular system, kidneys and nerves due to the accumulated glucose in your blood. Complications due to diabetes such as ketoacidosis are fatal if not treated. Ketones are the acidic byproducts of fat breakdown that accumulate when your body uses fat instead of glucose as a source of fuel, MedlinePlus, a service of the National Institutes of Health, explains. As your ketone levels increase, your body becomes more acidic. Ketones are present in both types of diabetes but are generally more typical of type 1 diabetes. Ketones are also sometimes present in urine. Acetone and acetoacetic acid are examples of ketones. Ketoacidosis does not happen o Continue reading >>

How Long Does Diabetes Ketoacidosis Last?

How Long Does Diabetes Ketoacidosis Last?

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a common complication of diabetes in children, which needs hospitalisation and can be fatal. In most cases of diabetic ketoacidosis, death is caused due to cerebral edema or complication of DKA. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can be the first sign or presenting symptom in some cases of type 1 diabetes (before diabetes is diagnosed or they have any other symptoms). According to studies, about 20 to 40% of newly diagnosed patients of type 1 diabetes are admitted in DKA. Duration of Diabetic ketoacidosis: with appropriate treatment (fluid replacement and insulin therapy), DKA can be corrected in about 24-48 hours (depending on the severity of DKA at presentation). In most cases, the duration of therapy is about 48 hours. Treatment for DKA aims to correct the metabolic abnormalities of DKA such as high blood sugar level, high ketone levels and serum osmolality with insulin and fluids. Treatment of DKA includes: Insulin replacement to correct blood glucose levels. Fluid and electrolyte replacement to correct dehydration and imbalance of electrolytes in the body. Treating the cause of DKA (such as infection, injury etc). Duration of fluid replacement: fluid is replaced slowly; if it is given at an excessive rate or more than required, it can cause brain swelling (cerebral edema). Most cases have a fluid deficit of about 10% or 100 ml/kg. Fluid is given intravenously (into a vein) slowly with the aim of replacing 50% of the fluid deficit during the first 12 hours of presentation and the remainder within the next 12-16 hours. As high blood sugar is corrected more rapidly than ketoacidosis (high blood ketone levels), glucose-containing fluids is given once the glucose falls to < 14 mmol/l to prevent the fall in blood glucose levels hypoglycaemia). Dur Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>

How Can Sepsis Be Fatal?

How Can Sepsis Be Fatal?

Sepsis is a life-threatening illness caused by your body’s response to an infection. Your immune system protects you from many illnesses and infections, but it’s also possible for it to go into overdrive in response to an infection. Sepsis develops when the chemicals the immune system releases into the bloodstream to fight an infection cause inflammation throughout the entire body instead. Severe cases of sepsis can lead toseptic shock , which is a medical emergency. People may experience: Whole body: chills, dizziness, fatigue, fever, flushing, low blood pressure, low body temperature, or shivering Respiratory: fast breathing, rapid breathing, respiratory distress, or shortness of breath Cognitive: altered level of consciousness or mental confusion Also common: delirium, fast heart rate, insufficient urine production, organ dysfunction, skin discolouration, or sleepiness Significantly decreased urine output Abrupt change in mental status Decrease in platelet count Difficulty breathing Abnormal heart pumping function Abdominal pain When organs get’s damaged they function improperly and we all know that to live healthy our organs should work properly. Heart,Brain,Lungs,Kidneys,Liver are vital organs.Any damage to them will cause improper functioning in body and severity will ultimately leads to death! Continue reading >>

Canine Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Canine Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Canine diabetic ketoacidosis, sometimes known as DKA, is a potentially fatal disease that most commonly occurs in dogs with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, although in rare cases it has been known to appear in nondiabetic dogs. This condition symptomatically resembles that of diabetes but usually goes unnoticed until a near-fatal situation is at hand. For this reason, it is important to understand the causes, symptoms and treatment options. How Canine Diabetic Ketoacidosis Develops Under normal conditions, the pancreas is responsible for producing insulin, which helps to regulate the level of glucose in the blood cells. When the pancreas is ineffectively able to create enough insulin, a dog becomes diabetic. By default, a dog's body will begin looking for alternative fuel sources, such as fat. The problem is that when too much fat is consumed by the body, the liver then begins to produce ketones. This excessive level of ketones causes the condition known as canine diabetic ketoacidosis. There are two scenarios in which this can occur: in dogs with poorly controlled diabetes and in dogs with undiagnosed diabetes. Recognizing the Symptoms Because of the potentially deadly side effects, it is crucially important that dog owners be aware of the symptoms of canine diabetic ketoacidosis. One of the more common problems associated with this illness is the extreme similarity of the warning signs to a diabetic condition. While both conditions are harmful, canine diabetic ketoacidosis represents the last step taken by the body before it surrenders to the condition. The following are some of the recognizable symptoms of canine diabetic ketoacidosis: Drinking or urinating more than usual Sudden, excessive weight loss attributed to loss of appetite General fatigue Vomiting Sudden on Continue reading >>

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Unfortunately, we veterinarians are seeing an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats. This is likely due to the growing prevalence of obesity (secondary to inactive lifestyle, a high carbohydrate diet, lack of exercise, etc.). So, if you just had a dog or cat diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, what do you do? First, we encourage you to take a look at these articles for an explanation of the disease: Diabetes Mellitus (Sugar Diabetes) in Dogs Once you have a basic understanding of diabetes mellitus (or if you already had one), this article will teach you about life-threatening complications that can occur as a result of the disease; specifically, I discuss a life-threatening condition called diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) so that you know how to help prevent it! What is DKA? When diabetes goes undiagnosed, or when it is difficult to control or regulate, the complication of DKA can occur. DKA develops because the body is so lacking in insulin that the sugar can’t get into the cells -- resulting in cell starvation. Cell starvation causes the body to start breaking down fat in an attempt to provide energy (or a fuel source) to the body. Unfortunately, these fat breakdown products, called “ketones,” are also poisonous to the body. Symptoms of DKA Clinical signs of DKA include the following: Weakness Not moving (in cats, hanging out by the water bowl) Not eating to complete anorexia Large urinary clumps in the litter box (my guideline? If it’s bigger than a tennis ball, it’s abnormal) Weight loss (most commonly over the back), despite an overweight body condition Excessively dry or oily skin coat Abnormal breath (typically a sweet “ketotic” odor) In severe cases DKA can also result in more significant signs: Abnormal breathing pattern Jaundice Ab Continue reading >>

[diabetic Ketoacidosis With A Fatal Issue: Is It A Mody3 (maturity-onset Diabetes Of The Young Type 3)?].

[diabetic Ketoacidosis With A Fatal Issue: Is It A Mody3 (maturity-onset Diabetes Of The Young Type 3)?].

Abstract Ketoacidotic coma is one of the possible diabetes mellitus first symptoms. It results from complete or relative lack of insuline and is often associated with type 1 diabetes. The authors report a case of a 45-years old woman with inaugural diabetes of which atypical features have motivated the study of MODY gene (maturity-onset diabetes of the young). Gly574ser polymorphism in the HNF-1alpha gene was found, in homozygous state, and the question of the responsibility of this polymorphism in this diabete is asked. Continue reading >>

Childhood Ketoacidosis

Childhood Ketoacidosis

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find one of our health articles more useful. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the leading cause of mortality in childhood diabetes.[1]The primary cause of DKA is absolute or relative insulin deficiency: Absolute - eg, previously undiagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus or a patient with known type 1 diabetes who does not take their insulin. Relative - stress causes a rise in counter-regulatory hormones with relative insulin deficiency. DKA can be fatal The usual causes of death are: Cerebral oedema - associated with 25% mortality (see 'Cerebral odedema', below). Hypokalaemia - which is preventable with good monitoring. Aspiration pneumonia - thus, use of a nasogastric tube in the semi-conscious or unconscious is advised. Deficiency of insulin. Rise in counter-regulatory hormones, including glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone, and catecholamines. Thus, inappropriate gluconeogenesis and liver glycogenolysis occur compounding the hyperglycaemia, which causes hyperosmolarity and ensuing polyuria, dehydration and loss of electrolytes. Accelerated catabolism from lipolysis of adipose tissue leads to increased free fatty acid circulation, which on hepatic oxidation produces the ketone bodies (acetoacetic acid and beta-hydroxybutyric acid) that cause the metabolic acidosis. A vicious circle is usually set up as vomiting usually occurs compounding the stress and dehydration; the cycle can only be broken by providing insulin and fluids; otherwise, severe acidosis occurs and can be fatal. Biochemical criteria The biochemical criteria required for a diagnosis of DKA to be made are Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

My dog is diabetic. He has been doing pretty well overall, but recently he became really ill. He stopped eating well, started drinking lots of water, and got really weak. His veterinarian said that he had a condition called “ketoacidosis,” and he had to spend several days in the hospital. I’m not sure I understand this disorder. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency that occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body to control blood sugar (glucose) levels. The body can’t use glucose properly without insulin, so blood glucose levels get very high, and the body creates ketone bodies as an emergency fuel source. When these are broken down, it creates byproducts that cause the body’s acid/base balance to shift, and the body becomes more acidic (acidosis), and it can’t maintain appropriate fluid balance. The electrolyte (mineral) balance becomes disrupted which can lead to abnormal heart rhythms and abnormal muscle function. If left untreated, diabetic ketoacidosis is fatal. How could this disorder have happened? If a diabetic dog undergoes a stress event of some kind, the body secretes stress hormones that interfere with appropriate insulin activity. Examples of stress events that can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis include infection, inflammation, and heart disease. What are the signs of diabetic ketoacidosis? The signs of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Excessive thirst/drinking Increased urination Lethargy Weakness Vomiting Increased respiratory rate Decreased appetite Weight loss (unplanned) with muscle wasting Dehydration Unkempt haircoat These same clinical signs can occur with other medical conditions, so it is important for your veterinarian to perform appropriate diagnostic tests to determine if diabetic ketoacidosis in truly the issue at hand Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis

Ketoacidosis

Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and β-hydroxybutyrate. Ketoacidosis is a pathological metabolic state marked by extreme and uncontrolled ketosis. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal.[1] Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. Prolonged alcoholism may lead to alcoholic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be smelled on a person's breath. This is due to acetone, a direct by-product of the spontaneous decomposition of acetoacetic acid. It is often described as smelling like fruit or nail polish remover.[2] Ketosis may also give off an odor, but the odor is usually more subtle due to lower concentrations of acetone. Treatment consists most simply of correcting blood sugar and insulin levels, which will halt ketone production. If the severity of the case warrants more aggressive measures, intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion can be given to raise blood pH back to an acceptable range. However, serious caution must be exercised with IV sodium bicarbonate to avoid the risk of equally life-threatening hypernatremia. Cause[edit] Three common causes of ketoacidosis are alcohol, starvation, and diabetes, resulting in alcoholic ketoacidosis, starvation ketoacidosis, and diabetic ketoacidosis respectively.[3] In diabetic ketoacidosis, a high concentration of ketone bodies is usually accomp Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious problem that can occur in people with diabetes if their body starts to run out of insulin. This causes harmful substances called ketones to build up in the body, which can be life-threatening if not spotted and treated quickly. DKA mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes, it's important to be aware of the risk and know what to do if DKA occurs. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis Signs of DKA include: needing to pee more than usual being sick breath that smells fruity (like pear drop sweets or nail varnish) deep or fast breathing feeling very tired or sleepy passing out DKA can also cause high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) and a high level of ketones in your blood or urine, which you can check for using home-testing kits. Symptoms usually develop over 24 hours, but can come on faster. Check your blood sugar and ketone levels Check your blood sugar level if you have symptoms of DKA. If your blood sugar is 11mmol/L or over and you have a blood or urine ketone testing kit, check your ketone level. If you do a blood ketone test: lower than 0.6mmol/L is a normal reading 0.6 to 1.5mmol/L means you're at a slightly increased risk of DKA and should test again in a couple of hours 1.6 to 2.9mmol/L means you're at an increased risk of DKA and should contact your diabetes team or GP as soon as possible 3mmol/L or over means you have a very high risk of DKA and should get medical help immediately If you do a urine ketone test, a result of more than 2+ means there's a high chance you have DKA. When to get medical help Go to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department straight away if you think you have DKA, especially if you have a high level of ketones in Continue reading >>

More in ketosis