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How Are Ketones Produced In The Body?

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Subscribe for videos on becoming superhuman: https://goo.gl/TSDCuv Lowering your caloric intake and doing intermittent fasting has a ton of health benefits on both your body and your mind. Herman Hesse said in his novel, Siddhartha: Everyone can perform magic, everyone can reach his goals, if he is able to think, if he is able to wait, if he is able to fast. Numerous studies have shown that caloric restriction increases the lifespan and youthfulness of almost all species, starting with fruit flies and ending with rhesus monkeys. In humans, there is no definite anti-aging proof but fastings been shown to improve biomarkers, reduce inflammation, promote stem cell growth, boost the immune system and make you burn a ton of fat. However, the key to successfully gaining these health benefits comes from avoiding malnutrition and starvation. Theres a hugedifference between fasting, starvationand caloric restriction, but it doesn't mean you can't be starving while intermittent fasting or consuming fewer calories. This video tells you how to avoid starvation mode while fasting and gain the longevity benefits More In-Depth video on autophagy: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_2kW_... Read the

Ketones To The Rescue Fashioning Therapies From An Adaptation To Starvation

Ben Harder In times of plenty, both the mind and the body thrive. But deprived of basic sustenance, the mind perishes before the body does. That's not New Age philosophy; it's basic metabolic chemistry. While most of the body manages food shortages with relative ease, the tissues of the brain are vulnerable during periods of scarcity. So when blood sugar dips, the brain must fall back on special biochemistry to meet its energy needs. From studying that metabolic back-up system, a coterie of scientists has drawn inspiration that could lead to a new treatment for conditions as diverse as epilepsy, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and heart failure. Most of the time, the body makes its fundamental fuel, glucose, from ingested carbohydrates. With each meal, the bloodstream gets replenished with glucose to replace the blood sugar that hungry cells have consumed to satisfy their metabolic needs. The body can't store glucose well, yet cells must be fed continually. So the body puts away extra energy in the form of fat, which it can break down into energy-supplying fatty acids when needed. A starving animal or a person with normal fat stores can thus sustain most of the body's cells for week Continue reading >>

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  1. AlexBest96

    Hi guys! Could someone answer how does acetoacetate change the pH? I mean, if it is released in ionized form (COO-) how can it change the pH of blood? I cant understand, where does it get protonized? Sorry for my English

  2. Dr. Stalker

    Ketone bodies can contribute to blood pH changes. Specifically, they acidify the blood by donating protons. In organic chemistry/biochemistry you'll learn that a substance doesn't necessarily need to have a -COOH to have acidic properties. It just so happens the hydrogen in the -COOH is very acidic and there's many reasons why. Without diving into all of those, the H in -OH can sometimes be acidic.
    To answer your question specifically about ketones, look at the carboxyl group. If we look at the carbons attached to the carbon that is double bonded to the oxygen, we have an opportunity for resonance. If we deprotonate the carbon adjacent to the carbon in the ketone functional group, those electrons can form a double bond to the carbon and push the one of the double bonds onto the oxygen leading to resonance stability.
    I unfortunately couldn't find a better image than this one (ignore the fact that this has two ketone functional groups)

  3. AlexBest96

    Dr. Stalker, so ketones are not protonized in mitochondria and get in blood in COOH form? they change the pH in ionized form by the mechanism, which you explain?

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Lesson on Ketone Body Synthesis (Ketogenesis): In-Depth, step-by-step pathway analysis of the formation of ketones, and regulation of the enzymes involved. Hey everyone! This lesson is on ketone body synthesis, how ketone bodies are produced, the location of ketone body formation, and how ketone body synthesis is regulated by glucagon and insulin. If you found this video helpful, please like and subscribe for my videos! Please also check out my videos for more lessons on human metabolism, health and disease. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- For books and other supplemental information on these topics, please check out my Amazon Affiliate Page https://www.amazon.com/shop/jjmedicine Support future lessons and lectures https://www.patreon.com/jjmedicine Follow me on Twitter! https://twitter.com/JJ_Medicine

Ketone Body Formation

Ketone body formation occurs as an alternative energy source during times of prolonged stress e.g. starvation. It occurs in the liver from an initial substrate of: long chain fatty acids; the fatty acids undergo beta-oxidation by their normal pathway within mitochondria until acetyl-CoA is produced, or ketogenic amino acids; amino acids such as leucine and lysine, released at times of energy depletion, are interconverted only to acetyl-CoA Then, three molecules of acetyl-CoA are effectively joined together in three enzyme steps sequentially catalyzed by: acetyl CoA acetyltransferase HMG-CoA transferase HMG-CoA lyase Coenzyme A is regenerated and the ketone body acetoacetate is formed. Finally, acetoacetate is reduced to another ketone body, D-3-hydroxybutyrate, in a reaction catalyzed by 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase. This requires NADH. The oxidate state of the liver is such that the forward reaction is generally favoured; this results in more hydroxybutyrate being formed than acetoacetate. Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. AlexBest96

    Hi guys! Could someone answer how does acetoacetate change the pH? I mean, if it is released in ionized form (COO-) how can it change the pH of blood? I cant understand, where does it get protonized? Sorry for my English

  2. Dr. Stalker

    Ketone bodies can contribute to blood pH changes. Specifically, they acidify the blood by donating protons. In organic chemistry/biochemistry you'll learn that a substance doesn't necessarily need to have a -COOH to have acidic properties. It just so happens the hydrogen in the -COOH is very acidic and there's many reasons why. Without diving into all of those, the H in -OH can sometimes be acidic.
    To answer your question specifically about ketones, look at the carboxyl group. If we look at the carbons attached to the carbon that is double bonded to the oxygen, we have an opportunity for resonance. If we deprotonate the carbon adjacent to the carbon in the ketone functional group, those electrons can form a double bond to the carbon and push the one of the double bonds onto the oxygen leading to resonance stability.
    I unfortunately couldn't find a better image than this one (ignore the fact that this has two ketone functional groups)

  3. AlexBest96

    Dr. Stalker, so ketones are not protonized in mitochondria and get in blood in COOH form? they change the pH in ionized form by the mechanism, which you explain?

  4. -> Continue reading
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Watch Diabetes and Ketones || what are Ketones - Free Diabetes You Want Really Control Your Sugar Levels by Using Natural Remedies And Smoothies At Home And Low Price, Then Watch This Channel #FD ( Free Diabetes ) : https://goo.gl/jBTFPc And Also Follow Us On Facebook : https://goo.gl/7Jws9o Blogger: https://goo.gl/StU7lW Play List : https://goo.gl/9VsAEq Twitter : https://goo.gl/4OcKoW Thanks For Watching This Video Like and Subscribe ========================================== DISCLAIMER: The information provided on this channel and its videos is for general purposes only and should not be considered as professional advice. We are trying to provide a perfect, valid, specific, detailed information .we are not a licensed professional so make sure with your professional consultant in case you need. All the content published in our channel is our own creativity

Question Regarding Ketones And Insulin

I am trying to get my head around the more intricate elements of the body's metabolism and I have a question. From what I understand, elevated blood sugar triggers an increase in insulin which tells the body to start storing that carbohydrate and to down regulate the body's lipid metabolism. This Wikipedia article prompted a question about an obvious hole in my understanding: "In healthy individuals this (ketoacidosis) normally does not occur because the pancreas produces insulin in response to rising ketone/blood glucose concentration." So, does insulin go up with increased levels of ketones (thereby telling the body to lay off further ketone production because the body has "enough") in the same way as insulin's relationship with sugar? Thanks in advance for your answers. Best regards Nick Kinsella Continue reading >>

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  1. Carlos Danger

    Can someone very generally describe how the brain consumes ketoacids/ketone bodies when blood glucose has been completely depleted?

  2. Jayachandran

    Human body is a glucose driven machine which intake carbohydrates and converts to glucose. Energy is yielded from the glucose and glucose is stored as glycogen. When the carbohydrate intake is somehow reduced then body will shift its mechanism and uses the fatty acids to produce energy. Liver synthesis ketones from fatty acids in our diet or from body fat. Ketones(acetoacetate and acetone) are released into the blood, which is absorbed by the brain and synthesis energy from it through their mitochondria.
    The brain gets a portion of its energy from ketone bodies when glucose is less available (e.g., during fasting, strenuous exercise, low carbohydrate, ketogenic diet and in neonates). In the event of low blood glucose, most other tissues have additional energy sources besides ketone bodies (such as fatty acids), but the brain has an obligatory requirement for some glucose. After the diet has been changed to lower blood glucose for 3 days, the brain gets 25% of its energy from ketone bodies.After about 4 days, this goes up to 70% (during the initial stages the brain does not burn ketones, since they are an important substrate for lipid synthesis in the brain). Furthermore, ketones produced from omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cognitive deterioration in old age. Reference
    When the body starts using the fatty acids for energy production, one problem arises in the brain and that is the blood-brain barrier( barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid in the central nervous system )Brain cannot use long chain fatty acids because they cannot cross the blood-brain barrier due to their bondage with albumin. As ketones are medium chain fatty acids which can effectively cross the barrier. So brain uses the ketones for energy production by a process called as ketosis. The ketone bodies are then incorporated into acetyl-CoA and used in the citric acid cycle.
    The citric acid cycle – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidation of acetate derived from carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Reference
    Metabolic pathways to produce energy

  3. inf3rno

    Actually there is fatty acid transport through the BBB. Maybe the rate of this transport is not enough, I don't know, I think it does not really matter.
    What really happens here, that the liver prepares the fatty acids, so the brain can use them more easily in the form of ketoacids to produce energy.
    fatty acid catabolism shared between the liver and the brain - ref

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