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How Are Ketones Formed Quizlet Nutrition

* Chapter 25 Metabolism And Nutrition

* Chapter 25 Metabolism And Nutrition

Sort 1) The sum of all of the biochemical processes going on within the human body at any given time is called A) Anabolism. B) Oxidative phosphorylation. C) Metabolism. D) Glycolysis. E) Catabolism. C) Metabolism. 2) Cells synthesize new organic components for which of the following reasons? A) Growth and repair B) To perform structural maintenance C) To produce secretions D) all of the above E) A and B only D) all of the above 3) During glycolysis A) A molecule of glucose is converted into two molecules of pyruvic acid. B) 6 molecules of ATP are produced. C) More energy is used than is released. D) NADH2 molecules attach to the cytochromes. E) Carbon dioxide is produced A) A molecule of glucose is converted into two molecules of pyruvic acid. 4) Inside the mitochondrion, each pyruvic acid molecule A) Forms a molecule of citric acid. B) Directly enters the electron transport system. C) Is phosphorylated. D) Attaches to NAD. E) Loses a carbon atom. E) Loses a carbon atom. 6) In the electron transport chain A) Oxidative phosphorylation takes place and ATP is formed. B) Oxidized molecules gain energy at the expense of reduced molecules. C) Coenzymes receive hydrogen atoms from NADH2 and FADH2. D) all of the above E) A and C only E) A and C only 7) In glycolysis, each molecule of glucose that is metabolized releases how many molecules of ATP? A) 2 B) 4 C) 30 D) 36 E) 38 B) 4(but 2 invested) 8) In the process of cellular respiration, each molecule of glucose that is metabolized yields enough energy to form ________ molecules of ATP. A) 2 B) 4 C) 30 D) 37 E) 38 E) 38 9) During lipolysis A) Lipids are converted into glucose molecules. B) Triglycerides are converted into molecules of acetyl-CoA. C) Lipids are metabolized to yield ATP. D) Lipids are formed from excess carbohydr Continue reading >>

Nutrition Topic 6

Nutrition Topic 6

1. Describe in order the 3 stages by which energy is extracted from glucose. Glycolysis - anaerobic process (doesn't need oxygen) that occurs in the cytoplasm, converting one glucose molecule to two pyruvate molecules and releasing energy. Glycolysis takes place in two stages. Preparatory phase, and the payoff phase. Aerobic conditions- takes place in mitochondria when oxygen is plentiful, and converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA; CO2 is the by-product of this reaction. TCA cycle and the electron transport chain (ETC)- located w/in mitochondria and is the central metabolic hub of the cell. Providing energy by aerobic oxidation of fuel molecules, and supplying building blocks of many other molecules (e.g; amino acids, nucleotide bases). 1st stage of cellular respiration involves oxidation of fuel molecules 2nd stage involves enzymatic oxidation of the acetyl groups to CO2 3rd stage involves the reduced coenzymes being oxidised, the e-'s are transferred to O2, resulting in a large amount of energy being released in the form of ATP Oxaloacetate is synthesized from pyruvate, but cannot be made from fat carbohydrates the main supplier of both pyruvate and acetyl CoA; thus, carbs are essential in diet, and without oxaloacetate, the TCA cycle slows down, and fatty acid oxidation cannot occur. The eight electrons that are released per turn of the TCA (TCA cycle had two rotations) are shuttled to electron transport chain (ETC), oxygen must be available for energy metabolism. As electrons move through the transport chain, a proton and charge gradient is generated, and the movement of protons back through proton pumps provides the energy for ATP synthesis. 3. How is alcohol metabolized, describe signs and symptoms of increasing intoxication -Alc is oxidized in stomach by action of alco Continue reading >>

What Are Some Forms Of Good Nutrition?

What Are Some Forms Of Good Nutrition?

muscle function A muscle is an active tissue at a site in the body where fat is burned. Muscles are therefore important in burning fat and also provide the shape of your body. Calorie intake and consumption The most important factor for losing body fat is the relationship between the amount of calories you consume each day and the amount of calories you burn. It is a fact that your calorie intake will have to be less than the consumption to be able to burn fat. This is not based on personal opinion or the opinion of a diet guru, but this is the law of thermodynamics. This law says that fat loss is determined by burning more calories per day than you consume. nutritive value Now, the value of nutrients also plays an important role. For example, someone who follows an energy (energy-restricted) diet affect both undernourished and overfed by an incorrect composition. It is therefore important to choose for high-quality, nutritious products. But even this is that someone can still create excess fat by eating too many 'healthy' food if you get more calories than you burn. Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 7

Nutrition Chapter 7

Sort Feasting eating in excess of energy needs metabolism favors fat formation - dietary fat to body fat is most direct and efficient conversion (carbohydrate and protein have other roles to fulfill before) fuel mix - depends on diet; carbohydrate and protein intakes influence fuel mix; increases in carbohydrate and protein intakes DISPLACE fat in the diet (more carbohydrate/protein and less fat) increase fat eaten DOES NOT enhance fat breakdown - does not respond to dietary fat intake! Transition from Feasting to Fasting after a meal (2-3 hours), glucose, glycerol, fatty acids used as needed, stored - fasting state draws on these stores (glycogen and fat are released/broken down) energy needed all the time! (sleeping) basal metabolism - cell's work to maintain life processes; 2/3 energy a person expends per day fasting (choice) vs. starving (no choice) - body cannot distinguish difference between them, forced to draw on reserves of carbohydrate and fat Fasting carbohydrate, fat, protein all eventually used as energy begins with release of glucose from liver's glycogen stores, fatty acids from adipose cells breakdown and acetyl CoA produced - Krebs cycle to produce energy (ATP) decrease blood glucose levels serve as signal - promotes further fat breakdown; release of amino acids from muscles Fatty Acids as Fuel good for now, but glucose is needed brain, nervous system, and RBC - primary source brain/nerve cells consume 1/2 total glucose used/day (50%) 1/4 of energy body uses at rest spent by brain RBC completely dependent on glucose, brain/nerve cells prefer glucose for energy Protein to the Rescue amino acids yielding pyruvate (to make glucose); breakdown of body proteins; amino acids that canoot make glucose used for energy by other cells; expensive way to make glucos Continue reading >>

Legionella Testing Lab - High Quality Lab Results

Legionella Testing Lab - High Quality Lab Results

Print test Show images 69 Matching questions What are the Major Dietary Sources and Functions in the Body of Folic Acid or Folate (Vitamin B9)? Major Minerals are those that must be consumed in relatively large amounts. Which of the following is NOT a Major Mineral? A. Phosphorus B. Sodium C. Iron What are some ways you, as a cook, can reduce the fat and sodium content of your menu offerings? How can you ensure a nutritionally balanced menu without actually calculating the nutritional content of every item? a Proteins supplied by foods that, if eaten together, supply all the amino acids necessary in the human diet. Example: Cornmeal tortillas topped with chili bean supply complete protein because the corn supplies the amino acids lacking in the beans. b c These fats only occur naturally in small amounts. Most of the fats in our diet are from manufactured fats subjected to a process called hydrogenation. Trans Fats are a concern because they limit the body's ability to rid itself of cholesterol that builds up on the walls of arteries d Major Dietary Sources: 1. Liver and red meat 2. Raisins and prunes 3. Egg yolks 4. Leafy vegetables 5. Dried beans 6. Whole grains Functions in the Body: -Needed for formation of red blood cells. e 1. Saturated Fats: (Animal Products, Solid Shortenings, and Tropical Oils) -Normally solid at room temperature. -These fats contribute significantly to heart disease and other health problems 2. Polyunsaturated Fats: (Vegetable Oils, Whole Grains, Nuts, and Some Fruits & Vegetables) -Liquid at room temperature. -Considered to be more healthful than Saturated Fats. Monounsaturated Fats: (Olive & Canola Oil, Whole Grains, Nuts, and Some Fruits & Vegetables) -Liquid at room temperature. -Considered to be more healthful than Saturated Fats. f Major Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 7

Nutrition Chapter 7

Sort Which of the following is a characteristic of the metabolism of specific macronutrients? a. The rate of fat oxidation does not change when fat is eaten in excess b. The rate of protein oxidation does not change when protein is eaten in excess c. The rate of glucose oxidation does not change when carbohydrate is eaten in excess d. The conversion of dietary glucose to fat represents the major pathway of carbohydrate utilization Which of the following is a characteristic of the metabolism of specific macronutrients? a. The rate of fat oxidation does not change when fat is eaten in excess b. The rate of protein oxidation does not change when protein is eaten in excess c. The rate of glucose oxidation does not change when carbohydrate is eaten in excess d. The conversion of dietary glucose to fat represents the major pathway of carbohydrate utilization the rate of fat oxidation does not change when fat is eaten in excess All of the following are features of the metabolism of surplus dietary carbohydrate in human beings except a. excess glucose suppresses fat oxidation. b. excess glucose is oxidized only very slowly. c. excess glucose is first used to fill glycogen reserves. d. conversion of excess glucose to fat occurs only to a very limited extent. All of the following are features of the metabolism of surplus dietary carbohydrate in human beings except a. excess glucose suppresses fat oxidation. b. excess glucose is oxidized only very slowly. c. excess glucose is first used to fill glycogen reserves. d. conversion of excess glucose to fat occurs only to a very limited extent. excess glucose is oxidized only very slowly Which of the following is a feature of the metabolism of surplus dietary fat? a. Excess fat is almost all stored b. Excess fat promotes increased fat o Continue reading >>

How Are Ketones Formed?

How Are Ketones Formed?

Ketones are a very important functionnal group in organic chemistry, and thus there are several ways to prepare them, the 2 most common being oxidations, and reductions. The first is straightforward. You can oxidize a secondary alcohol to a ketone. There are a lot of reagents that can do that, the most practical are probably the hypervalent iodine reagents (IBX, Dess-Martin periodinane, although the latter is more used for oxidation of primary alcohol to the aldehyde). Chromium and Manganese oxides can also be used, in some cases. Then there are the methodologies which will cleave a double bond and give you two ketones, like ozonolysis, or Osmium oxide reaction on double bonds. The second is a bit more devious: because it doesn't look like a typical reduction. But when a organocopper, organizinc or organomagnesium reagent (or other organometallic reagents, these are just the most commonly used in the lab), when they react with an acid derivative, it is a reduction ( the oxidation of the carbon goes from +3 to +2). Possibilities include reaction of the organometallic reagent with anhydrides or acyl chlorides, possibly catalyzed by a transition metal (Ni, Pd, Co, Fe…), reactions with Weinreb amides , or with morpholine amides, in the case of Grignard reagents. Remember that you cannot use directly an ester and a Grignard, apart from the 2 aforementioned cases, the ketone will be more reactive and thus the Grignard will react with the ketone as soon as it is formed, to form the tertiary alcohol. You can use carbonylation reactions. In these reactions, you use a nucleophile (typically an organostannane, but other can be used), an electrophile (usually an aryl or vinyl halide), under carbon monoxide atmosphere, with a Palladium catalyst. There's also the Pauson-Khand react Continue reading >>

Nutrition Exam 3 And Slide Notes

Nutrition Exam 3 And Slide Notes

Sort Glucose to Acetyl CoA Summary Glycolysis: - consumes 2 ATP - creates 2 pyruvate and 4 ATP (net of 2) - NADH sent to ETC Transition Phase: - enters mitochondria - pyruvate loses 1 carbon - 2 carbon chain and coenzyme A - produces acetyl-CoA - NADH is sent to ETC Where do fats enter metabolism? *2 different processes for Glycerol and Fatty Acids Glycerol to pyruvate: - Glycerol can be converted to glucose then pyruvate Fatty acids to acetyl CoA - Fatty acid oxidation - CoA joins fatty acids to initiate process (2 ATP are consumed) - 2-carbon units at a time then join with CoA (producing acetyl-CoA) - Co-enzymes pick up hydrogens and electrons (NADH and FADH2) How does the alcohol dehydrogenase pathway work? Ethanol is converted to acetaldehyde and NADH by alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme (excess is sent into circulation) Acetaldehyde is associated with the hung-over feeling and is toxic because it can permanently change hepatocytes. Then the acetaldehyde is converted into acetate and NADH by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme. Acetate combines with CoA to then make acetyl-CoA What are some of alcohol's negative influences? In the brain: alcohol sedates inhibitory nerves (acting as a CNS depressant) and depresses the antidiuretic hormone (loss of body water and loss of important minerals) Malnutrition: increases body fat and weight gain (central obesity in fatty liver, 1 oz = 0.5 oz of fat) Nutrition displacement: For B Vitamins: Riboflavin, Niacin, Thiamin, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, Vitamin B6 deficiency,. For Vitamin A: ADH competes with vision, vision problems For Vitamin D: liver damage (activated in the liver) #Starting from the TCA cycle, describe the final steps in catabolism. TCA to ETC 1 acetyl-CoA molecule goes through one round of the Citric Acid Cycle to tur Continue reading >>

Nutrition- Lipids Continued

Nutrition- Lipids Continued

Sort Lipid metabolism - Chylomicrons carry lipids from the intestines into the lymph and then the bloodstream - With the help of lipoprotein lipase, they deliver fatty acids to body cells - The remainder of the chylomicron, called a chylomicron remnant, is delivered to the liver - VLDLs formed in the liver carry lipids from the liver to body cells (the activity of lipoprotein lipase is needed) - After the triglycerides in VLDLs have been broken down to fatty acids and removed, IDLs remain - Some IDLs are transformed into LDLs, which are the primary cholesterol delivery system for body cells - LDLs are taken into cells after first binding to the LDL receptor ("bad") - HDLs carry cholesterol away from cells and return it to the liver ("good") Lipolysis - Glycerol converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate - In beta oxidation, carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains - The resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enter the Krebs cycle - Glycerol- good source of energy, rapidly available in gut (must be included in small amounts) - Remember: acetyl CoA- acetate, 2 C's, animals should be able to mobilize body reserves (like cows- it's a good thing) Clinical application - Blood ketone levels are usually very low --> Many tissues use ketones for ATP production (good source of energy) --> An excess of ketone bodies may cause acidosis or abnormally low blood pH- ketosis - Fasting, starving or high fat meals with few carbohydrates result in excessive beta oxidation and ketone body production --> Acidosis (ketoacidosis) is abnormally low blood pH --> Sweet smell of ketone body acetone on breath Metabolic control- differences in energy needs - Between resting and activated muscle - Feed vs. fasting - Breakdown of glycogen and fatty acids co Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 7

Nutrition Chapter 7

Sort 13. Before entering the TCA cycle, each of the energy yielding nutrients nutrients is broken down to: a. ammonia b. pyruvate c. electrons d. acetyl CoA d. acetyl CoA 17. During a fast, when glycogen stores have been depleted, the body begins to synthesize glucose from: a. acetyl CoA b. amino acids c. fatty acids d. ketone bodies b. amino acids Learn it - Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids Carbohydrate, fat, and protein take different paths to acetyl CoA, but once there, the final pathways - the TCA cycle and electron transport change- are shared. All of the pathways, which are shown as a simplified overview in Fig 7-5 (p207), are shown in more detail in Fig 7-18 (p216). Instead of dismissing this figure as "too busy." take a few moments to appreciated the busyness of it all. Consider that this figure is merely an overview of energy metabolism, and then imagine how busy a living cell really is during the metabolism of hundreds of compounds, each of which may be involved in several reactions, each requiring specific enzymes. Learn it - Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism When energy intake exceeds energy needs, the body makes fat- regardless of whether the excess intake is from protein, carbohydrate, or fat. The only difference is that the body is much more efficient at storing energy when the excess derives from dietary fat. When fasting, the body makes a number of adaptations: increasing the breakdown of fat to provide energy for most of the cells, using glycerol and amino acids to make glucose for the red blood cells and central nervous system, producing ketones to fuel the brain, suppr Continue reading >>

Nutrition Midterms 2

Nutrition Midterms 2

Sort Describe the types of lipids in body and basic chemical structure of fatty acids and how they are namedDescribe the types of lipids in body and basic chemical structure of fatty acids and how they are namedDescribe the types of lipids in body Types of Lipids (fat): Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Sterols Identify food sources of triglycerides, fatty acids, phospholipids and sterols SATURATED (solid or soft) ) double bonds F.A.:lard beef, pork, lamb fat. (LC) MC and SC: milk fat, cocnut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil Mono and Polyunsaturated (liquid) one 2 or three double bonds : olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, safflower oil, fish oil EFA: Omega 3 cold water fish (salmon, tuna, sardines, mackarel) walnuts, flaxeed, hemp oil, soybean oil) reduce inflammation, blood clotting plasma triglycerides Omega 6: beef, poultry, safflower oil, sunflower oil, corn oil. 2 double bonds regulates blood pressure and increases blood clotting Trans fatty acids: margarine (increase blood cholesterol more than saturated fat Three Pathways for Cholesterol Uptake Receptor Pathway LDLs taken up by cells, broken down, and components utilized Excess in blood become oxidized Scavenger Pathway White blood cells remove oxidized LDLs Cholesterol can build up in these cells and kill them; this results in plaque (atherosclerosis) High Density Lipoproteins Picks up cholesterol throughout the body Discuss health concerns related to dietary fat intake Major killer of North Americans is CVD Development:(Atherosclerotic plaque leads to Heart attack and stroke) Risk factors for CVD age, gender, race and genetics (cannot change) can change or prevent: blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, hypertension, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes and other diseases Descr Continue reading >>

24: Nutrition, Metabolism, And Body Temperature Regulation

24: Nutrition, Metabolism, And Body Temperature Regulation

Objectives Diet and Nutrition 1. Define nutrient, essential nutrient, and calorie. 2. List the six major nutrient categories. Note important sources and main cellular uses. 3. Distinguish between simple and complex carbohydrate sources. 4. Indicate the major uses of carbohydrates in the body. 5. Indicate uses of fats in the body. 6. Distinguish between saturated, unsaturated, and trans fatty acid sources. 7. Distinguish between nutritionally complete and incomplete proteins. 8. Indicate uses of proteins in the body. 9. Define nitrogen balance and indicate possible causes of positive and negative nitrogen balance. 10. Distinguish between fat- and water-soluble vitamins, and list the vitamins in each group. 11. For each vitamin, list important sources, body functions, and important consequences of its deficit or excess. 12. List minerals essential for health; indicate important dietary sources and describe how each is used. Overview of Metabolic Reactions 13. Define metabolism. Explain how catabolism and anabolism differ. 14. Define oxidation and reduction and indicate the importance of these reactions in metabolism. 15. Indicate the role of coenzymes used in cellular oxidation reactions. 16. Explain the difference between substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation. Metabolism of Major Nutrients 17. Summarize the important events and products of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and electron transport. 18. Define glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, and gluconeogenesis. 19. Describe the process by which fatty acids are oxidized for energy. 20. Define ketone bodies, and indicate the stimulus for their formation. 21. Describe how amino acids are metabolized for energy. 22. Describe the need for protein synthesis in body cells. Metabolic States of the Body 23. Explain Continue reading >>

Nutrition- Metabolism

Nutrition- Metabolism

Effects of Ketosis -supporession of appetite -metabolism slowing -Starvation symptoms, including... --slowing of energy output --reduction in fat loss --wasting --decr metabolism --decr body temperature -decr disease resistance Continue reading >>

Chapter 24 Nutrition, Metabolism, And Body Temperature Regulation Exam

Chapter 24 Nutrition, Metabolism, And Body Temperature Regulation Exam

4 4) Cholesterol, though it is not an energy molecule, has importance in the body because it ________. A) is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones B) helps provide essential nutrients to the brain and lungs C) helps mobilize fats during periods of starvation D) enters the glycolytic pathway without being altered 5 5) Which of the following statements best describes complete protein? A) derived from meat and fish only B) meets all the minimum daily requirements for a healthy diet C) derived only from legumes and other plant material D) must meet all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth 6 6) The term metabolism is best defined as ________. A) the length of time it takes to digest and absorb fats B) a measure of carbohydrate utilization, typically involving measurement of calories C) the number of calories it takes to keep from shivering on a cold day D) biochemical reactions involved in building cell molecules or breaking down molecules for energy 9 9) It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________. A) vitamins provide protection against the common cold B) very few foods contain vitamins C) most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients D) all vitamins are water soluble and pass out of the body too quickly to ensure utilization 42 42) Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement? A) The amino acid pool is the body’s total supply of amino acids in the body’s proteins. B) Fats and carbohydrates are oxidized directly to produce cellular energy. C) Amino acids can be used to supply energy only after being converted to a carbohydrate intermediate. D) Excess carbohydrate and fat can be stored as s Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 4 (carbohydrates)

Nutrition Chapter 4 (carbohydrates)

Sort fiber -found in plant foods -structural -nonstarch polysaccharide --> not digestible by human enzymes (some are digested by GI tract bacteria [fermentable]) -provide little to no energy -soluble v unsoluble (different 'versions' of this) * soluble: dissolves in water (can get maybe a little bit of energy from it), forms a gel *insoluble: opposite -do not get this from steak'-gives bulk to our stool typer of fibers ** know what all of these do -cellulose (insoluble) * composes plant cell walls * composed of glucose molecules -hemicellulose (partially soluble) * main constituent of cereal -pectin (soluble) * CHO backbone with monosaccharide side chains * readily form gel in water (viscous) * fruits and vegetables -pectin is used by the food industry to thicken jelly, keep salad dressing from separating types of fibers ** know what all of these do -functional fibers *fibers that have been extracted from plants or are manufactured and then added to foods or used in supplements * ex: cellulose taken to relieve constipation; fiber one; fiber gummies -resistant starches (insoluble) *starches classified as dietary fibers; escape digestion and absorption in the small intestine *whole or partially milled grains, legumes and just-ripened bananas; cooked potatoes, past and rice that have been chilled *support a healthy colon -phytic aciid *non-fiber found in fiber rich foods; binds with minerals treatment of lactose intolerance -total elimination usually unnecessary -milk products contribute Ca, vitamin D and riboflavin -eat small amounts at one time (6 g lactose/meal = 1/2 c milk) -eat with other foods -eat fermented (have probiotics) products; ex: yogurt, kefir -eat cheese; most of lactose removed with whey -enzymes added or use drops (functional food: add enzyme in it) -if Continue reading >>

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