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How Are Ketones Formed Quizlet Nutrition

Nutrition 422 - Chapter 7 Scsg

Nutrition 422 - Chapter 7 Scsg

Sort What does the liver do with carbohydrates? Metabolizes fructose, galactose and glucose Makes and stores glycogen Breaks down glycogen and releases glucose Breaks down glucose for energy when needed Makes glucose from some amino acids and glycerol when needed Converts excess glucose and fructose to fatty acids What does the liver do with proteins? *Manufactures nonessential amino acids that are in short supply *Removes from circulation amino acids that are present in excess of need and converts them to other amino acids or deaminates them and concerts them to glucose or fatty acids. *Removes ammonia from from the blood and converts it to urea to be sent to the kidneys for excretion. *Makes other nitrogen-containing compounds the body needs (such as bases used in DNA and RNA. Compare/contrast anabolism and catabolism and know examples for each. Blue=Carbs Yellow=Fat Red=Proteins (Figure 7-2 pg 200) ANABOLISM: Reactions in which SMALL molecules are PUT TOGETHER to build larger ones. Anabolic reactions "require" energy. Examples: Making of glycogen, triglycerides and protein, these reactions require differing amounts of energy. CATABOLISM: Reactions in which LARGE molecules are BROKEN DOWN to smaller ones. Catabolic reactions "release" energy. Examples include the breakdown of glycogen, triglycerides and protein, the further catabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids and amino acids releases differing amounts of energy. Much of the energy released is captured in the bonds of adenosine. What is ketosis? Why does it occur? What nutrient might rapidly reverse a state of ketosis? What are symptoms of ketosis? (In other words, how might you know that someone has ketosis?) How are ketones formed? What kind of diet might be associated with the formation of ketones? ... ANAB Continue reading >>

Nutrition Exam 3

Nutrition Exam 3

1. Metabolism 1.Metabolism is the sum of these and all the other chemical reactions that go on in living cells; energy metabolism includes all the ways the body obtains and uses energy from food. The enzymes involved in Phase I reactions are primarily located in the endoplasmic reticulum of the liver cell, they are called microsomal enzymes. Phase II metabolism involves the introduction of a hydrophilic endogenous species, such as glucuronic acid or sulfate, to the drug molecule. Refer to evernote for more info. 2. Examples of anabolism and metabolism. 2.Anabolism refers to all the metabolic activity in the human body that builds biological molecules, and catabolism refers to all the metabolic processes that break down biological molecules. EXAMPLE'S Muscle tissue growth is an anabolic process, and digestion is a catabolic activity. Diagram in evernote. 4. Body's response to feasting and fasting: metabolism, storage, priority Study ch 7 notes. Diagram for feasting and fasting, excess of each macro and defecit of each, first day what happens, next day major source of glucose. Refer to evernote for diagram Feasting: metabolism favors fat formation, excess energy stored as fat. Excess Protein Recall from Chapter 6 that the body cannot store excess amino acids as such; it has to convert them to other compounds. Contrary to popular opinion, a person cannot grow muscle simply by overeating protein. Lean tissue such as muscle develops in response to a stimulus such as hormones or physical activity. When a person overeats protein, the body uses the surplus first by replacing normal daily losses and then by increasing protein oxidation. An increase in protein oxidation uses some excess protein, but it displaces fat in the fuel mix. If excess protein is still available, the amino Continue reading >>

Nutrition Class Midterm

Nutrition Class Midterm

1. Which of the following is a purpose of both the Recommended Dietary Allowance and Adequate Intake? A) Setting nutrient goals for individuals B) Identifying toxic intakes of nutrients C) Restoring health of malnourished individuals D) Developing nutrition programs for schoolchildren A 2. What is the benefit of using placebos in an experiment? A) All subjects are similar B) All subjects receive a treatment C) Neither subjects nor researchers know who is receiving treatment D) One group of subjects receives a treatment and the other group receives nothing B 3. Recommended Dietary Allowances may be used to A) measure nutrient balance of population groups. B) assess dietary nutrient adequacy for individuals. C) treat persons with diet-related illnesses. D) calculate exact food requirements for most individuals B 5. All of the following features are shared by the RDA and the AI EXCEPT A) both are included in the DRI. B) both serve as nutrient intake goals for individuals. C) neither covers 100% of the population's nutrient needs. D) neither is useful for evaluating nutrition programs for groups of people. D 14. You have been asked to help a top nutrition researcher conduct human experiments on vitamin C. As the subjects walk into the laboratory, you distribute all the vitamin C pill bottles to the girls and all the placebo pill bottles to the boys. The researcher instantly informs you that there are two errors in your research practice. What steps should you have done differently? A) Given all the boys the vitamin C and the girls the placebo, and told them what they were getting B) Distributed the bottles randomly, randomized the subjects, and told them what they were getting C) Told the subjects which group they were in, and prevented yourself from knowing the contents of Continue reading >>

Nutrition. Chap 7: Energy Metabolism.

Nutrition. Chap 7: Energy Metabolism.

Sort Proteins: makes nonessential AA that are in short supply. Removes excess AA & converts them to other AA, or deaminates them & converts them to glucose or fatty acids. Removes ammonia from blood & converts it to urea for excretion. Makes DNA/RNA. & many proteins. >> Other: Detoxifies alcohol, drugs, poison, & excretes them. Helps dismantle old RBC's & captures the iron for recycling. Stores most vitamins, & many minerals. Activates Vitamin D. AA: Before entering metabolic pathways, AA are deaminated (lose their nitrogen amino group). deamination produces ammonia (which provides nitrogen to make nonessential AA. Remaining ammonia is excreted by urea in liver/kid. AA pathway: can enter pathways as pyruvate/Acetyl CoA/others enter krebs as compounds other than Acetyl CoA. AA that make glucose either by pyruvate or krebs cycle are glucogenic. AA that are degraded to Acetyl CoA are Ketogenic. Thus, proteins unlike fats, are a good source of glucose when carbs aren't available. In the liver: because of capillary network the liver is first to get alcohol saturated blood. liver cells are the only other cells in the body that can make sufficient quantities of dehydrogenase, to oxidize alcohol at a decent rate. >> Alcohol affects every organ of the body, bu t the most dramatic evidence is disruptive behavior is in the liver. Normally the liver prefers fatty acids for fuel, & it packages excess out. But when alcohol is there it has to process it first. >> Continue reading >>

Nutrition Quiz 3 Metabolism

Nutrition Quiz 3 Metabolism

Sort feasting fat cells increase in size when you over eat too much energy and body stores small amount of glycogen and more fat -hormones are insulin triggered and glucagon inhibited -CHO--glucose--liver muscle -fat--fatty acid-- body fat stores -protein--aa--body protein ---protein and CHO can go to fat but their priorities are their other jobs ketones and ketosis ketones are acidic compounds made by liver during breakdown of fat when CHO is not available to meet brains needs instead of fat going to normal pathway it goes to fuel for starvation. - too much of this causes ketosis - distrupts acid base balance -eat enough CHO to prevent this - diabetics with no insulin can get this -acetone breath Continue reading >>

67 True/false Questions

67 True/false Questions

Print test Transamination → The transfer of an amino group from and amino acid to an alpha-keto acid. Active Transport → Movement of particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration; requires energy and enzymes. Parasympathetic Nervous System → The brain in the gut. A subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that controls the gastrointestinal organs. Carcinogen → Cancer-causing substance. Enterocytes → Lid-like cartilaginous structure suspended over the entrance of the larynx; swallowing closes the opening to the trachea by placing the larynx against the epiglottis. Triglyceride → Compound with three molecules of fatty acids bound with one molecule of glycerol; the storage of fat in humans. Amylase → Of pancreatic and salivary origin, this enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis (splitting) of starch into smaller compounds. First Pass Metabolism → Protrusion of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm. Microvilli → Small projections (singular villus) covering the surface of the mucous membrane lining the small intestine, through which nutrients and fluids are absorbed. Calorie → Amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius; equal to 4184 Joules. Ketone Body → Either acetoacetic acid, acetone or beta-hydroxybutyric acid with a a carbonyl group attached to two carbon atoms. Neurotransmitter → The transfer of an amino group from and amino acid to an alpha-keto acid. Monosaturated Fat → Fatty acid containing one double or triple bond between carbons. pH → Measure of acidity and alkalinity; lower numbers are more acidic, higher numbers are more alkaline; 7 is neutral. Gastro-Intestinal (G Continue reading >>

Ch. 7 Nutrition

Ch. 7 Nutrition

Sort a 30. Your roommate Demetrius is participating in a weightlifting course and complains of a burning pain during workouts. You explain to Demetrius that the rapid breakdown of glucose in his muscles produces large amounts of pyruvate, which leads to a fall in pH within the muscle and that the muscle responds by converting excess pyruvate to a. lactate. b. glycerol. c. acetyl CoA. d. amino acids. b 61. Which of the following accounts for the higher energy density of a fatty acid compared with the other energy-yielding nutrients? a. Fatty acids have a lower percentage of hydrogen-carbon bonds b. Fatty acids have a greater percentage of hydrogen-carbon bonds c. Other energy-yielding nutrients have a lower percentage of oxygen-carbon bonds d. Other energy-yielding nutrients undergo fewer metabolic reactions, thereby lowering the energy yield c 66. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for the body's higher metabolic efficiency of converting a molecule of corn oil into stored fat compared with a molecule of sucrose? a. The enzymes specific for metabolizing absorbed fat have been found to have higher activities than those metabolizing sucrose b. The absorbed corn oil is transported to fat cells at a faster rate than the absorbed sucrose, thereby favoring the uptake of corn oil fat c. There are fewer metabolic reactions for disassembling the corn oil and re-assembling the parts into a triglyceride for uptake by the fat cells d. Because corn oil has a greater energy content than sucrose, conversion of these nutrients into stored fat requires a smaller percentage of the energy from the corn oil a 69. Which of the following is a characteristic of the metabolism of specific macronutrients? a. The rate of fat oxidation does not change when fat is eaten in excess Continue reading >>

Nutrition Test 3 Chapter 7 Set 1

Nutrition Test 3 Chapter 7 Set 1

Sort assist enzymes; enzyme helper complex organic molecules that associate closely with most enzymes may not be protein some B vitamins are ____ Folate Niacin *Helpers in Metabolic Reactions coenzymes first pathway glucose takes to yield E provide E for short bursts of activity prepare glucose for later E pathways "Glucose splitting" 1 glucose (6 C) is broken down to yield 2 pyruvates (3 C) (cytoplasm) net yield of energy is small H atoms are also released and carried to the electron transport chain by coenzymes made from B vitamin niacin 1 glucose = 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 pyruvates Glycolysis Pyruvate can be then converted into acetyl-coA -_______ when energy expenditure proceeds at a slower pace lactic acid-______ when body needs energy quickly glucose-if needed (liver cells and to some extent kidney cells) reversal of _____ aerobic; anaerobic; glycolysis red blood cells do not have a ____- rely on Glycolysis pyruvate can be converted back to ___, acetyl coA cannot Krebbs: acetyl coA + oxaloacetate ***CO2 E Chain: ***O2 -mitochondria -most ATP -H2O is produced mitochondria; glucose if oxygen is available and cells need E pyruvate enter the mitochondria to be converted to acetyl coA Irreversible acetyl CoA makes energy through the TCA cycle if energy is needed cannot be used to make glucose or AA (only E or FA production) Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA TCA Cycle (Kreb's Cycle) a series of metabolic reactions that produce CO2 and H takes place in the inner compartment of mitochondria oxaloacetate-compound made primarily from pyruvate (cannot be made from fat) starts the TCA cycle if insufficient, TCA cycle slows down, cells face E crisis Kreb's cycle produces: 1 ATP CO2 4 coenzyme carrying H+ & electrons (NADH and FADH) The Electron Transport Chain the final step in energy metabolis Continue reading >>

Nutrition Exam 3 And Slide Notes

Nutrition Exam 3 And Slide Notes

Sort Glucose to Acetyl CoA Summary Glycolysis: - consumes 2 ATP - creates 2 pyruvate and 4 ATP (net of 2) - NADH sent to ETC Transition Phase: - enters mitochondria - pyruvate loses 1 carbon - 2 carbon chain and coenzyme A - produces acetyl-CoA - NADH is sent to ETC Where do fats enter metabolism? *2 different processes for Glycerol and Fatty Acids Glycerol to pyruvate: - Glycerol can be converted to glucose then pyruvate Fatty acids to acetyl CoA - Fatty acid oxidation - CoA joins fatty acids to initiate process (2 ATP are consumed) - 2-carbon units at a time then join with CoA (producing acetyl-CoA) - Co-enzymes pick up hydrogens and electrons (NADH and FADH2) How does the alcohol dehydrogenase pathway work? Ethanol is converted to acetaldehyde and NADH by alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme (excess is sent into circulation) Acetaldehyde is associated with the hung-over feeling and is toxic because it can permanently change hepatocytes. Then the acetaldehyde is converted into acetate and NADH by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme. Acetate combines with CoA to then make acetyl-CoA What are some of alcohol's negative influences? In the brain: alcohol sedates inhibitory nerves (acting as a CNS depressant) and depresses the antidiuretic hormone (loss of body water and loss of important minerals) Malnutrition: increases body fat and weight gain (central obesity in fatty liver, 1 oz = 0.5 oz of fat) Nutrition displacement: For B Vitamins: Riboflavin, Niacin, Thiamin, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, Vitamin B6 deficiency,. For Vitamin A: ADH competes with vision, vision problems For Vitamin D: liver damage (activated in the liver) #Starting from the TCA cycle, describe the final steps in catabolism. TCA to ETC 1 acetyl-CoA molecule goes through one round of the Citric Acid Cycle to tur Continue reading >>

Studyblue

Studyblue

Size: 434 -The body uses these to perform work (both internal and external) -Excesses of energy-yielding nutrients result in increased body fat stores. b. If the body doesn’t release energy it obtained from food soon after absorption, it stores it, usually as body fat, for later use. c. Too much of any food can contribute excess calories. -Vitamins and minerals do not yield energy but play a role in the release of energy. -Vitamins fall into two categories: fat soluble (A, D, E, K) and water soluble (B vitamins and C). -Minerals, besides performing vital regulatory functions, also contribute to the body’s structures (bone minerals). -Water is the medium in which all bodily processes occur. Simone is looking for some reliable information on nutrition, and performs an Internet search. Which of the following would suggest that the site she is reading is unreliable? A double cheeseburger with bacon contains 44 grams of protein, 28 grams of carbohydrate, and 39 grams of fat. What percentage of calories in the sandwich comes from fat? If Sasha wants to consume 30% of her total calories from fat and she eats 2000 calories per day, what is the maximum number of fat grams she should eat? Peaches are a food source of vitamins A and C. Why would a raw peach be considered a more nutrient-dense snack than a serving of peaches canned in light syrup? The need for setting Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL) for nutrients is the result of more people using large doses of supplements and fortified foods. Bill is trying to eat healthier now that he is going to college. He takes a nutrition class, does a diet analysis, and finds out that his salt intake is very high. Which characteristic of a healthy diet is Bill violating? Products of liver metabolism include: glucose (from carbohydrat Continue reading >>

What Are Some Forms Of Good Nutrition?

What Are Some Forms Of Good Nutrition?

muscle function A muscle is an active tissue at a site in the body where fat is burned. Muscles are therefore important in burning fat and also provide the shape of your body. Calorie intake and consumption The most important factor for losing body fat is the relationship between the amount of calories you consume each day and the amount of calories you burn. It is a fact that your calorie intake will have to be less than the consumption to be able to burn fat. This is not based on personal opinion or the opinion of a diet guru, but this is the law of thermodynamics. This law says that fat loss is determined by burning more calories per day than you consume. nutritive value Now, the value of nutrients also plays an important role. For example, someone who follows an energy (energy-restricted) diet affect both undernourished and overfed by an incorrect composition. It is therefore important to choose for high-quality, nutritious products. But even this is that someone can still create excess fat by eating too many 'healthy' food if you get more calories than you burn. Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapters 1-5

Nutrition Chapters 1-5

How to study your flashcards. Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards. Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back. H key: Show hint (3rd side). A key: Read text to speech. Share Print Export Clone 75 Cards in this Set Front Back What are the 6 classes of nutrients? carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, water, vitamins, proteins Which nutrients are inorganic? minerals and water (do not contain carbon) What is the difference between inorganic nutrients and organic nutrients? Inorganic nutrients do NOT contain carbon Studies of populations that reveal correlations between dietary habits and disease incidence are.....? epidemiological studies What percent of calories should come from carbohydrates? 45-65% What percent of calories should come from fat? 20-35% What percent of calories should come from protein? 10-35% EAR = Estimated Average Requirements RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowances AI = Adequate Intakes UL = Tolerable Upper Intake Levels EER = Estimated Energy Requirement AMDR = Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges Primary deficiency a nutrient deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake of a nutrient Secondary deficiency a nutrient deficiency cause by something such a disease or drug interaction that reduces absorption, accelerates us, hastens excretion, or destroys the nutrient. Subclinical deficiency a deficiency in the early stages, before the outward signs have appeared What are the 6 diet-planning principles? Adequacy, balance, kCalorie (energy) control, nutrient density, moderation, variety 5 food groups Fruits, vegetables, grains, protein foods, milk and milk products Foods within a given food group of the USDA Food Guide are similar in their contents of: vitamins and minerals Enriched grain products are fortified with: iron, Continue reading >>

Ketone Bodies

Ketone Bodies

Ketone bodies Acetone Acetoacetic acid (R)-beta-Hydroxybutyric acid Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids[1] during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise,[2], alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy.[3] In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids. Ketone bodies are produced by the liver under the circumstances listed above (i.e. fasting, starving, low carbohydrate diets, prolonged exercise and untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus) as a result of intense gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (not including fatty acids).[1] They are therefore always released into the blood by the liver together with newly produced glucose, after the liver glycogen stores have been depleted (these glycogen stores are depleted after only 24 hours of fasting)[1]. When two acetyl-CoA molecules lose their -CoAs, (or Co-enzyme A groups) they can form a (covalent) dimer called acetoacetate. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a reduced form of acetoacetate, in which the ketone group is converted into an alcohol (or hydroxyl) group (see illustration on the right). Both are 4-carbon molecules, that can readily be converted back into acetyl-CoA by most tissues of the body, with the notable exception of the liver. Acetone is the decarboxylated form of acetoacetate which cannot be converted Continue reading >>

Nutrition Midterms 2

Nutrition Midterms 2

Sort Describe the types of lipids in body and basic chemical structure of fatty acids and how they are namedDescribe the types of lipids in body and basic chemical structure of fatty acids and how they are namedDescribe the types of lipids in body Types of Lipids (fat): Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Sterols Identify food sources of triglycerides, fatty acids, phospholipids and sterols SATURATED (solid or soft) ) double bonds F.A.:lard beef, pork, lamb fat. (LC) MC and SC: milk fat, cocnut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil Mono and Polyunsaturated (liquid) one 2 or three double bonds : olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, safflower oil, fish oil EFA: Omega 3 cold water fish (salmon, tuna, sardines, mackarel) walnuts, flaxeed, hemp oil, soybean oil) reduce inflammation, blood clotting plasma triglycerides Omega 6: beef, poultry, safflower oil, sunflower oil, corn oil. 2 double bonds regulates blood pressure and increases blood clotting Trans fatty acids: margarine (increase blood cholesterol more than saturated fat Three Pathways for Cholesterol Uptake Receptor Pathway LDLs taken up by cells, broken down, and components utilized Excess in blood become oxidized Scavenger Pathway White blood cells remove oxidized LDLs Cholesterol can build up in these cells and kill them; this results in plaque (atherosclerosis) High Density Lipoproteins Picks up cholesterol throughout the body Discuss health concerns related to dietary fat intake Major killer of North Americans is CVD Development:(Atherosclerotic plaque leads to Heart attack and stroke) Risk factors for CVD age, gender, race and genetics (cannot change) can change or prevent: blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, hypertension, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes and other diseases Descr Continue reading >>

Nutr 108

Nutr 108

Home > Preview A lacto-ovo vegetarian would eat all the following except: A) red meat B)cheese C) corn D) eggs The major role of vitamine E in the body seems to be to: A) pervent skin cancer B) act as an antioxidant C) aid in protein metabolism D) aid in formation of normal epithelial tissue What happens when the diet is lacking an essential amino acid? A) a person's health will not be affected as long as carbohydrate and fat intake is adequate B) protein synthesis will be limited C) proteins will be made but they will be missing that particular amino acid D) the body will synthesize it The production of glucose from protein or fat is called A) glycolysis B) glyconeoglycolysis C) gluconeogenesis D) glucogenolysis Linolenicand linoleic acids are found primarily in: A) vegetable and fish oils B) butter C) seeds D) none of the above which of the following are formed from the incomplete breakdown of fat when carbohydrate is not available? A) amino acids B) pyruvate C) ketones D) ammonia and urea Water is involved in all of the followint except: A) regulation of body temperature B) conversion of lipids to amino acids C) lubricant around joints D) solvent for vitamins and minerals Which of the following foods would make the greatest contribution to a person's intake of riboflavin? A) milk B) oatmeal C) oranges D) broccoli Among the followint, the best food sources for the water-soluble vitamins are: A) butter and vegetable oils B) oranges and cereals C) tuna and shrimp D) egg yolks and apples Almost all (99%) of the calcium in the body is used for: A) regulate muscle contraction B) regulate the transmission of nerve impulses C) provide energy for cells D) provide rigidity for bones The six diet planning principles include: A) adequacy, B vitamins, carbohydrates, meat, variety Continue reading >>

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