diabetestalk.net

How Are Ketones Formed Quizlet Nutrition

Ketone Bodies

Ketone Bodies

Ketone bodies Acetone Acetoacetic acid (R)-beta-Hydroxybutyric acid Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids[1] during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise,[2], alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy.[3] In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids. Ketone bodies are produced by the liver under the circumstances listed above (i.e. fasting, starving, low carbohydrate diets, prolonged exercise and untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus) as a result of intense gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (not including fatty acids).[1] They are therefore always released into the blood by the liver together with newly produced glucose, after the liver glycogen stores have been depleted (these glycogen stores are depleted after only 24 hours of fasting)[1]. When two acetyl-CoA molecules lose their -CoAs, (or Co-enzyme A groups) they can form a (covalent) dimer called acetoacetate. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a reduced form of acetoacetate, in which the ketone group is converted into an alcohol (or hydroxyl) group (see illustration on the right). Both are 4-carbon molecules, that can readily be converted back into acetyl-CoA by most tissues of the body, with the notable exception of the liver. Acetone is the decarboxylated form of acetoacetate which cannot be converted Continue reading >>

Ketones

Ketones

Excess ketones are dangerous for someone with diabetes... Low insulin, combined with relatively normal glucagon and epinephrine levels, causes fat to be released from fat cells, which then turns into ketones. Excess formation of ketones is dangerous and is a medical emergency In a person without diabetes, ketone production is the body’s normal adaptation to starvation. Blood sugar levels never get too high, because the production is regulated by just the right balance of insulin, glucagon and other hormones. However, in an individual with diabetes, dangerous and life-threatening levels of ketones can develop. What are ketones and why do I need to know about them? Ketones and ketoacids are alternative fuels for the body that are made when glucose is in short supply. They are made in the liver from the breakdown of fats. Ketones are formed when there is not enough sugar or glucose to supply the body’s fuel needs. This occurs overnight, and during dieting or fasting. During these periods, insulin levels are low, but glucagon and epinephrine levels are relatively normal. This combination of low insulin, and relatively normal glucagon and epinephrine levels causes fat to be released from the fat cells. The fats travel through the blood circulation to reach the liver where they are processed into ketone units. The ketone units then circulate back into the blood stream and are picked up by the muscle and other tissues to fuel your body’s metabolism. In a person without diabetes, ketone production is the body’s normal adaptation to starvation. Blood sugar levels never get too high, because the production is regulated by just the right balance of insulin, glucagon and other hormones. However, in an individual with diabetes, dangerous and life-threatening levels of ketone Continue reading >>

Nutrition 422 - Chapter 7 Scsg

Nutrition 422 - Chapter 7 Scsg

Sort What does the liver do with carbohydrates? Metabolizes fructose, galactose and glucose Makes and stores glycogen Breaks down glycogen and releases glucose Breaks down glucose for energy when needed Makes glucose from some amino acids and glycerol when needed Converts excess glucose and fructose to fatty acids What does the liver do with proteins? *Manufactures nonessential amino acids that are in short supply *Removes from circulation amino acids that are present in excess of need and converts them to other amino acids or deaminates them and concerts them to glucose or fatty acids. *Removes ammonia from from the blood and converts it to urea to be sent to the kidneys for excretion. *Makes other nitrogen-containing compounds the body needs (such as bases used in DNA and RNA. Compare/contrast anabolism and catabolism and know examples for each. Blue=Carbs Yellow=Fat Red=Proteins (Figure 7-2 pg 200) ANABOLISM: Reactions in which SMALL molecules are PUT TOGETHER to build larger ones. Anabolic reactions "require" energy. Examples: Making of glycogen, triglycerides and protein, these reactions require differing amounts of energy. CATABOLISM: Reactions in which LARGE molecules are BROKEN DOWN to smaller ones. Catabolic reactions "release" energy. Examples include the breakdown of glycogen, triglycerides and protein, the further catabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids and amino acids releases differing amounts of energy. Much of the energy released is captured in the bonds of adenosine. What is ketosis? Why does it occur? What nutrient might rapidly reverse a state of ketosis? What are symptoms of ketosis? (In other words, how might you know that someone has ketosis?) How are ketones formed? What kind of diet might be associated with the formation of ketones? ... ANAB Continue reading >>

Nutrition Topic 6

Nutrition Topic 6

1. Describe in order the 3 stages by which energy is extracted from glucose. Glycolysis - anaerobic process (doesn't need oxygen) that occurs in the cytoplasm, converting one glucose molecule to two pyruvate molecules and releasing energy. Glycolysis takes place in two stages. Preparatory phase, and the payoff phase. Aerobic conditions- takes place in mitochondria when oxygen is plentiful, and converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA; CO2 is the by-product of this reaction. TCA cycle and the electron transport chain (ETC)- located w/in mitochondria and is the central metabolic hub of the cell. Providing energy by aerobic oxidation of fuel molecules, and supplying building blocks of many other molecules (e.g; amino acids, nucleotide bases). 1st stage of cellular respiration involves oxidation of fuel molecules 2nd stage involves enzymatic oxidation of the acetyl groups to CO2 3rd stage involves the reduced coenzymes being oxidised, the e-'s are transferred to O2, resulting in a large amount of energy being released in the form of ATP Oxaloacetate is synthesized from pyruvate, but cannot be made from fat carbohydrates the main supplier of both pyruvate and acetyl CoA; thus, carbs are essential in diet, and without oxaloacetate, the TCA cycle slows down, and fatty acid oxidation cannot occur. The eight electrons that are released per turn of the TCA (TCA cycle had two rotations) are shuttled to electron transport chain (ETC), oxygen must be available for energy metabolism. As electrons move through the transport chain, a proton and charge gradient is generated, and the movement of protons back through proton pumps provides the energy for ATP synthesis. 3. How is alcohol metabolized, describe signs and symptoms of increasing intoxication -Alc is oxidized in stomach by action of alco Continue reading >>

Nutrition- Metabolism

Nutrition- Metabolism

Effects of Ketosis -supporession of appetite -metabolism slowing -Starvation symptoms, including... --slowing of energy output --reduction in fat loss --wasting --decr metabolism --decr body temperature -decr disease resistance Continue reading >>

67 True/false Questions

67 True/false Questions

Print test Transamination → The transfer of an amino group from and amino acid to an alpha-keto acid. Active Transport → Movement of particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration; requires energy and enzymes. Parasympathetic Nervous System → The brain in the gut. A subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that controls the gastrointestinal organs. Carcinogen → Cancer-causing substance. Enterocytes → Lid-like cartilaginous structure suspended over the entrance of the larynx; swallowing closes the opening to the trachea by placing the larynx against the epiglottis. Triglyceride → Compound with three molecules of fatty acids bound with one molecule of glycerol; the storage of fat in humans. Amylase → Of pancreatic and salivary origin, this enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis (splitting) of starch into smaller compounds. First Pass Metabolism → Protrusion of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm. Microvilli → Small projections (singular villus) covering the surface of the mucous membrane lining the small intestine, through which nutrients and fluids are absorbed. Calorie → Amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius; equal to 4184 Joules. Ketone Body → Either acetoacetic acid, acetone or beta-hydroxybutyric acid with a a carbonyl group attached to two carbon atoms. Neurotransmitter → The transfer of an amino group from and amino acid to an alpha-keto acid. Monosaturated Fat → Fatty acid containing one double or triple bond between carbons. pH → Measure of acidity and alkalinity; lower numbers are more acidic, higher numbers are more alkaline; 7 is neutral. Gastro-Intestinal (G Continue reading >>

Nutrition. Chap 7: Energy Metabolism.

Nutrition. Chap 7: Energy Metabolism.

Sort Proteins: makes nonessential AA that are in short supply. Removes excess AA & converts them to other AA, or deaminates them & converts them to glucose or fatty acids. Removes ammonia from blood & converts it to urea for excretion. Makes DNA/RNA. & many proteins. >> Other: Detoxifies alcohol, drugs, poison, & excretes them. Helps dismantle old RBC's & captures the iron for recycling. Stores most vitamins, & many minerals. Activates Vitamin D. AA: Before entering metabolic pathways, AA are deaminated (lose their nitrogen amino group). deamination produces ammonia (which provides nitrogen to make nonessential AA. Remaining ammonia is excreted by urea in liver/kid. AA pathway: can enter pathways as pyruvate/Acetyl CoA/others enter krebs as compounds other than Acetyl CoA. AA that make glucose either by pyruvate or krebs cycle are glucogenic. AA that are degraded to Acetyl CoA are Ketogenic. Thus, proteins unlike fats, are a good source of glucose when carbs aren't available. In the liver: because of capillary network the liver is first to get alcohol saturated blood. liver cells are the only other cells in the body that can make sufficient quantities of dehydrogenase, to oxidize alcohol at a decent rate. >> Alcohol affects every organ of the body, bu t the most dramatic evidence is disruptive behavior is in the liver. Normally the liver prefers fatty acids for fuel, & it packages excess out. But when alcohol is there it has to process it first. >> Continue reading >>

Nutrition- Lipids Continued

Nutrition- Lipids Continued

Sort Lipid metabolism - Chylomicrons carry lipids from the intestines into the lymph and then the bloodstream - With the help of lipoprotein lipase, they deliver fatty acids to body cells - The remainder of the chylomicron, called a chylomicron remnant, is delivered to the liver - VLDLs formed in the liver carry lipids from the liver to body cells (the activity of lipoprotein lipase is needed) - After the triglycerides in VLDLs have been broken down to fatty acids and removed, IDLs remain - Some IDLs are transformed into LDLs, which are the primary cholesterol delivery system for body cells - LDLs are taken into cells after first binding to the LDL receptor ("bad") - HDLs carry cholesterol away from cells and return it to the liver ("good") Lipolysis - Glycerol converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate - In beta oxidation, carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains - The resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enter the Krebs cycle - Glycerol- good source of energy, rapidly available in gut (must be included in small amounts) - Remember: acetyl CoA- acetate, 2 C's, animals should be able to mobilize body reserves (like cows- it's a good thing) Clinical application - Blood ketone levels are usually very low --> Many tissues use ketones for ATP production (good source of energy) --> An excess of ketone bodies may cause acidosis or abnormally low blood pH- ketosis - Fasting, starving or high fat meals with few carbohydrates result in excessive beta oxidation and ketone body production --> Acidosis (ketoacidosis) is abnormally low blood pH --> Sweet smell of ketone body acetone on breath Metabolic control- differences in energy needs - Between resting and activated muscle - Feed vs. fasting - Breakdown of glycogen and fatty acids co Continue reading >>

Nutrition Ch. 7

Nutrition Ch. 7

Front Back .Wirisformula{ margin:0 !important; padding:0 !important; vertical-align:top !important;} Metabolism The sum total of all the chemcial reactions that go on in living cells. Energy metabolism includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and spends energy from food. Example: Nutrients provide the body with FUEL and follows them through a series of reactions that release energy from their chemical bonds. As the bonds break, they release energy in a controlled version of the process by which wood burns in a fire. Energy metabolism All of the chemical reactions through which the human body acquires and spends energy from food Anabolism Small compounds joined together to make largers ones; energy must be used in order to do this Ana = up Catabolism Larger compounds BROKEN down into smaller ones; energy is RELEASED kata = down Coupled reactions Energy released from the breakdown of a large compounds is used to drive other reactions ATP Adenosine triphosphate; energy currency of the body -- produced when large compounds are broken down ATP is used to make large compounds from smaller ones. Ribosomes Cellular machinery used to make proteins Mitochondria Where energy is derived from fat, CHO, protein via TCA cycle, electron transport chain Coenzyme Complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes' activity. Many coenzymes have B vitamins as part of their structures. co = with Cofactor The general term for substances that facilitate enzyme action is cofactors; they include both organic coenzymes such as vitamins and inorganic substances such as minerals Enzymes Protein catalysts - proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process Metalloenzyme Enzymes that contain one or more minerals as part of their stru Continue reading >>

Nutrition Exam 3

Nutrition Exam 3

1. Metabolism 1.Metabolism is the sum of these and all the other chemical reactions that go on in living cells; energy metabolism includes all the ways the body obtains and uses energy from food. The enzymes involved in Phase I reactions are primarily located in the endoplasmic reticulum of the liver cell, they are called microsomal enzymes. Phase II metabolism involves the introduction of a hydrophilic endogenous species, such as glucuronic acid or sulfate, to the drug molecule. Refer to evernote for more info. 2. Examples of anabolism and metabolism. 2.Anabolism refers to all the metabolic activity in the human body that builds biological molecules, and catabolism refers to all the metabolic processes that break down biological molecules. EXAMPLE'S Muscle tissue growth is an anabolic process, and digestion is a catabolic activity. Diagram in evernote. 4. Body's response to feasting and fasting: metabolism, storage, priority Study ch 7 notes. Diagram for feasting and fasting, excess of each macro and defecit of each, first day what happens, next day major source of glucose. Refer to evernote for diagram Feasting: metabolism favors fat formation, excess energy stored as fat. Excess Protein Recall from Chapter 6 that the body cannot store excess amino acids as such; it has to convert them to other compounds. Contrary to popular opinion, a person cannot grow muscle simply by overeating protein. Lean tissue such as muscle develops in response to a stimulus such as hormones or physical activity. When a person overeats protein, the body uses the surplus first by replacing normal daily losses and then by increasing protein oxidation. An increase in protein oxidation uses some excess protein, but it displaces fat in the fuel mix. If excess protein is still available, the amino Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 7

Nutrition Chapter 7

Sort 13. Before entering the TCA cycle, each of the energy yielding nutrients nutrients is broken down to: a. ammonia b. pyruvate c. electrons d. acetyl CoA d. acetyl CoA 17. During a fast, when glycogen stores have been depleted, the body begins to synthesize glucose from: a. acetyl CoA b. amino acids c. fatty acids d. ketone bodies b. amino acids Learn it - Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids Carbohydrate, fat, and protein take different paths to acetyl CoA, but once there, the final pathways - the TCA cycle and electron transport change- are shared. All of the pathways, which are shown as a simplified overview in Fig 7-5 (p207), are shown in more detail in Fig 7-18 (p216). Instead of dismissing this figure as "too busy." take a few moments to appreciated the busyness of it all. Consider that this figure is merely an overview of energy metabolism, and then imagine how busy a living cell really is during the metabolism of hundreds of compounds, each of which may be involved in several reactions, each requiring specific enzymes. Learn it - Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism When energy intake exceeds energy needs, the body makes fat- regardless of whether the excess intake is from protein, carbohydrate, or fat. The only difference is that the body is much more efficient at storing energy when the excess derives from dietary fat. When fasting, the body makes a number of adaptations: increasing the breakdown of fat to provide energy for most of the cells, using glycerol and amino acids to make glucose for the red blood cells and central nervous system, producing ketones to fuel the brain, suppr Continue reading >>

Human Nutrition Chapter 7 - Metabolism

Human Nutrition Chapter 7 - Metabolism

Sort What is the process of pyruvate to Acetyl CoA? Requires oxygen (aerobic) Utilized if cell needs energy Remove COOH from pyruvate and is released as two CO2 to external environment Enzyme derived from Vitamin B and central to the energy metabolism of nutrients Remaining two carbon compounds attaches to CoA becoming Acetyl CoA which is used as building blocks for fatty acids Not reversible, cannot retrieve CO2 Continue reading >>

How Are Aldehydes And Ketones Alike?

How Are Aldehydes And Ketones Alike?

Both aldehydes (R-CHO) and ketones (R-CO-R') are called carbonyl compounds as they have the electron-withdrawing carbonyl group (C=O) in their molecules. On reduction both these classes of compounds yield respective alcohols. Aldehydes are converted to primary alcohols, and ketones to secondary alcohols. Both aldehydes and ketones undergo addition reactions at the CO group with compounds such as NH3, NH2OH, HCN and NaHSO3. On treatment with PCl5, the oxygen atom of the CO group gets replaced by chlorine, and they form dichloro compounds of the types R-CHCl2 and R-CCl2-R' respectively. Both undergo self-condensation in the presence of alkalis. Both acetaldehyde and acetone (and other methyl ketones) form iodoform with iodine and alkali. Aldehydes on oxidation are converted to carboxylic acids with same number of carbon atoms. Though ketones resist oxidation, they can be oxidised by strong oxidising agents like chromic acid to carboxylic acids containing lesser number of carbon atoms, as the molecule gets ruptured at the CO group. One major difference between aldehydes and ketones is that the former have distinct reducing properties. Aldehydes reduce Tollen's reagent to metallic silver, and Fehling's solution to red cuprous oxide. Continue reading >>

Nutrition Test 3 Chapter 7 Set 1

Nutrition Test 3 Chapter 7 Set 1

Sort assist enzymes; enzyme helper complex organic molecules that associate closely with most enzymes may not be protein some B vitamins are ____ Folate Niacin *Helpers in Metabolic Reactions coenzymes first pathway glucose takes to yield E provide E for short bursts of activity prepare glucose for later E pathways "Glucose splitting" 1 glucose (6 C) is broken down to yield 2 pyruvates (3 C) (cytoplasm) net yield of energy is small H atoms are also released and carried to the electron transport chain by coenzymes made from B vitamin niacin 1 glucose = 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 pyruvates Glycolysis Pyruvate can be then converted into acetyl-coA -_______ when energy expenditure proceeds at a slower pace lactic acid-______ when body needs energy quickly glucose-if needed (liver cells and to some extent kidney cells) reversal of _____ aerobic; anaerobic; glycolysis red blood cells do not have a ____- rely on Glycolysis pyruvate can be converted back to ___, acetyl coA cannot Krebbs: acetyl coA + oxaloacetate ***CO2 E Chain: ***O2 -mitochondria -most ATP -H2O is produced mitochondria; glucose if oxygen is available and cells need E pyruvate enter the mitochondria to be converted to acetyl coA Irreversible acetyl CoA makes energy through the TCA cycle if energy is needed cannot be used to make glucose or AA (only E or FA production) Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA TCA Cycle (Kreb's Cycle) a series of metabolic reactions that produce CO2 and H takes place in the inner compartment of mitochondria oxaloacetate-compound made primarily from pyruvate (cannot be made from fat) starts the TCA cycle if insufficient, TCA cycle slows down, cells face E crisis Kreb's cycle produces: 1 ATP CO2 4 coenzyme carrying H+ & electrons (NADH and FADH) The Electron Transport Chain the final step in energy metabolis Continue reading >>

Nutrition Midterm

Nutrition Midterm

Front Back .Wirisformula{ margin:0 !important; padding:0 !important; vertical-align:top !important;} what is homeostasis? Equilibrium what are the methods of the scientific method? observation, hypothesis, experiment, theory what are the 3 components to a healthy diet? balance, variety, moderation how do you calculate calories of food? carbs, protein, fats, alcohols how many grams are there per calorie? carb= 4 kcal/gram protein= 4 kcal/gram alcohol= 7 kcal/gram fats(lipids)= 9 kcal/gram How to calculate % of calories of fat in certain food items? depending on the type of calories (i.e fats= 9 kcal/gram)) multiply 10 by the number of kcal/gram and divide by total calories. i.e. fat= 9kcal/gram 10*9= 90 90/500= % what are the 4 components of dietary intake? 1. EAR= estimated average requirements. meet nutrient needs of half individuals 2. RDA= recommended dietary allowances. nutrient intake that meets ALL needs of healthy people 3. AI= Adequate Intakes. used when no RDA available. indicator of health 4. ULs= tolerable upper intake levels. max daily intake that unlikely pose risk of adverse health effect what are essential nutrients? nutrient that must be provided in the diet b/c body doesn't make/lacks what is nutrient density? an evaulation of the nutrient content of a food in comparison to kcalories(energy) it provides what is energy density? content of calories a food has compared to nutrients it provides. calories per gram what do you include in nutrient assessment? A-E. A= anthropometric B= biochemical test C= chemical D= dietary E= economic what is DV%? daily value. comes on nutrition label. approx amount of nutrient based on 2000 cal diet. it is the diet standard what are discretionary calories? calories you can eat above what your body needs after body has taken Continue reading >>

More in ketosis