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How Are Ketones Formed Quizlet Nutrition

Nutrition Final: Concepts For Review

Nutrition Final: Concepts For Review

Sort Mainly building lean tissue Shape determines function - Transport - Used as energy if not getting enough carbohydrate - Structure - Enzymes (catalysts) - Hormones (insulin) - Antibodies (fight virus, infection) Proteins Emulsifier of fat -- brings fat into suspension with water Prepares fat and oils for digestion Secreted continuously by liver, released into small intestine when needed Bile Artery walls become progressively thick due to accumulation of plaque Consequences ----> lumen narrows, plaque can form clot ----> clot can shut off blood flow ----> aneurysm results Atherosclerosis Main Dietary Features of TLC Diet/What is its primary function? Primary function is to lower LDL Features - Main: <7% saturated fat kcals, replace with healthy fat - Avoid trans fat - Consume plant sterols/stanols - Sodium <1500 mg - Increase soluble fiber - Limit alcohol - Reduce BP - Increase omega-3s Continue reading >>

Nutrition Ch. 7

Nutrition Ch. 7

Front Back .Wirisformula{ margin:0 !important; padding:0 !important; vertical-align:top !important;} Metabolism The sum total of all the chemcial reactions that go on in living cells. Energy metabolism includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and spends energy from food. Example: Nutrients provide the body with FUEL and follows them through a series of reactions that release energy from their chemical bonds. As the bonds break, they release energy in a controlled version of the process by which wood burns in a fire. Energy metabolism All of the chemical reactions through which the human body acquires and spends energy from food Anabolism Small compounds joined together to make largers ones; energy must be used in order to do this Ana = up Catabolism Larger compounds BROKEN down into smaller ones; energy is RELEASED kata = down Coupled reactions Energy released from the breakdown of a large compounds is used to drive other reactions ATP Adenosine triphosphate; energy currency of the body -- produced when large compounds are broken down ATP is used to make large compounds from smaller ones. Ribosomes Cellular machinery used to make proteins Mitochondria Where energy is derived from fat, CHO, protein via TCA cycle, electron transport chain Coenzyme Complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes' activity. Many coenzymes have B vitamins as part of their structures. co = with Cofactor The general term for substances that facilitate enzyme action is cofactors; they include both organic coenzymes such as vitamins and inorganic substances such as minerals Enzymes Protein catalysts - proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process Metalloenzyme Enzymes that contain one or more minerals as part of their stru Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 4 (carbohydrates)

Nutrition Chapter 4 (carbohydrates)

Sort fiber -found in plant foods -structural -nonstarch polysaccharide --> not digestible by human enzymes (some are digested by GI tract bacteria [fermentable]) -provide little to no energy -soluble v unsoluble (different 'versions' of this) * soluble: dissolves in water (can get maybe a little bit of energy from it), forms a gel *insoluble: opposite -do not get this from steak'-gives bulk to our stool typer of fibers ** know what all of these do -cellulose (insoluble) * composes plant cell walls * composed of glucose molecules -hemicellulose (partially soluble) * main constituent of cereal -pectin (soluble) * CHO backbone with monosaccharide side chains * readily form gel in water (viscous) * fruits and vegetables -pectin is used by the food industry to thicken jelly, keep salad dressing from separating types of fibers ** know what all of these do -functional fibers *fibers that have been extracted from plants or are manufactured and then added to foods or used in supplements * ex: cellulose taken to relieve constipation; fiber one; fiber gummies -resistant starches (insoluble) *starches classified as dietary fibers; escape digestion and absorption in the small intestine *whole or partially milled grains, legumes and just-ripened bananas; cooked potatoes, past and rice that have been chilled *support a healthy colon -phytic aciid *non-fiber found in fiber rich foods; binds with minerals treatment of lactose intolerance -total elimination usually unnecessary -milk products contribute Ca, vitamin D and riboflavin -eat small amounts at one time (6 g lactose/meal = 1/2 c milk) -eat with other foods -eat fermented (have probiotics) products; ex: yogurt, kefir -eat cheese; most of lactose removed with whey -enzymes added or use drops (functional food: add enzyme in it) -if Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapters 1-5

Nutrition Chapters 1-5

How to study your flashcards. Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards. Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back. H key: Show hint (3rd side). A key: Read text to speech. Share Print Export Clone 75 Cards in this Set Front Back What are the 6 classes of nutrients? carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, water, vitamins, proteins Which nutrients are inorganic? minerals and water (do not contain carbon) What is the difference between inorganic nutrients and organic nutrients? Inorganic nutrients do NOT contain carbon Studies of populations that reveal correlations between dietary habits and disease incidence are.....? epidemiological studies What percent of calories should come from carbohydrates? 45-65% What percent of calories should come from fat? 20-35% What percent of calories should come from protein? 10-35% EAR = Estimated Average Requirements RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowances AI = Adequate Intakes UL = Tolerable Upper Intake Levels EER = Estimated Energy Requirement AMDR = Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges Primary deficiency a nutrient deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake of a nutrient Secondary deficiency a nutrient deficiency cause by something such a disease or drug interaction that reduces absorption, accelerates us, hastens excretion, or destroys the nutrient. Subclinical deficiency a deficiency in the early stages, before the outward signs have appeared What are the 6 diet-planning principles? Adequacy, balance, kCalorie (energy) control, nutrient density, moderation, variety 5 food groups Fruits, vegetables, grains, protein foods, milk and milk products Foods within a given food group of the USDA Food Guide are similar in their contents of: vitamins and minerals Enriched grain products are fortified with: iron, Continue reading >>

What Are Some Forms Of Good Nutrition?

What Are Some Forms Of Good Nutrition?

muscle function A muscle is an active tissue at a site in the body where fat is burned. Muscles are therefore important in burning fat and also provide the shape of your body. Calorie intake and consumption The most important factor for losing body fat is the relationship between the amount of calories you consume each day and the amount of calories you burn. It is a fact that your calorie intake will have to be less than the consumption to be able to burn fat. This is not based on personal opinion or the opinion of a diet guru, but this is the law of thermodynamics. This law says that fat loss is determined by burning more calories per day than you consume. nutritive value Now, the value of nutrients also plays an important role. For example, someone who follows an energy (energy-restricted) diet affect both undernourished and overfed by an incorrect composition. It is therefore important to choose for high-quality, nutritious products. But even this is that someone can still create excess fat by eating too many 'healthy' food if you get more calories than you burn. Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 7 Study Information

Nutrition Chapter 7 Study Information

Sort Compare/contrast anabolism and catabolism and know examples for each. Anabolism - Reactions in which small molecules are put together to build larger ones. *ana = (build up) Anabolic Reactions: include the making of glycogen, triglycerides, and protein. These reactions require differing amounts of energy. Catabolism - Reactions in which large molecules are broken down to smaller ones. * kata = (break down) Catabolic Reactions: include the breakdown of glycogen, triglycerides and protein, the further catabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids releases differing amounts of energy. Much of the energy released is captured in the bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (Blue color for Carbs - Yellow for Fats and Red for Proteins) in diagram. What is ketosis? Why does it occur? What nutrient might rapidly reverse a state of ketosis? What are symptoms of ketosis? (In other words, how might you know that someone has ketosis?) How are ketones formed? What kind of diet might be associated with the formation of ketones? ... Continue reading >>

Nutrition Exam 3

Nutrition Exam 3

1. Metabolism 1.Metabolism is the sum of these and all the other chemical reactions that go on in living cells; energy metabolism includes all the ways the body obtains and uses energy from food. The enzymes involved in Phase I reactions are primarily located in the endoplasmic reticulum of the liver cell, they are called microsomal enzymes. Phase II metabolism involves the introduction of a hydrophilic endogenous species, such as glucuronic acid or sulfate, to the drug molecule. Refer to evernote for more info. 2. Examples of anabolism and metabolism. 2.Anabolism refers to all the metabolic activity in the human body that builds biological molecules, and catabolism refers to all the metabolic processes that break down biological molecules. EXAMPLE'S Muscle tissue growth is an anabolic process, and digestion is a catabolic activity. Diagram in evernote. 4. Body's response to feasting and fasting: metabolism, storage, priority Study ch 7 notes. Diagram for feasting and fasting, excess of each macro and defecit of each, first day what happens, next day major source of glucose. Refer to evernote for diagram Feasting: metabolism favors fat formation, excess energy stored as fat. Excess Protein Recall from Chapter 6 that the body cannot store excess amino acids as such; it has to convert them to other compounds. Contrary to popular opinion, a person cannot grow muscle simply by overeating protein. Lean tissue such as muscle develops in response to a stimulus such as hormones or physical activity. When a person overeats protein, the body uses the surplus first by replacing normal daily losses and then by increasing protein oxidation. An increase in protein oxidation uses some excess protein, but it displaces fat in the fuel mix. If excess protein is still available, the amino Continue reading >>

Chapter 24 -nutrition, Metabolism, And Body Temperature Regulation

Chapter 24 -nutrition, Metabolism, And Body Temperature Regulation

Nutrient - substance that promotes normal growth, maintenance and repair Major nutrients - carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins Other nutrients - vitamins and minerals (and technically speaking, water) Carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates (starches) are found in bread, cereal, flour, pasta, nuts, and potatoes Simple carbohydrates (sugars) are found in soft drinks, candy, fruit, and ice cream Glucose is the molecule ultimately used by body cells to make ATP Neurons and RBCs rely almost entirely upon glucose to supply their energy needs Excess glucose is converted to glycogen or fat and stored The minimum amount of carbohydrates needed to maintain adequate blood glucose levels is 100 grams per day Starchy foods and milk have nutrients such as vitamins and minerals in addition to complex carbohydrates Refined carbohydrate foods (candy and soft drinks) provide energy sources only and are referred to as "empty calories" Lipids The most abundant dietary lipids, triglycerides, are found in both animal and plant foods Essential fatty acids - linoleic and linolenic acid, found in most vegetables, must be ingested Dietary fats: Help the body to absorb vitamins Are a major energy fuel of hepatocytes and skeletal muscle Are a component of myelin sheaths and all cell membranes Fatty deposits in adipose tissue provide: A protective cushion around body organs An insulating layer beneath the skin An easy-to-store concentrated source of energy Dietary Requirements Higher for infants and children than for adults The American Heart Association suggests that: Fats should represent less than 30% of one's total caloric intake Saturated fats should be limited to 10% or less of one's total fat intake Daily cholesterol intake should not exceed 200 mg Proteins Complete proteins that meet all the b Continue reading >>

Nutrition: How Automatable Are Nutritionists?

Nutrition: How Automatable Are Nutritionists?

I will try to keep my answer brief, however this questions may yield complex, long and uncomfortable(?) answers. For the sake of ease my answer relates to both Nutritionist and Dietitians as well. In short: With the recent development of machine learning techniques (such as Deep Learning) most tasks of Dietitians and Nutritionists (relating to academic knowledge and its application) will be automatable. However, other equally important aspect of their profession (e.g. empathy, support, skill sharing etc.) are safe from automation for a long while. In a bit more detail:In fact much of the work Nutrition Professionals do are automated to some extent already since the 1970s - not many people calculate meal plans on paper with a pen. However, recent developments upped the pace significantly. Companies such as Nutrino pride themselves on being your “personal dietitian” and using algorithms instead of people to answer your questions. They utilize a computer system called Watson developed by IBM that won Jeopardy! in 2011 against former winners. Nutrino received significant funding and can be expected to refine their technology at an ever faster rate. You can see their pitch from 2013 (see link below). It is a short and very interesting YouTube video that is over 3 years old - since then they made incredible progress. Their “stated goal” is to replace dietitians altogether. Most people who are familiar with the new machine learning techniques agree that the question is ‘when’ not ‘if’ knowledge based jobs will be replaced by algorithms… and the answer to ‘when’ is counted in years, not decades – just think about what you knew/heard about driverless cars 4 years ago and now. I included a number of sources with examples of how this is happening now, but G Continue reading >>

How Are Aldehydes And Ketones Alike?

How Are Aldehydes And Ketones Alike?

Both aldehydes (R-CHO) and ketones (R-CO-R') are called carbonyl compounds as they have the electron-withdrawing carbonyl group (C=O) in their molecules. On reduction both these classes of compounds yield respective alcohols. Aldehydes are converted to primary alcohols, and ketones to secondary alcohols. Both aldehydes and ketones undergo addition reactions at the CO group with compounds such as NH3, NH2OH, HCN and NaHSO3. On treatment with PCl5, the oxygen atom of the CO group gets replaced by chlorine, and they form dichloro compounds of the types R-CHCl2 and R-CCl2-R' respectively. Both undergo self-condensation in the presence of alkalis. Both acetaldehyde and acetone (and other methyl ketones) form iodoform with iodine and alkali. Aldehydes on oxidation are converted to carboxylic acids with same number of carbon atoms. Though ketones resist oxidation, they can be oxidised by strong oxidising agents like chromic acid to carboxylic acids containing lesser number of carbon atoms, as the molecule gets ruptured at the CO group. One major difference between aldehydes and ketones is that the former have distinct reducing properties. Aldehydes reduce Tollen's reagent to metallic silver, and Fehling's solution to red cuprous oxide. Continue reading >>

350 Matching Questions

350 Matching Questions

Print test what is vitamin A needed for during pregnancy? what is the concern? fertility decreases as the man and woman age beyond ___ and the longer _____ lasts. what are the 4 critical periods of fetal growth and development? how much total weight gain is actually from the fetus? 6 sources of disruption in fertility- when do maternal anabolic changes take place? what are the recommendation of oral contraceptives during lactation? what is related to milk synthesis/how much is synthesized? what are the vitamin, mineral and fluid recommendations for lactating mothers? what nutrients pass through the placenta via active transport? what is 1 unit of alcohol? what are the effects of alcohol on pregnancy outcome? what are the carb needs of a pregnant mother? artificial sweeteners? alcohol? how do eating disorders affect menses? what is the potential cause of preeclampsia? what are the benefits of breast feeding for the mother? what are the food safety risks during pregnancy? define infertility- what is the exercise and weight loss recommendation during lactation? the male reproductive system process requires interactions among ________,_______ and _____. what is the main protein in human milk and its function? what other major protein is found there and its functions? level of alcohol in breast milk is ____ as maternal plasma. when do plasma levels peak? what are the community to barriers to breast feeding? besides letdown, what does oxytocin do postpartum? what medical conditions contraindicate breast feeding? how are anorexia and bulimia managed? what two eicosanoids are associated with preeclampsia? what are the 3 positions for breastfeeding? what is the recommended folate intake for pregnancy? what are some dietary sources? what water soluble vitamins are found attached Continue reading >>

Nutrition Class Midterm

Nutrition Class Midterm

1. Which of the following is a purpose of both the Recommended Dietary Allowance and Adequate Intake? A) Setting nutrient goals for individuals B) Identifying toxic intakes of nutrients C) Restoring health of malnourished individuals D) Developing nutrition programs for schoolchildren A 2. What is the benefit of using placebos in an experiment? A) All subjects are similar B) All subjects receive a treatment C) Neither subjects nor researchers know who is receiving treatment D) One group of subjects receives a treatment and the other group receives nothing B 3. Recommended Dietary Allowances may be used to A) measure nutrient balance of population groups. B) assess dietary nutrient adequacy for individuals. C) treat persons with diet-related illnesses. D) calculate exact food requirements for most individuals B 5. All of the following features are shared by the RDA and the AI EXCEPT A) both are included in the DRI. B) both serve as nutrient intake goals for individuals. C) neither covers 100% of the population's nutrient needs. D) neither is useful for evaluating nutrition programs for groups of people. D 14. You have been asked to help a top nutrition researcher conduct human experiments on vitamin C. As the subjects walk into the laboratory, you distribute all the vitamin C pill bottles to the girls and all the placebo pill bottles to the boys. The researcher instantly informs you that there are two errors in your research practice. What steps should you have done differently? A) Given all the boys the vitamin C and the girls the placebo, and told them what they were getting B) Distributed the bottles randomly, randomized the subjects, and told them what they were getting C) Told the subjects which group they were in, and prevented yourself from knowing the contents of Continue reading >>

Ketone Bodies

Ketone Bodies

Ketone bodies Acetone Acetoacetic acid (R)-beta-Hydroxybutyric acid Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids[1] during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise,[2], alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy.[3] In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids. Ketone bodies are produced by the liver under the circumstances listed above (i.e. fasting, starving, low carbohydrate diets, prolonged exercise and untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus) as a result of intense gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (not including fatty acids).[1] They are therefore always released into the blood by the liver together with newly produced glucose, after the liver glycogen stores have been depleted (these glycogen stores are depleted after only 24 hours of fasting)[1]. When two acetyl-CoA molecules lose their -CoAs, (or Co-enzyme A groups) they can form a (covalent) dimer called acetoacetate. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a reduced form of acetoacetate, in which the ketone group is converted into an alcohol (or hydroxyl) group (see illustration on the right). Both are 4-carbon molecules, that can readily be converted back into acetyl-CoA by most tissues of the body, with the notable exception of the liver. Acetone is the decarboxylated form of acetoacetate which cannot be converted Continue reading >>

Nutrition 422 - Chapter 7 Scsg

Nutrition 422 - Chapter 7 Scsg

Sort What does the liver do with carbohydrates? Metabolizes fructose, galactose and glucose Makes and stores glycogen Breaks down glycogen and releases glucose Breaks down glucose for energy when needed Makes glucose from some amino acids and glycerol when needed Converts excess glucose and fructose to fatty acids What does the liver do with proteins? *Manufactures nonessential amino acids that are in short supply *Removes from circulation amino acids that are present in excess of need and converts them to other amino acids or deaminates them and concerts them to glucose or fatty acids. *Removes ammonia from from the blood and converts it to urea to be sent to the kidneys for excretion. *Makes other nitrogen-containing compounds the body needs (such as bases used in DNA and RNA. Compare/contrast anabolism and catabolism and know examples for each. Blue=Carbs Yellow=Fat Red=Proteins (Figure 7-2 pg 200) ANABOLISM: Reactions in which SMALL molecules are PUT TOGETHER to build larger ones. Anabolic reactions "require" energy. Examples: Making of glycogen, triglycerides and protein, these reactions require differing amounts of energy. CATABOLISM: Reactions in which LARGE molecules are BROKEN DOWN to smaller ones. Catabolic reactions "release" energy. Examples include the breakdown of glycogen, triglycerides and protein, the further catabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids and amino acids releases differing amounts of energy. Much of the energy released is captured in the bonds of adenosine. What is ketosis? Why does it occur? What nutrient might rapidly reverse a state of ketosis? What are symptoms of ketosis? (In other words, how might you know that someone has ketosis?) How are ketones formed? What kind of diet might be associated with the formation of ketones? ... ANAB Continue reading >>

Nutrition- Metabolism

Nutrition- Metabolism

Effects of Ketosis -supporession of appetite -metabolism slowing -Starvation symptoms, including... --slowing of energy output --reduction in fat loss --wasting --decr metabolism --decr body temperature -decr disease resistance Continue reading >>

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