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How Are Ketones Formed Quizlet

Aldehydes And Ketones Reactions

Aldehydes And Ketones Reactions

6 Reactions of aldehydes and ketones with water to produce hydrates Experimentt: Al dehyde and Ketone Reactions Aldehydes and ketones are an important class of compounds in organic chemistry. The importance of molecular structure in the reactivity of organic compounds is illustrated by the reactions that produce aldehydes and ketones. Carbonyl Condensation Reactions As a result of the large dipole of the carbonyl group: Nucleophilic carbonyl: aldehydes, ketones, esters, amides and Chapter 14 Aldehydes and Ketones • This makes low molecular weight aldehydes and ketones ALDEHYDE AND KETONE REACTIONS Oxidation and reduction of aldehydes and ketones • Aldehydes can be oxidized easily to carboxylic acids Reactions of aldehydes and ketones with alcohols This reaction is used as a simple test to distinguish aldehydes from ketones REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES TASK Write balanced equations for the following reactions. In a similar reaction alcohols add reversibly to aldehydes and ketones to form hemiacetals (hemi, Greek, half). . 2 Nomenclature 20. Read more. The aldehyde serves as the dienophile . This two step reaction starts with the nucleophilic attack of the Phosphorus on the (usually primary) alkyl halide. (Chapter 17) 2 Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones. 4 C O R2 R1 Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones — Oxidation — Aldehydes and Ketones Experiment #4 Objective: To study some chemical reactions that are used to distinguish aldehydes and ketones, especially oxidation of aldehydes. Their preparation by the oxidation of primary or secondary alcohols. The addition of hydrogen cyanide and of sodium hydrogensulphite (sodium bisulphite) to Sep 4, 2014 It has been demonstrated that water adds rapidly to the carbonyl function of aldehydes and ketones to form geminal-diol. It prov Continue reading >>

Functional Groups

Functional Groups

A major topic of Organic Chemistry are functional groups. A functional group is an atom or group of atoms that is responsible for the specific properties of an organic compound. They undergo the same type of chemical reaction in every molecule in which it is found. There are eight different forms of functional groups in this chapter. Alcohols: these have a hydroxyl group with the suffix "-ol" Ketones: these have a carbonyl group with the suffix "-one" Aldehydes: these have an aldehyde group with the suffix "-al" Ethers: these use an ether group with the name "alkyl alkyl ether" Esters: these use an ester group with the name "alkyl alkyloate" Carboxylic Acids: these use a carboxyl group with a suffix of "-oic acid" Amines: these use a primary amine group with a suffix of "-amine" Alkyl Halides: There is no specific group used for alkyl halides and have several suffixes and names. Naming Branched-Chain Alkanes Continue reading >>

Diabetic Recipe For Peach Cobbler Non When Mellitus Insulin-dependent Results Quizlet

Diabetic Recipe For Peach Cobbler Non When Mellitus Insulin-dependent Results Quizlet

The Zone diet is often described as a high-protein low-carbohydrate program. Increase your Health Benefits of Quitting. Diabetic Recipe For Peach Cobbler Non When Mellitus Insulin-dependent Results Quizlet the Diabetes Committee of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society has also issued a guideline on proper foot care19. Diabetes information; Dementia information; Jaundice Diagnosis; Jaundice Treatment; Treating jaundice . Find out about diabetes in pregnancy so your care team can monitor your condition and react to any changes that could affect your own or your baby’s Yahoo! Shopping is the best place to comparison shop for Buy Insulin Syringes. have surfaced that Novolog appears to be both stronger and quicker than Humalog thus requiring slight changes in insulin doses. DKA is normally seen in people with type 1 diabetes. Page 2 Arthritis and Diabetes Continued Try swimming or cycling on a regular or a stationary bike. Fatty meats are the cornerstone to my diabetes diet. It can lead to inability of the heart to circulate blood through the type 2 diabetes no drugs foot injury body Is Diabetic Neuropathy Reversible ::The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days.[ IS DIABETIC NEUROPATHY REVERSIBLE ] The REAL Cereal edema in children with diabetic ketoacidosis: vasogenic rather than cellular? Pediatric Diabetes 2014: 15: 261-270. Couple charged in Singapore exchange and in chocolate and red wine Family Statement on Autopsy Results. Annual rates of nephropathy progression and death in type 2 diabetes in UKPDS study is shown in the flow chart 4. Back pain and kidney infection is sometimes related. Children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus should be. When a person has severe symptoms a liquid or pured diet may be prescrib Continue reading >>

Pm - Ketone Body Synthesis And Utilization

Pm - Ketone Body Synthesis And Utilization

Sort Why is there increased ketogenesis during starvation? -- low insulin/glucagon activates HSL -- UP tissue lipolysis -- UP free FA in blood -- UP beta oxy in liver bc no CPT-1 inhibition (lacks malonyl CoA) -- UP beta oxy --> UP NADH/NAD+ and UP ATP -- UP acetyl CoA output --> ketogenesis -- Acetyl CoA + pyruvate carboxylase for GNG -- UP NADH/NAD decrease TCA cycle flow at OAA Continue reading >>

Exam 3 Quizlet - Which Of The Following Is The Major...

Exam 3 Quizlet - Which Of The Following Is The Major...

Unformatted text preview: Which of the following is the major regulation point for transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria? carnitine acyltransferase I ?? The primary activation of triacylglycerol mobilization in adipocytes is through __________ of the enzyme ____________. phosphorylation; hormone sensitive lipase ?? Which of the following lipoproteins distributes dietary lipids? chylomicron ?? Which of the following statements regarding lipid digestion and absorption is true? The products of lipid digestion are resynthesized into triacylglycerols in intestinal epithelial cells. ?? The emulsification of fats: A. results in the formation of small fat droplets. B. depends upon the amphipathic structure of bile salts. C. results in the formation of micelles. A, B and C. results in the formation of small fat droplets. depends upon the amphipathic structure of bile salts. results in the formation of micelles. ?? In animals, the bulk of energy is stored as __________. triacylglycerols ?? Under fasting conditions, elevated glucagon will activate: hormone sensitive lipase ?? VLDL characteristic of which aproprotein: Apo B 100 ?? Which sphingolipid is a precursor for all other types of sphingolipids? Ceramide. ?? Which of the following is the regulated step of fatty acid synthesis in eukaryotes? Carboxylation of acetyl CoA. ?? The first step in fatty acid synthesis is the formation of ________ from acetyl CoA and carbon dioxide. malonyl CoA ?? The role of biotin in fatty acid biosynthesis is in ____________. malonyl CoA formation. ?? In chylomicro assembly which Apo protein is transferred from HDL? Apo CII ?? Regulation of acetylCoA carboxylase takes place on several levels. When glucose is low: Citrate levels are low ?? When the liver converts excess glucose into fatty a Continue reading >>

Oxidation Of Fatty Acids And Ketone Bodies

Oxidation Of Fatty Acids And Ketone Bodies

Sort What is different about Beta oxidation of FA with double bonds? 1. Additional enzymes are required for oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. 2. In a β-oxidation cycle involving a double bond, only three ATPs are produced. 3. To calculate ATP production for oxidation of an unsaturated fatty acid, subtract 2 ATP for each double bond. 9 acetyl-CoA= 9x12= 108 ATP 8 cycle 5x8= 40 148 2 double bond -2x2= -4 Total =144 ATP (no need to subtract 2 ATP for activation) How are VLCFA oxidized? VLCFAs (some LCFAs) are oxidized in peroxisomes by reactions similar to mitochondrial β-oxidation. However, peroxisomes do not have electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, thus peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation does not produce ATP. VLCFAs are shortened to short- and median-chain fatty acid CoAs, which are converted to What are the symptoms of classical CPTII deficiency? -Most common of carnitine metabilosm Symptoms: -adolescent-adult onset -recurrent acute myoglobinuria precipitated by prolonged exercise or fasting -weak -hypoglycemic -hypoketosis -lipid deposits in skeletal muscle -Creratine phosphokinase (CPK) and long chain acycarnitines are elevated in the blood If infantile: -CPT ,10% normal -hypoglycemia -severe hypoketosis -hepatomegaly -cardiomyopathy Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Sort Ketoacidosis w/ Type 1 concentration of glucose in blood exceeds 180-200 (renal threshold). Glucose remains in blood kidneys can't reabsorb filtered glucose, appears in urine - excess loss of fluids & electrolytes. Osmotic diuresis - increased ketone bodies: formed when liver breaks down free fatty acids in absence of insulin DKA: Type 1, acidic ketone bodies formed, metabolic acidosis. Polyuria, nausea, vomiting, fatigue Type 2 insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion. Insulin is less effective at stimulating glucose uptake by tissues - if beta cells can't keep up with increased demand for insulin, glucose level rises and type 2 develops—metabolic syndrome HHS occurs. - fatigue, irritability, polyuria, polydipsia, poorly healing skin wounds, vaginal infections, blurred vision - Oral hypoglycemic agents initially may need to convert to insulin or use both - HDL want above 35 or 40 - Triglyc 250, want above 100 Nutrition - control glucose levels, lipid/lipoprotein profile (prevents vascular disease), blood pressure Overweight: 25-29 Obesity: 30 + up to 10% of total calories be high carbs Fats: calories from fat sources to less than 30% of total calories, 10% for saturated fats. Dietary cholesterol less than 300 per day - 50% to 60% carbohydrates Nutrition con't 2 Glycemic index: combining starchy foods with protein & fat containing foods slow absorption and lower glycemic index - eating raw & whole foods result in lower glycemic index than chopped, pureed, or cooked ( except meat) - whole fruit instead of drinking juice decreases glycemic index, fiber slows absorption - adding foods with sugars result in lower glycemic index if they are eaten with foods hat are more slowly absorbed Alcohol: convert to fats, lead to hypoglycemia, decrease normal physiologic r Continue reading >>

Biochemistry: Ch. 28 Ketone Bodies

Biochemistry: Ch. 28 Ketone Bodies

What are the steps of ketogenesis? 1. beta-ketothiolase catalyzes condensation of 2 acetyl-SCoA 2. HMG-SCoA synthase [present solely in hepatocytes] RATE LIMITING STEP HMG-SCoA synthase combines acetoacetyl-SCoA and acetyl-SCoA to form HMG SCoA 3. HMGCoA lyase HMG-CoA is cleaved by HMG-SCoA lyase generating acetoacetate and acetyl-SCoA Endocrine factors Rates of fatty acid oxidation and synthesis are regulated by levels of: -Glucagon *decreases activity of Acetyl-SCoA carboxylase [committed step in FA biosynthesis] *favors ketogenesis -Insulin *Increases activity of Acetyl-SCoA carboxylase *Inhibits hormone sensitive lipase and reduces ketogenesis Diabetes Mellitus In severe uncontrolled diabetes mellitus -rate of lypolysis is elevated -oxaloacetate levels are diminished [since its needed for gluconeogenesis and all of the acetylSCoA cant enter the CAC] *Results in the production of ketone bodies, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate -Ketonemia -Ketonuria -These ketone bodies are strongly acidic and can lead to life-threatening acidosis Continue reading >>

How Are Ketones Formed?

How Are Ketones Formed?

Ketones are a very important functionnal group in organic chemistry, and thus there are several ways to prepare them, the 2 most common being oxidations, and reductions. The first is straightforward. You can oxidize a secondary alcohol to a ketone. There are a lot of reagents that can do that, the most practical are probably the hypervalent iodine reagents (IBX, Dess-Martin periodinane, although the latter is more used for oxidation of primary alcohol to the aldehyde). Chromium and Manganese oxides can also be used, in some cases. Then there are the methodologies which will cleave a double bond and give you two ketones, like ozonolysis, or Osmium oxide reaction on double bonds. The second is a bit more devious: because it doesn't look like a typical reduction. But when a organocopper, organizinc or organomagnesium reagent (or other organometallic reagents, these are just the most commonly used in the lab), when they react with an acid derivative, it is a reduction ( the oxidation of the carbon goes from +3 to +2). Possibilities include reaction of the organometallic reagent with anhydrides or acyl chlorides, possibly catalyzed by a transition metal (Ni, Pd, Co, Fe…), reactions with Weinreb amides , or with morpholine amides, in the case of Grignard reagents. Remember that you cannot use directly an ester and a Grignard, apart from the 2 aforementioned cases, the ketone will be more reactive and thus the Grignard will react with the ketone as soon as it is formed, to form the tertiary alcohol. You can use carbonylation reactions. In these reactions, you use a nucleophile (typically an organostannane, but other can be used), an electrophile (usually an aryl or vinyl halide), under carbon monoxide atmosphere, with a Palladium catalyst. There's also the Pauson-Khand react Continue reading >>

Kaplan 15-16- Aldehydes And Ketones

Kaplan 15-16- Aldehydes And Ketones

Sort Michael addition 1. aldehydes and ketones are the nucleophiles 2. strong base removes H+ from the OH group of the enol intermediate 3. nucleophilic carbanion reacts SN2 with an a,B-unsaturated carbonyl compound 4. partial + C attracts nucleophile 5. tetrahedral intermediate created in which the C=O bond is reduced to a C-O bond where O has the full - charge 6. carbonyl can't reform since there is no good LG in an aldehyde or ketone 7. alcohol must be the end product after protonation aldol condensation 1. aldehyde acts as a nucleophile in the enol form and as a target it its keto form 2. same mechanism as nucleophilic addition to a carbonyl 3. acetaldehyde is treated with base forming an enolate 4. nucleophilic enolate ion attacks carbonyl group of another acetaldehyde 5. 3-hydroxybutanal is the product (an example aldol) 6. product heated to undergo elimination 7. H2O lost and double bond formed 8. product is an a,B-unsaturated aldehyde Wittig reaction steps 1. formation of a phosphonium salt from the SN2 reaction of an alkyl halide with the nucleophile (C6H5)3P 2. salt is deprotonated losing the H+ alpha to the phosphorus with a strong base 3. ylide (phosphorane) produced 4. ylide is nucleophilic and attacks carbonyl C 5. intermediate betaine produced 6. betaine forms oxaphosphetane 7. oxaphosphetane decomposes to yield an alkene and triphenylphosphine oxide. this is driven by the strength of the P-O bond formed Continue reading >>

119 Matching Questions

119 Matching Questions

Print test 119 Matching questions antidiuretic thyroid carcinoma pheochromocytoma hypocalcemia Parathyroidectomy thyroid supplements growth hormone replacement hypersecretion osteitis fibrosa cystica von Recklinghausen disease hyperparathyroidism hyperglycemia oral antidiabetics adenocarinomas antithyroids Type 1 diabetes (juvenile diabetes) exophthalmos nephrolithiasis endocrinology hypoparathyroidism hyposecretion osteoporosis corticosteroids transsphenoidal hyponatremia eu- Hypoinsulinism Gestational diabetes glucometer Type 2 diabetes (associated with being overweight and family history) a -excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal weight -may be due to excessive intake of food (exogenous) or metabolic or endocrine abnormalities (endogenous) b forming, producing, origin c enlargement of the adrenal glands e -small chromaffin cell tumor, usually located in the adrenal medulla, causing elevated heart rate and blood -may be life threatening if not treated f state of equilibrium in the internal environment of the body g develop of diabetes(high blood sugar) during pregnancy h -lower blood glucose levels by promoting its entrance into the body cells and converting glucose to glycogen (a starch- storage form of glucose) -Type 1 diabetes must always be treated with insulin which can be administered through an implanted pump that infuses the drug continuously -Type 2 diabetes that cannot be controlled with oral antidiabetics may require insulin to maintain a normal level of glucose in the blood i enlarged thyroid gland j hypothyroidism develops in adulthood k bulging or protruding eyeball or eyeballs l m poison n -excessive thirst -Polydipsia is one of the three "polys" as well as Continue reading >>

Description And Properties Of Ketones And Aldehydes

Description And Properties Of Ketones And Aldehydes

Sort How are aldehydes and ketones formed? Several methods oxidation of primary or secondary alcohols PCC + primary alcohol = aldehyde strong oxidizer + primary alcohol = carboxylic acid PCC + secondary alcohol = ketone Strong oxidizer + secondary alcohol = ketone can't oxidize secondary alcohol to far, it will stop at ketone Continue reading >>

Fatty Acid Oxidation, Ketone Body Production

Fatty Acid Oxidation, Ketone Body Production

Sort Draw a simple diagram linking glycolysis, the TCA cycle, triglyceride breakdown and triglyceride synthesis as seen in the liver. Include some of the major substrates, intermediates, and products such as glycerol, DHAP, fatty acyl CoA, malonyl CoA and acetyl CoA. (be able to do this...) Outline the 4 steps involved in the synthesis of triglycerides from glycerol-3-phosphate and activated fatty acids. 1 fatty acid, linked to Acetyl-CoA, is added to glycerol-3-phosphate via an acyltransferase enzyme. The product here is a glycerol backbone with one R group attached (lysophosphatidic acid). Another fatty acid is added to lysophophatidic acid via a different acyltransferase enzyme, creating a molecule with a glycerol backbone and two fatty acids (phosphatidic acid). The phosphate group remaining on the final carbon of the glycerol backbone is removed by a phosphatase enzyme (making diacylglycerol), in order for... The third and final fatty acid to be added by a third acyltransferase enzyme, creating the end triacylglycerol product. Describe how fatty acids are mobilized from adipose tissue. Triacylglycerols are stored in adipocytes (fat storage cells). When fatty acids are needed by the body for energy, hormones (including epinephrine) are produced and bind to their appropriate receptors. This leads to the adenylate cyclase enzyme catalyzing the production of cAMP from ATP. A cAMP-dependent protein kinase then has the effect of activating hormone-sensitive lipase via phosphorylation. Now, this lipase is able to cleave one fatty acid from the triacylglycerol. Further removal of fatty acids is able to occur through the action of diacylglycerol- and monoacylglycerol-specific enzymes. Outline the pathway for activation and transport of the fatty acids to the mitochondrion f Continue reading >>

Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Metabolic pathway Catabolism Anabolism Mitochondria ATP NADH FADH GTP ADP AMP NADPH A series of chemical reactions that either break down a large compound into small pieces or synthesize bigger compounds from smaller molecules Breaking down large particles into smaller ones. Process which cells change smaller compounds into larger more complex ones. Where most of the ATP is captured when being made from CHO,PRO or FAT. Called the "power plant" of the cells. High energy molecules which is what fuels most of the cells and is used to synthesize molecules. Reduced form of NAD, acts as an electron carrier in cells and undergoes oxidation and reduction Reduced form of FAD, also acts like an electron carrier and undergoes oxidation and reduction Similar to ATP, but with 3 phosphates linked to guanosine. Compound produced upon hydrolysis of ATP and is used to synthesize ATP Product of hydrolysis from ADP and nucleic acids. Reduced form of NADP. Also acts as an electron carrier in cells and undergoes reduction and oxidation. Glycolysis Aerobic Anaerobic Pyruvate Lactate Krebs cycle Citrate Oxalate Anaerobic pathway of breaking down glucose molecules into 2 molecules of pyruvate and creates 2 molecules of ATP and NADH. Occurs in cytosol. Needs oxygen in order for metabolic pathway to happen No need of oxygen for the metabolic pathway to happen 3 carbon compound that is created from the breakdown of glucose, can also be derived from amino acids and glycerol. Ionized form of lactic acid and is produced when there is a lack of oxygen in cells to produce pyruvate Also known as citric acid cycle, takes place in mitochondria where acetyl part of acetyl CoA is oxidized to yield 2 CO2, and NADH, FADH2, and GTP. Organic acid which can be found in some leafy green veggies that binds to cal Continue reading >>

Bcii: Ketone Bodies

Bcii: Ketone Bodies

Sort The major site of formation of acetoacetate from fatty acids is the: a. adipose tissue. b. intestinal mucosa. c. kidney. d. liver. e. muscle. d. liver. Ketone bodies are formed in the liver and transported to the extrahepatic tissues mainly as: a. acetoacetyl-CoA. b. acetone. c. beta-hydroxybutyric acid. d. beta-hydroxybutyryl-CoA. e. lactic acid. b. acetone. Continue reading >>

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