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How Are Ketones Formed Quizlet

Bcii: Ketone Bodies

Bcii: Ketone Bodies

Sort The major site of formation of acetoacetate from fatty acids is the: a. adipose tissue. b. intestinal mucosa. c. kidney. d. liver. e. muscle. d. liver. Ketone bodies are formed in the liver and transported to the extrahepatic tissues mainly as: a. acetoacetyl-CoA. b. acetone. c. beta-hydroxybutyric acid. d. beta-hydroxybutyryl-CoA. e. lactic acid. b. acetone. Continue reading >>

Energy Metabolism Ch.7 Part Ii

Energy Metabolism Ch.7 Part Ii

Sort ETC - in Monica lingo The ETC is composed of electron carriers called *cytochromes* -like turnstiles for a ride Coenzymes carriers NADH and FADH₂ provide the electrons for oxidative phosphorylation Pairs of electrons are passed from one chemical to another (electron transport) -turn the turnstile one at a time As electrons move down the electron transport chain they pump protons out of the cell (chemiosmosis) Chemiosmosis- Monica lingo Oxygen accepts the electron pair at the end of chain, acquires 2 protons, and becomes water -think of oxygen as "pulling " the electrons through all the turnstiles -oxygen is the "ride" the electrons are all trying to get on The protons outside the membrane build up a concentration gradient A channel opens and the protons flow though a channel call ATP synthesis ATP synthase harnesses the energy from the flowing protons (e⁻) to phosphorylate ADP into ATP The energy released is used to combine phosphate with ADP to form ATP Energy yield of respiration Theoretical energy yield -38 ATP per glucose for bacteria -36 ATP per glucose for eukaryotes *pumping pyruvate into mitochondria Actual energy yield -30 ATP for eukaryotes Reduced yield is due to: - energy of shuttling NADH and FADH₂ -"leaky" inner membrane - lost H+ molecules -use of the proton gradient for purposes other than ATP synthesis Anaerobic respiration Methanogens -CO₂ is reduced to CH₄ (methane) -found in diverse organisms including cows Sulfur bacteria -inorganic sulphate (SO₄) us reduced to hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) -early sulfate reducers set the stage for evolution of photosynthesis Electron acceptor Products NO₃⁻ NO₂⁻, N₂+H₂O SO₄⁻ H₂S+H₂O CO₃²⁻ CH₄+H₂O Fermentation Utilizes glycolysis only - No Krebs cycle or ETC Reduces organic mo Continue reading >>

Functional Groups

Functional Groups

A major topic of Organic Chemistry are functional groups. A functional group is an atom or group of atoms that is responsible for the specific properties of an organic compound. They undergo the same type of chemical reaction in every molecule in which it is found. There are eight different forms of functional groups in this chapter. Alcohols: these have a hydroxyl group with the suffix "-ol" Ketones: these have a carbonyl group with the suffix "-one" Aldehydes: these have an aldehyde group with the suffix "-al" Ethers: these use an ether group with the name "alkyl alkyl ether" Esters: these use an ester group with the name "alkyl alkyloate" Carboxylic Acids: these use a carboxyl group with a suffix of "-oic acid" Amines: these use a primary amine group with a suffix of "-amine" Alkyl Halides: There is no specific group used for alkyl halides and have several suffixes and names. Naming Branched-Chain Alkanes Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Sort Ketoacidosis w/ Type 1 concentration of glucose in blood exceeds 180-200 (renal threshold). Glucose remains in blood kidneys can't reabsorb filtered glucose, appears in urine - excess loss of fluids & electrolytes. Osmotic diuresis - increased ketone bodies: formed when liver breaks down free fatty acids in absence of insulin DKA: Type 1, acidic ketone bodies formed, metabolic acidosis. Polyuria, nausea, vomiting, fatigue Type 2 insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion. Insulin is less effective at stimulating glucose uptake by tissues - if beta cells can't keep up with increased demand for insulin, glucose level rises and type 2 develops—metabolic syndrome HHS occurs. - fatigue, irritability, polyuria, polydipsia, poorly healing skin wounds, vaginal infections, blurred vision - Oral hypoglycemic agents initially may need to convert to insulin or use both - HDL want above 35 or 40 - Triglyc 250, want above 100 Nutrition - control glucose levels, lipid/lipoprotein profile (prevents vascular disease), blood pressure Overweight: 25-29 Obesity: 30 + up to 10% of total calories be high carbs Fats: calories from fat sources to less than 30% of total calories, 10% for saturated fats. Dietary cholesterol less than 300 per day - 50% to 60% carbohydrates Nutrition con't 2 Glycemic index: combining starchy foods with protein & fat containing foods slow absorption and lower glycemic index - eating raw & whole foods result in lower glycemic index than chopped, pureed, or cooked ( except meat) - whole fruit instead of drinking juice decreases glycemic index, fiber slows absorption - adding foods with sugars result in lower glycemic index if they are eaten with foods hat are more slowly absorbed Alcohol: convert to fats, lead to hypoglycemia, decrease normal physiologic r Continue reading >>

Ketone Body Metabolism

Ketone Body Metabolism

Sort During fasting state , glucose level goes down , what kind of compensatory reactions are going to happen? When Glucose level goes down : we have to maintain the glucose level in the blood, so we activate : -Glycogenolysis increase -Gluconeogenesis increase -beta-oxidation increase ( to provide ATP for gluconeogenesis) -FATTY acids going to decrease -KETONE BODIES WILL INCREASE What is the reason that Acetyl CoA will be converting into KB MORE than entering TCA cycle in liver cells during fasting? Two reasons 1. During fasting , liver will start gluconeogeneisis which requires non carbohydrate sources like oxaloacetate , so excessive use of oxaloacetate by liver to make glucose , will decrease the substrate availability for TCA cycle ,. so Acetyl coA ----> increase KB synthesis 2. Increase beta-oxidation in liver --->increase NADH/NAD ratio , which will inhibit TCA cycle enzyme, dehydrogenases. Continue reading >>

Exam 3 Quizlet - Which Of The Following Is The Major...

Exam 3 Quizlet - Which Of The Following Is The Major...

Unformatted text preview: Which of the following is the major regulation point for transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria? carnitine acyltransferase I ?? The primary activation of triacylglycerol mobilization in adipocytes is through __________ of the enzyme ____________. phosphorylation; hormone sensitive lipase ?? Which of the following lipoproteins distributes dietary lipids? chylomicron ?? Which of the following statements regarding lipid digestion and absorption is true? The products of lipid digestion are resynthesized into triacylglycerols in intestinal epithelial cells. ?? The emulsification of fats: A. results in the formation of small fat droplets. B. depends upon the amphipathic structure of bile salts. C. results in the formation of micelles. A, B and C. results in the formation of small fat droplets. depends upon the amphipathic structure of bile salts. results in the formation of micelles. ?? In animals, the bulk of energy is stored as __________. triacylglycerols ?? Under fasting conditions, elevated glucagon will activate: hormone sensitive lipase ?? VLDL characteristic of which aproprotein: Apo B 100 ?? Which sphingolipid is a precursor for all other types of sphingolipids? Ceramide. ?? Which of the following is the regulated step of fatty acid synthesis in eukaryotes? Carboxylation of acetyl CoA. ?? The first step in fatty acid synthesis is the formation of ________ from acetyl CoA and carbon dioxide. malonyl CoA ?? The role of biotin in fatty acid biosynthesis is in ____________. malonyl CoA formation. ?? In chylomicro assembly which Apo protein is transferred from HDL? Apo CII ?? Regulation of acetylCoA carboxylase takes place on several levels. When glucose is low: Citrate levels are low ?? When the liver converts excess glucose into fatty a Continue reading >>

Ketone Bodies

Ketone Bodies

Sort Ketone Bodies -->Represent 3 molecules that are formed when excess acetyl CoA cannot enter the TCA Cycle -->Represents 3 major molecules: 1)Acetoacetate 2)β-Hydroxybutyrate 3)Acetone -->Normal people produces ketones at a low rate -->Are only formed in the **LIVER**(by liver mitochondria) Reactions that lead to the formation of ketone bodies (***See pwrpt***) 1)2 Acetyl CoA molecules condense to form ***Acetoacetyl-CoA -->Is catalyzed by THIOLASE -->Represent the oppostie of thiolysis step in the oxidation of fatty acids -->Represent the parent compound of the 3 ketone bodies (2)Acetoacetyl CoA then reacts with another mol. of acetyl CoA to form **HMG-CoA* (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA) & *CoA** -->Reaction is catalyzed by **HMG-CoA Synthetase** -->HMG-CoA has 2 fates (can either progress to form ketone bodies OR can enter the pathway of CHOLESTEROL synthesis) -->Represent the **RATE-LIMITING STEP** in the synthesis of ketone bodies (3)HMG-CoA is cleaved to form **Acetoacetate**(First major ketone; represent ~20% of ketones) & another mol. of acetyl CoA -->Catalyzed by **HMG-CoA Lyase** (4) Acetoacetae can lead to the formation of β-hydroxybutyrate (~78% of ketone bodies) & Acetone (~2% of ketone bodies) via 2 separte reactions Interrelationships of the ketone bodies from Acetoacetate (1)Formation of β-hydroxybutyrate -->Acetoacetate will be reduced to form β-hyroxybutyrate in the mitochondrial matrix of the liver cell -->Is a REVERSIBLE RXN. -->Requires 1 mol of NADH (***Dependent on the NADH/NAD ratio inside the mitochondria) -->Catalyzed by β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (2)Formation of Acetone -->A slower, **spontaneous** decarboxylation to acetone -->In **DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, acetone imparts a characteristic smell to the patient's breath Features of Continue reading >>

Ketone Body Metabolism

Ketone Body Metabolism

Sort Scenario: Blood glucose levels decline due to starvation... Require: Tactic changes: Hormonal changes: Metabolic changes: Require: maintenance of blood glucose levels Tactic changes: - peripheral tissue glucose utilization + hepatic glucose production (gluconeogenesis) Hormonal changes: - insulin + glucagon + epinephrine and lipolytic hormones Metabolic changes: + lipolysis and ketogenesis for alternative fuels + hepatic beta oxidation to drive gluconeogenesis What substrates are required for gluconeogenesis to occur and how are these substrates replenished? Gluconeogenesis requires (1) C4 carbon sources and (2) high energy. -Carbon sources are replenished by glucogenic AA breakdown -Energy is replenished via beta oxidation of FA and oxidative phosphorylation -Acetyl CoA (produced by beta oxidation) promotes gluconeogenesis by activating pyruvate carboxylase (hormone required for gluconeogenesis) Continue reading >>

119 Matching Questions

119 Matching Questions

Print test 119 Matching questions antidiuretic thyroid carcinoma pheochromocytoma hypocalcemia Parathyroidectomy thyroid supplements growth hormone replacement hypersecretion osteitis fibrosa cystica von Recklinghausen disease hyperparathyroidism hyperglycemia oral antidiabetics adenocarinomas antithyroids Type 1 diabetes (juvenile diabetes) exophthalmos nephrolithiasis endocrinology hypoparathyroidism hyposecretion osteoporosis corticosteroids transsphenoidal hyponatremia eu- Hypoinsulinism Gestational diabetes glucometer Type 2 diabetes (associated with being overweight and family history) a -excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal weight -may be due to excessive intake of food (exogenous) or metabolic or endocrine abnormalities (endogenous) b forming, producing, origin c enlargement of the adrenal glands e -small chromaffin cell tumor, usually located in the adrenal medulla, causing elevated heart rate and blood -may be life threatening if not treated f state of equilibrium in the internal environment of the body g develop of diabetes(high blood sugar) during pregnancy h -lower blood glucose levels by promoting its entrance into the body cells and converting glucose to glycogen (a starch- storage form of glucose) -Type 1 diabetes must always be treated with insulin which can be administered through an implanted pump that infuses the drug continuously -Type 2 diabetes that cannot be controlled with oral antidiabetics may require insulin to maintain a normal level of glucose in the blood i enlarged thyroid gland j hypothyroidism develops in adulthood k bulging or protruding eyeball or eyeballs l m poison n -excessive thirst -Polydipsia is one of the three "polys" as well as Continue reading >>

Diabetic Recipe For Peach Cobbler Non When Mellitus Insulin-dependent Results Quizlet

Diabetic Recipe For Peach Cobbler Non When Mellitus Insulin-dependent Results Quizlet

The Zone diet is often described as a high-protein low-carbohydrate program. Increase your Health Benefits of Quitting. Diabetic Recipe For Peach Cobbler Non When Mellitus Insulin-dependent Results Quizlet the Diabetes Committee of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society has also issued a guideline on proper foot care19. Diabetes information; Dementia information; Jaundice Diagnosis; Jaundice Treatment; Treating jaundice . Find out about diabetes in pregnancy so your care team can monitor your condition and react to any changes that could affect your own or your baby’s Yahoo! Shopping is the best place to comparison shop for Buy Insulin Syringes. have surfaced that Novolog appears to be both stronger and quicker than Humalog thus requiring slight changes in insulin doses. DKA is normally seen in people with type 1 diabetes. Page 2 Arthritis and Diabetes Continued Try swimming or cycling on a regular or a stationary bike. Fatty meats are the cornerstone to my diabetes diet. It can lead to inability of the heart to circulate blood through the type 2 diabetes no drugs foot injury body Is Diabetic Neuropathy Reversible ::The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days.[ IS DIABETIC NEUROPATHY REVERSIBLE ] The REAL Cereal edema in children with diabetic ketoacidosis: vasogenic rather than cellular? Pediatric Diabetes 2014: 15: 261-270. Couple charged in Singapore exchange and in chocolate and red wine Family Statement on Autopsy Results. Annual rates of nephropathy progression and death in type 2 diabetes in UKPDS study is shown in the flow chart 4. Back pain and kidney infection is sometimes related. Children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus should be. When a person has severe symptoms a liquid or pured diet may be prescrib Continue reading >>

Biochemistry: Ch. 28 Ketone Bodies

Biochemistry: Ch. 28 Ketone Bodies

What are the steps of ketogenesis? 1. beta-ketothiolase catalyzes condensation of 2 acetyl-SCoA 2. HMG-SCoA synthase [present solely in hepatocytes] RATE LIMITING STEP HMG-SCoA synthase combines acetoacetyl-SCoA and acetyl-SCoA to form HMG SCoA 3. HMGCoA lyase HMG-CoA is cleaved by HMG-SCoA lyase generating acetoacetate and acetyl-SCoA Endocrine factors Rates of fatty acid oxidation and synthesis are regulated by levels of: -Glucagon *decreases activity of Acetyl-SCoA carboxylase [committed step in FA biosynthesis] *favors ketogenesis -Insulin *Increases activity of Acetyl-SCoA carboxylase *Inhibits hormone sensitive lipase and reduces ketogenesis Diabetes Mellitus In severe uncontrolled diabetes mellitus -rate of lypolysis is elevated -oxaloacetate levels are diminished [since its needed for gluconeogenesis and all of the acetylSCoA cant enter the CAC] *Results in the production of ketone bodies, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate -Ketonemia -Ketonuria -These ketone bodies are strongly acidic and can lead to life-threatening acidosis Continue reading >>

Nutrition Ch. 7

Nutrition Ch. 7

Front Back .Wirisformula{ margin:0 !important; padding:0 !important; vertical-align:top !important;} Metabolism The sum total of all the chemcial reactions that go on in living cells. Energy metabolism includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and spends energy from food. Example: Nutrients provide the body with FUEL and follows them through a series of reactions that release energy from their chemical bonds. As the bonds break, they release energy in a controlled version of the process by which wood burns in a fire. Energy metabolism All of the chemical reactions through which the human body acquires and spends energy from food Anabolism Small compounds joined together to make largers ones; energy must be used in order to do this Ana = up Catabolism Larger compounds BROKEN down into smaller ones; energy is RELEASED kata = down Coupled reactions Energy released from the breakdown of a large compounds is used to drive other reactions ATP Adenosine triphosphate; energy currency of the body -- produced when large compounds are broken down ATP is used to make large compounds from smaller ones. Ribosomes Cellular machinery used to make proteins Mitochondria Where energy is derived from fat, CHO, protein via TCA cycle, electron transport chain Coenzyme Complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes' activity. Many coenzymes have B vitamins as part of their structures. co = with Cofactor The general term for substances that facilitate enzyme action is cofactors; they include both organic coenzymes such as vitamins and inorganic substances such as minerals Enzymes Protein catalysts - proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process Metalloenzyme Enzymes that contain one or more minerals as part of their stru Continue reading >>

Chapter 24 -nutrition, Metabolism, And Body Temperature Regulation

Chapter 24 -nutrition, Metabolism, And Body Temperature Regulation

Nutrient - substance that promotes normal growth, maintenance and repair Major nutrients - carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins Other nutrients - vitamins and minerals (and technically speaking, water) Carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates (starches) are found in bread, cereal, flour, pasta, nuts, and potatoes Simple carbohydrates (sugars) are found in soft drinks, candy, fruit, and ice cream Glucose is the molecule ultimately used by body cells to make ATP Neurons and RBCs rely almost entirely upon glucose to supply their energy needs Excess glucose is converted to glycogen or fat and stored The minimum amount of carbohydrates needed to maintain adequate blood glucose levels is 100 grams per day Starchy foods and milk have nutrients such as vitamins and minerals in addition to complex carbohydrates Refined carbohydrate foods (candy and soft drinks) provide energy sources only and are referred to as "empty calories" Lipids The most abundant dietary lipids, triglycerides, are found in both animal and plant foods Essential fatty acids - linoleic and linolenic acid, found in most vegetables, must be ingested Dietary fats: Help the body to absorb vitamins Are a major energy fuel of hepatocytes and skeletal muscle Are a component of myelin sheaths and all cell membranes Fatty deposits in adipose tissue provide: A protective cushion around body organs An insulating layer beneath the skin An easy-to-store concentrated source of energy Dietary Requirements Higher for infants and children than for adults The American Heart Association suggests that: Fats should represent less than 30% of one's total caloric intake Saturated fats should be limited to 10% or less of one's total fat intake Daily cholesterol intake should not exceed 200 mg Proteins Complete proteins that meet all the b Continue reading >>

Aldehydes And Ketones Reactions

Aldehydes And Ketones Reactions

6 Reactions of aldehydes and ketones with water to produce hydrates Experimentt: Al dehyde and Ketone Reactions Aldehydes and ketones are an important class of compounds in organic chemistry. The importance of molecular structure in the reactivity of organic compounds is illustrated by the reactions that produce aldehydes and ketones. Carbonyl Condensation Reactions As a result of the large dipole of the carbonyl group: Nucleophilic carbonyl: aldehydes, ketones, esters, amides and Chapter 14 Aldehydes and Ketones • This makes low molecular weight aldehydes and ketones ALDEHYDE AND KETONE REACTIONS Oxidation and reduction of aldehydes and ketones • Aldehydes can be oxidized easily to carboxylic acids Reactions of aldehydes and ketones with alcohols This reaction is used as a simple test to distinguish aldehydes from ketones REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES TASK Write balanced equations for the following reactions. In a similar reaction alcohols add reversibly to aldehydes and ketones to form hemiacetals (hemi, Greek, half). . 2 Nomenclature 20. Read more. The aldehyde serves as the dienophile . This two step reaction starts with the nucleophilic attack of the Phosphorus on the (usually primary) alkyl halide. (Chapter 17) 2 Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones. 4 C O R2 R1 Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones — Oxidation — Aldehydes and Ketones Experiment #4 Objective: To study some chemical reactions that are used to distinguish aldehydes and ketones, especially oxidation of aldehydes. Their preparation by the oxidation of primary or secondary alcohols. The addition of hydrogen cyanide and of sodium hydrogensulphite (sodium bisulphite) to Sep 4, 2014 It has been demonstrated that water adds rapidly to the carbonyl function of aldehydes and ketones to form geminal-diol. It prov Continue reading >>

How Do You Build A Habit?

How Do You Build A Habit?

There are two routes I recognize by which you can build a lasting habit. One is a habit loop described in Charles Duhigg's book "The Power of Habit". I found it mentioned in a few other books, blog posts and literature. The other one is much less known. Aside from my own ruminations I found it only on James Clear’s blog. This path involves identity habits. I also know of a couple of rarely-mentioned enhancements that work nicely with both methods. I. The habit loop. This is the core of Dughill's message which is based on a vast amount of brain research done over the last few decades. A habit consists of the cue, routine and reward. Those three elements are stored in your brain as one unit. You get the signal to perform your habit, you perform it and then comes the reward that finishes the loop. This approach is the foundation of a number of coaching programs and habit development models (mini habits, tiny habits and more). It's a great way to build small habits and, better yet, to build physical habits, like exercising, drinking water, eating the right kind of food, etc. Those activities are ingrained into your body, so this mind to body connection (a loop in your brain) facilitates the process of habit development. I don't necessarily agree with the last piece of this model being referred to as a "reward". I think researchers misnamed it because they were biased by the experiments they performed. In their brain research, they were experimenting on laboratory rats. They trained them to find a way to a piece of chocolate in the labyrinth. After some time, the animals were habitually finding the way to the treat. The taste of chocolate was closing the loop and completing the habit in their brain. If they didn't find the chocolate, they were confused because the loop in Continue reading >>

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