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How Are Ketones Formed Quizlet

Fatty Acid Degradation And Ketone Bodies

Fatty Acid Degradation And Ketone Bodies

Sort What are the three steps of ketone body production? 1. Acetoacetyl CoA and acetyl CoA combined by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA synthase to produce HMG-CoA. 2. HMG-CoA is cleaved by HMG-CoA lyase to produce acetoacetate and acetyl coA. 3. Acetoacetate can be reduced to produce 3-hydroxybutyrate with NADH as hydrogen donor. Acetone is spontaneously produced as a metabolic dead end. Continue reading >>

Energy Metabolism Ch.7 Part Ii

Energy Metabolism Ch.7 Part Ii

Sort ETC - in Monica lingo The ETC is composed of electron carriers called *cytochromes* -like turnstiles for a ride Coenzymes carriers NADH and FADH₂ provide the electrons for oxidative phosphorylation Pairs of electrons are passed from one chemical to another (electron transport) -turn the turnstile one at a time As electrons move down the electron transport chain they pump protons out of the cell (chemiosmosis) Chemiosmosis- Monica lingo Oxygen accepts the electron pair at the end of chain, acquires 2 protons, and becomes water -think of oxygen as "pulling " the electrons through all the turnstiles -oxygen is the "ride" the electrons are all trying to get on The protons outside the membrane build up a concentration gradient A channel opens and the protons flow though a channel call ATP synthesis ATP synthase harnesses the energy from the flowing protons (e⁻) to phosphorylate ADP into ATP The energy released is used to combine phosphate with ADP to form ATP Energy yield of respiration Theoretical energy yield -38 ATP per glucose for bacteria -36 ATP per glucose for eukaryotes *pumping pyruvate into mitochondria Actual energy yield -30 ATP for eukaryotes Reduced yield is due to: - energy of shuttling NADH and FADH₂ -"leaky" inner membrane - lost H+ molecules -use of the proton gradient for purposes other than ATP synthesis Anaerobic respiration Methanogens -CO₂ is reduced to CH₄ (methane) -found in diverse organisms including cows Sulfur bacteria -inorganic sulphate (SO₄) us reduced to hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) -early sulfate reducers set the stage for evolution of photosynthesis Electron acceptor Products NO₃⁻ NO₂⁻, N₂+H₂O SO₄⁻ H₂S+H₂O CO₃²⁻ CH₄+H₂O Fermentation Utilizes glycolysis only - No Krebs cycle or ETC Reduces organic mo Continue reading >>

Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Metabolic pathway Catabolism Anabolism Mitochondria ATP NADH FADH GTP ADP AMP NADPH A series of chemical reactions that either break down a large compound into small pieces or synthesize bigger compounds from smaller molecules Breaking down large particles into smaller ones. Process which cells change smaller compounds into larger more complex ones. Where most of the ATP is captured when being made from CHO,PRO or FAT. Called the "power plant" of the cells. High energy molecules which is what fuels most of the cells and is used to synthesize molecules. Reduced form of NAD, acts as an electron carrier in cells and undergoes oxidation and reduction Reduced form of FAD, also acts like an electron carrier and undergoes oxidation and reduction Similar to ATP, but with 3 phosphates linked to guanosine. Compound produced upon hydrolysis of ATP and is used to synthesize ATP Product of hydrolysis from ADP and nucleic acids. Reduced form of NADP. Also acts as an electron carrier in cells and undergoes reduction and oxidation. Glycolysis Aerobic Anaerobic Pyruvate Lactate Krebs cycle Citrate Oxalate Anaerobic pathway of breaking down glucose molecules into 2 molecules of pyruvate and creates 2 molecules of ATP and NADH. Occurs in cytosol. Needs oxygen in order for metabolic pathway to happen No need of oxygen for the metabolic pathway to happen 3 carbon compound that is created from the breakdown of glucose, can also be derived from amino acids and glycerol. Ionized form of lactic acid and is produced when there is a lack of oxygen in cells to produce pyruvate Also known as citric acid cycle, takes place in mitochondria where acetyl part of acetyl CoA is oxidized to yield 2 CO2, and NADH, FADH2, and GTP. Organic acid which can be found in some leafy green veggies that binds to cal Continue reading >>

Chapter 24 -nutrition, Metabolism, And Body Temperature Regulation

Chapter 24 -nutrition, Metabolism, And Body Temperature Regulation

Nutrient - substance that promotes normal growth, maintenance and repair Major nutrients - carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins Other nutrients - vitamins and minerals (and technically speaking, water) Carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates (starches) are found in bread, cereal, flour, pasta, nuts, and potatoes Simple carbohydrates (sugars) are found in soft drinks, candy, fruit, and ice cream Glucose is the molecule ultimately used by body cells to make ATP Neurons and RBCs rely almost entirely upon glucose to supply their energy needs Excess glucose is converted to glycogen or fat and stored The minimum amount of carbohydrates needed to maintain adequate blood glucose levels is 100 grams per day Starchy foods and milk have nutrients such as vitamins and minerals in addition to complex carbohydrates Refined carbohydrate foods (candy and soft drinks) provide energy sources only and are referred to as "empty calories" Lipids The most abundant dietary lipids, triglycerides, are found in both animal and plant foods Essential fatty acids - linoleic and linolenic acid, found in most vegetables, must be ingested Dietary fats: Help the body to absorb vitamins Are a major energy fuel of hepatocytes and skeletal muscle Are a component of myelin sheaths and all cell membranes Fatty deposits in adipose tissue provide: A protective cushion around body organs An insulating layer beneath the skin An easy-to-store concentrated source of energy Dietary Requirements Higher for infants and children than for adults The American Heart Association suggests that: Fats should represent less than 30% of one's total caloric intake Saturated fats should be limited to 10% or less of one's total fat intake Daily cholesterol intake should not exceed 200 mg Proteins Complete proteins that meet all the b Continue reading >>

Biochemistry: Ch. 28 Ketone Bodies

Biochemistry: Ch. 28 Ketone Bodies

What are the steps of ketogenesis? 1. beta-ketothiolase catalyzes condensation of 2 acetyl-SCoA 2. HMG-SCoA synthase [present solely in hepatocytes] RATE LIMITING STEP HMG-SCoA synthase combines acetoacetyl-SCoA and acetyl-SCoA to form HMG SCoA 3. HMGCoA lyase HMG-CoA is cleaved by HMG-SCoA lyase generating acetoacetate and acetyl-SCoA Endocrine factors Rates of fatty acid oxidation and synthesis are regulated by levels of: -Glucagon *decreases activity of Acetyl-SCoA carboxylase [committed step in FA biosynthesis] *favors ketogenesis -Insulin *Increases activity of Acetyl-SCoA carboxylase *Inhibits hormone sensitive lipase and reduces ketogenesis Diabetes Mellitus In severe uncontrolled diabetes mellitus -rate of lypolysis is elevated -oxaloacetate levels are diminished [since its needed for gluconeogenesis and all of the acetylSCoA cant enter the CAC] *Results in the production of ketone bodies, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate -Ketonemia -Ketonuria -These ketone bodies are strongly acidic and can lead to life-threatening acidosis Continue reading >>

Ketone Bodies Formed In The Liver Are Exported To Other Organs

Ketone Bodies Formed In The Liver Are Exported To Other Organs

Ketone Bodies In human beings and most other mammals, acetyl-CoA formed in the liver during oxidation of fatty acids may enter the citric acid cycle (stage 2 of Fig. 16-7) or it may be converted to the "ketone bodies" acetoacetate, D-β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone for export to other tissues. (The term "bodies" is a historical artifact; these compounds are soluble in blood and urine.) Acetone, produced in smaller quantities than the other ketone bodies, is exhaled. Acetoacetate and D-β-hydroxybutyrate are transported by the blood to the extrahepatic tissues, where they are oxidized via the citric acid cycle to provide much of the energy required by tissues such as skeletal and heart muscle and the renal cortex. The brain, which normally prefers glucose as a fuel, can adapt to the use of acetoacetate or D-β-hydroxybutyrate under starvation conditions, when glucose is unavailable. A major determinant of the pathway taken by acetyl-CoA in liver mitochondria is the availability of oxaloacetate to initiate entry of acetyl-CoA into the citric acid cycle. Under some circumstances (such as starvation) oxaloacetate is drawn out of the citric acid cycle for use in synthesizing glucose. When the oxaloacetate concentration is very low, little acetyl-CoA enters the cycle, and ketone body formation is favored. The production and export of ketone bodies from the liver to extrahepatic tissues allows continued oxidation of fatty acids in the liver when acetyl-CoA is not being oxidized via the citric acid cycle. Overproduction of ketone bodies can occur in conditions of severe starvation and in uncontrolled diabetes. The first step in formation of acetoacetate in the liver (Fig. 16-16) is the enzymatic condensation of two molecules of acetyl-CoA, catalyzed by thiolase; this is simply Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Sort Ketoacidosis w/ Type 1 concentration of glucose in blood exceeds 180-200 (renal threshold). Glucose remains in blood kidneys can't reabsorb filtered glucose, appears in urine - excess loss of fluids & electrolytes. Osmotic diuresis - increased ketone bodies: formed when liver breaks down free fatty acids in absence of insulin DKA: Type 1, acidic ketone bodies formed, metabolic acidosis. Polyuria, nausea, vomiting, fatigue Type 2 insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion. Insulin is less effective at stimulating glucose uptake by tissues - if beta cells can't keep up with increased demand for insulin, glucose level rises and type 2 develops—metabolic syndrome HHS occurs. - fatigue, irritability, polyuria, polydipsia, poorly healing skin wounds, vaginal infections, blurred vision - Oral hypoglycemic agents initially may need to convert to insulin or use both - HDL want above 35 or 40 - Triglyc 250, want above 100 Nutrition - control glucose levels, lipid/lipoprotein profile (prevents vascular disease), blood pressure Overweight: 25-29 Obesity: 30 + up to 10% of total calories be high carbs Fats: calories from fat sources to less than 30% of total calories, 10% for saturated fats. Dietary cholesterol less than 300 per day - 50% to 60% carbohydrates Nutrition con't 2 Glycemic index: combining starchy foods with protein & fat containing foods slow absorption and lower glycemic index - eating raw & whole foods result in lower glycemic index than chopped, pureed, or cooked ( except meat) - whole fruit instead of drinking juice decreases glycemic index, fiber slows absorption - adding foods with sugars result in lower glycemic index if they are eaten with foods hat are more slowly absorbed Alcohol: convert to fats, lead to hypoglycemia, decrease normal physiologic r Continue reading >>

Diabetic Recipe For Peach Cobbler Non When Mellitus Insulin-dependent Results Quizlet

Diabetic Recipe For Peach Cobbler Non When Mellitus Insulin-dependent Results Quizlet

The Zone diet is often described as a high-protein low-carbohydrate program. Increase your Health Benefits of Quitting. Diabetic Recipe For Peach Cobbler Non When Mellitus Insulin-dependent Results Quizlet the Diabetes Committee of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society has also issued a guideline on proper foot care19. Diabetes information; Dementia information; Jaundice Diagnosis; Jaundice Treatment; Treating jaundice . Find out about diabetes in pregnancy so your care team can monitor your condition and react to any changes that could affect your own or your baby’s Yahoo! Shopping is the best place to comparison shop for Buy Insulin Syringes. have surfaced that Novolog appears to be both stronger and quicker than Humalog thus requiring slight changes in insulin doses. DKA is normally seen in people with type 1 diabetes. Page 2 Arthritis and Diabetes Continued Try swimming or cycling on a regular or a stationary bike. Fatty meats are the cornerstone to my diabetes diet. It can lead to inability of the heart to circulate blood through the type 2 diabetes no drugs foot injury body Is Diabetic Neuropathy Reversible ::The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days.[ IS DIABETIC NEUROPATHY REVERSIBLE ] The REAL Cereal edema in children with diabetic ketoacidosis: vasogenic rather than cellular? Pediatric Diabetes 2014: 15: 261-270. Couple charged in Singapore exchange and in chocolate and red wine Family Statement on Autopsy Results. Annual rates of nephropathy progression and death in type 2 diabetes in UKPDS study is shown in the flow chart 4. Back pain and kidney infection is sometimes related. Children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus should be. When a person has severe symptoms a liquid or pured diet may be prescrib Continue reading >>

How Do You Build A Habit?

How Do You Build A Habit?

There are two routes I recognize by which you can build a lasting habit. One is a habit loop described in Charles Duhigg's book "The Power of Habit". I found it mentioned in a few other books, blog posts and literature. The other one is much less known. Aside from my own ruminations I found it only on James Clear’s blog. This path involves identity habits. I also know of a couple of rarely-mentioned enhancements that work nicely with both methods. I. The habit loop. This is the core of Dughill's message which is based on a vast amount of brain research done over the last few decades. A habit consists of the cue, routine and reward. Those three elements are stored in your brain as one unit. You get the signal to perform your habit, you perform it and then comes the reward that finishes the loop. This approach is the foundation of a number of coaching programs and habit development models (mini habits, tiny habits and more). It's a great way to build small habits and, better yet, to build physical habits, like exercising, drinking water, eating the right kind of food, etc. Those activities are ingrained into your body, so this mind to body connection (a loop in your brain) facilitates the process of habit development. I don't necessarily agree with the last piece of this model being referred to as a "reward". I think researchers misnamed it because they were biased by the experiments they performed. In their brain research, they were experimenting on laboratory rats. They trained them to find a way to a piece of chocolate in the labyrinth. After some time, the animals were habitually finding the way to the treat. The taste of chocolate was closing the loop and completing the habit in their brain. If they didn't find the chocolate, they were confused because the loop in Continue reading >>

Ketone Body Metabolism

Ketone Body Metabolism

Sort During fasting state , glucose level goes down , what kind of compensatory reactions are going to happen? When Glucose level goes down : we have to maintain the glucose level in the blood, so we activate : -Glycogenolysis increase -Gluconeogenesis increase -beta-oxidation increase ( to provide ATP for gluconeogenesis) -FATTY acids going to decrease -KETONE BODIES WILL INCREASE What is the reason that Acetyl CoA will be converting into KB MORE than entering TCA cycle in liver cells during fasting? Two reasons 1. During fasting , liver will start gluconeogeneisis which requires non carbohydrate sources like oxaloacetate , so excessive use of oxaloacetate by liver to make glucose , will decrease the substrate availability for TCA cycle ,. so Acetyl coA ----> increase KB synthesis 2. Increase beta-oxidation in liver --->increase NADH/NAD ratio , which will inhibit TCA cycle enzyme, dehydrogenases. Continue reading >>

Ketone Bodies

Ketone Bodies

Ketone bodies Acetone Acetoacetic acid (R)-beta-Hydroxybutyric acid Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids[1] during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise,[2], alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy.[3] In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids. Ketone bodies are produced by the liver under the circumstances listed above (i.e. fasting, starving, low carbohydrate diets, prolonged exercise and untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus) as a result of intense gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (not including fatty acids).[1] They are therefore always released into the blood by the liver together with newly produced glucose, after the liver glycogen stores have been depleted (these glycogen stores are depleted after only 24 hours of fasting)[1]. When two acetyl-CoA molecules lose their -CoAs, (or Co-enzyme A groups) they can form a (covalent) dimer called acetoacetate. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a reduced form of acetoacetate, in which the ketone group is converted into an alcohol (or hydroxyl) group (see illustration on the right). Both are 4-carbon molecules, that can readily be converted back into acetyl-CoA by most tissues of the body, with the notable exception of the liver. Acetone is the decarboxylated form of acetoacetate which cannot be converted Continue reading >>

Ketone Bodies

Ketone Bodies

Sort Diabetes common symptoms - Fatigue - Blurred vision - Slow healing - Dry mouth, excessive thirst and appetite - Nausea - Weight gain/loss - Yeast infections - Increased urination - Itching in groin/vagina Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) can cause and what are its signs Diabetic coma and death (no energy) - Symptoms: - Thirst, dry mouth - Frequent urination - High blood [glucose] - High ketone bodies in urine - Fatigue - Fruity odor on breath Steps of ketogenesis 1) The two acetyl CoA's made from oxidation are put back together by Thiolase to make acetoacetyl CoA (releases a CoA) 2) Commited step = Acetoacetyl CoA gets a B-Hydroxymethylglutaryl on it (HMG) via HMG-CoA Synthase to become HMG-CoA 3) HMG taken back off via HMG-CoA Lyase to make Acetoacetate (loss of acetyl-CoA) 4) Acetoacetate becomes B-Hydroxybutyrate via B-Hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase (uses NADH) Oxidation of ketone bodies in peripheral tissue - steps and why do we do it? 1) Activation = Acetoacetate + Succinyl CoA > Acetoacetyl CoA via Thiophorase (Succinate given off) 2) Acetoacetyl CoA > 2 Acetyl CoA via Thiolase 3) TCA of the (2) acetyl CoA produced - Do it because we absolutely have to, not very efficient but we are surviving Ketogenic AAs Phenylalanine Isoleucine Lysine Leucine Tryptophan Tyrosine PILLTTy Continue reading >>

119 Matching Questions

119 Matching Questions

Print test 119 Matching questions antidiuretic thyroid carcinoma pheochromocytoma hypocalcemia Parathyroidectomy thyroid supplements growth hormone replacement hypersecretion osteitis fibrosa cystica von Recklinghausen disease hyperparathyroidism hyperglycemia oral antidiabetics adenocarinomas antithyroids Type 1 diabetes (juvenile diabetes) exophthalmos nephrolithiasis endocrinology hypoparathyroidism hyposecretion osteoporosis corticosteroids transsphenoidal hyponatremia eu- Hypoinsulinism Gestational diabetes glucometer Type 2 diabetes (associated with being overweight and family history) a -excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal weight -may be due to excessive intake of food (exogenous) or metabolic or endocrine abnormalities (endogenous) b forming, producing, origin c enlargement of the adrenal glands e -small chromaffin cell tumor, usually located in the adrenal medulla, causing elevated heart rate and blood -may be life threatening if not treated f state of equilibrium in the internal environment of the body g develop of diabetes(high blood sugar) during pregnancy h -lower blood glucose levels by promoting its entrance into the body cells and converting glucose to glycogen (a starch- storage form of glucose) -Type 1 diabetes must always be treated with insulin which can be administered through an implanted pump that infuses the drug continuously -Type 2 diabetes that cannot be controlled with oral antidiabetics may require insulin to maintain a normal level of glucose in the blood i enlarged thyroid gland j hypothyroidism develops in adulthood k bulging or protruding eyeball or eyeballs l m poison n -excessive thirst -Polydipsia is one of the three "polys" as well as Continue reading >>

Test For Esters

Test For Esters

Start learning today for free! A carboxylic acid can be identified by the following tests: 1. Carboxylic acids and alcohols are often warmed together in the presence of a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid in order to observe the smell of the esters formed. if paper turns red it means suspected one is ester. Alcohols react with carboxylic acids to form fruity smelling compounds called esters. Berkeley Analytical tests toys, child care items and other children’s items for their content of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Inorganic Chemistry/Qualitative Analysis/Tests for anions. To a small portion of the organic compound taken in a The Zeisel determination tests for the presence of esters or ethers; Chemical test for cyanide tests for the presence of cyanide, CN D7638 - 10(2015) Standard Test Method for Determination of Fatty Acids and Esters in Glycerin , antifreeze, engine coolant, esters, ethylene, fatty acids, glycerin Quiz 14 Carboxylic Acids, Esters, Amines, and Amides Karen Timberlake, Chemistry, Los Angeles Valley College Answer the questions below and then click "submit" to Quizlet provides esters activities, flashcards and games. This is discussed in detail on another page, Questions to test your understanding. test for estersEster test. 25 Mar 2016 At some point of time, all of us have seen the 'gurus' on the fitness forums chiming into every testosterone thread with the cliche'd response of "test is test," and "it doesn't matter which ester you use. The reaction between alcohol and carboxylic acid is called esterification and is catalysed by an acid such as concentrated sulphuric acid. Laboratory testing for Ethyl Ethanoate 141-78-6. Esters, how they are formed, examples of them etc. Ester names are derived from the parent alcohol and the parent acid, where Continue reading >>

Quizlet Urinalysis Mikem Flashcards Preview

Quizlet Urinalysis Mikem Flashcards Preview

For women, it's important to wipe 2x from front to back with an antibacterial wipe in order to prevent the collection of a contaminated sample. You must also catch the urine mid stream. Continue reading >>

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