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How Are Ketones Formed Quizlet

Ketone Body Metabolism

Ketone Body Metabolism

Sort During fasting state , glucose level goes down , what kind of compensatory reactions are going to happen? When Glucose level goes down : we have to maintain the glucose level in the blood, so we activate : -Glycogenolysis increase -Gluconeogenesis increase -beta-oxidation increase ( to provide ATP for gluconeogenesis) -FATTY acids going to decrease -KETONE BODIES WILL INCREASE What is the reason that Acetyl CoA will be converting into KB MORE than entering TCA cycle in liver cells during fasting? Two reasons 1. During fasting , liver will start gluconeogeneisis which requires non carbohydrate sources like oxaloacetate , so excessive use of oxaloacetate by liver to make glucose , will decrease the substrate availability for TCA cycle ,. so Acetyl coA ----> increase KB synthesis 2. Increase beta-oxidation in liver --->increase NADH/NAD ratio , which will inhibit TCA cycle enzyme, dehydrogenases. Continue reading >>

21. Fatty Acid Oxidation And Ketones

21. Fatty Acid Oxidation And Ketones

Sort A calorie restricted diet with low glucose seems to target brain cancer cells and reduce their growth. This may work because cancerous brain cells have defective ___, reduces the cancerous cells use of ___, non-cancerous tissues use the ___ mitochondria, glucose, ketone bodies Saturated fatty acids are degraded two carbons at a time, producing acetyl-CoA. Under aerobic conditions, how many ATP molecules would be produced in beta oxidation of fatty acids per acetyl-CoA formed? Some of the following information may be useful: 1 NADH can produce about 2.5ATP; 1FADH2 can produce about 1.5ATP, the TCA cycle produces 1 GTP(ATP equivalent), pyruvate dehydrogenase can produce 1 NADH. 4 There are four steps in the β-oxidation pathway. The following options show the reaction steps (identified by a number) in order from left to right. Choose the option that has the reaction types in the correct order that they occur in the β-oxidation pathway (you can use a reaction type more than once). Some reaction types are listed below: 1 condensation 2 oxidation 3 reduction 4 thiolysis 5 hydration 6 phosphorylation 7 rearrangement 2,5,2,4 Ketone body synthesis is increased in which of the following conditions A. untreated diabetes B. starvation C. ketoacidosis D. increased fat oxidation A patient developed a condition characterized by progressive muscle weakness and aching cramps. These symptoms were aggravated by fasting, exercise and a high fat diet. A homogensied specimen of the patients muscle biopsy oxidized oleate (a fatty acid) more slowly than muscle from normal people. When carnitine was added to the patient's muscle sample the rate of oleate oxidation equaled that of normal samples. The patient was diagnosed has having carnitine deficiency. Why did the added carnitine increa Continue reading >>

Ketone Bodies Formed In The Liver Are Exported To Other Organs

Ketone Bodies Formed In The Liver Are Exported To Other Organs

Ketone Bodies In human beings and most other mammals, acetyl-CoA formed in the liver during oxidation of fatty acids may enter the citric acid cycle (stage 2 of Fig. 16-7) or it may be converted to the "ketone bodies" acetoacetate, D-β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone for export to other tissues. (The term "bodies" is a historical artifact; these compounds are soluble in blood and urine.) Acetone, produced in smaller quantities than the other ketone bodies, is exhaled. Acetoacetate and D-β-hydroxybutyrate are transported by the blood to the extrahepatic tissues, where they are oxidized via the citric acid cycle to provide much of the energy required by tissues such as skeletal and heart muscle and the renal cortex. The brain, which normally prefers glucose as a fuel, can adapt to the use of acetoacetate or D-β-hydroxybutyrate under starvation conditions, when glucose is unavailable. A major determinant of the pathway taken by acetyl-CoA in liver mitochondria is the availability of oxaloacetate to initiate entry of acetyl-CoA into the citric acid cycle. Under some circumstances (such as starvation) oxaloacetate is drawn out of the citric acid cycle for use in synthesizing glucose. When the oxaloacetate concentration is very low, little acetyl-CoA enters the cycle, and ketone body formation is favored. The production and export of ketone bodies from the liver to extrahepatic tissues allows continued oxidation of fatty acids in the liver when acetyl-CoA is not being oxidized via the citric acid cycle. Overproduction of ketone bodies can occur in conditions of severe starvation and in uncontrolled diabetes. The first step in formation of acetoacetate in the liver (Fig. 16-16) is the enzymatic condensation of two molecules of acetyl-CoA, catalyzed by thiolase; this is simply Continue reading >>

Urinalysis - Unit 2

Urinalysis - Unit 2

Sort Describe the proper technique for performing reagent strip testing. 1.Mix specimen well. 2.Let refrigerated specimens warm to room temperature before testing. 3.Dip the strip completely,but briefly,into specimen. 4.Remove excess urine by withdrawing the strip against the rim of the container and by blotting the edge of the strip. 5.Compare reaction colors with the manufacturer's chart under a good light source at the specified time. 6.Perform backup tests when indicated. 7.Be alert for the presence of interfering substances. 8.Understand the principles and significance of the test, read package inserts. 9.Relate chemical findings to each other and to the physical and microscopic urinalysis results List two reasons for measuring urinary pH, and discuss their clinical applications. - Aid in determining systemic acid base disorders of metabolic or respiratory origin - Respiratory or metabolic acidosis/ketosis - Respiratory or metabolic alkalosis - Defects in renal tubular secretion and reabsorption of acids and bases—renal tubular acidosis - Renal calculi formation - Treatment of urinary tract infections - Precipitation/identification of crystals - Determination of unsatisfactory specimens. High pH (>9) can indicate improperly preserved specimen Continue reading >>

Ketogenesis

Ketogenesis

Regulation involves: Major feature is SUBSTRATE SUPPLY ie: the supply of acetylCoA within the mitochondria of the liver. Major factors include: 1) High rates of fat mobilization (the ultimate substrate) ie: factors controlling the balance between lipolysis & esterification in adipose tissue 2) High activity of CPT1 - allows fat to enter mitochondria of B-oxidation to produce acetylCoA. - B-oxidation produces NADH/FADH that allows rapid ATP production & inhibition of the TCA cycle - therefore more acetylCoA goes to ketogenesis 3) Relative shortage of glucose for the tissues. - this could be a high demand (peak lactation in a dairy cow) - or a low supply (starvation) - or endocrine fault (diabetes) Continue reading >>

Physiology Chapter 2: Ketone Bodies And Fat Metabolism

Physiology Chapter 2: Ketone Bodies And Fat Metabolism

Sort Ketoacidosis - metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and β-hydroxybutyrate. - pathological metabolic state marked by extreme and uncontrolled ketosis. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal. - common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. Prolonged alcoholism may lead to alcoholic ketoacidosis. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Recipe For Peach Cobbler Non When Mellitus Insulin-dependent Results Quizlet

Diabetic Recipe For Peach Cobbler Non When Mellitus Insulin-dependent Results Quizlet

The Zone diet is often described as a high-protein low-carbohydrate program. Increase your Health Benefits of Quitting. Diabetic Recipe For Peach Cobbler Non When Mellitus Insulin-dependent Results Quizlet the Diabetes Committee of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society has also issued a guideline on proper foot care19. Diabetes information; Dementia information; Jaundice Diagnosis; Jaundice Treatment; Treating jaundice . Find out about diabetes in pregnancy so your care team can monitor your condition and react to any changes that could affect your own or your baby’s Yahoo! Shopping is the best place to comparison shop for Buy Insulin Syringes. have surfaced that Novolog appears to be both stronger and quicker than Humalog thus requiring slight changes in insulin doses. DKA is normally seen in people with type 1 diabetes. Page 2 Arthritis and Diabetes Continued Try swimming or cycling on a regular or a stationary bike. Fatty meats are the cornerstone to my diabetes diet. It can lead to inability of the heart to circulate blood through the type 2 diabetes no drugs foot injury body Is Diabetic Neuropathy Reversible ::The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days.[ IS DIABETIC NEUROPATHY REVERSIBLE ] The REAL Cereal edema in children with diabetic ketoacidosis: vasogenic rather than cellular? Pediatric Diabetes 2014: 15: 261-270. Couple charged in Singapore exchange and in chocolate and red wine Family Statement on Autopsy Results. Annual rates of nephropathy progression and death in type 2 diabetes in UKPDS study is shown in the flow chart 4. Back pain and kidney infection is sometimes related. Children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus should be. When a person has severe symptoms a liquid or pured diet may be prescrib Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 7

Nutrition Chapter 7

Sort Feasting eating in excess of energy needs metabolism favors fat formation - dietary fat to body fat is most direct and efficient conversion (carbohydrate and protein have other roles to fulfill before) fuel mix - depends on diet; carbohydrate and protein intakes influence fuel mix; increases in carbohydrate and protein intakes DISPLACE fat in the diet (more carbohydrate/protein and less fat) increase fat eaten DOES NOT enhance fat breakdown - does not respond to dietary fat intake! Transition from Feasting to Fasting after a meal (2-3 hours), glucose, glycerol, fatty acids used as needed, stored - fasting state draws on these stores (glycogen and fat are released/broken down) energy needed all the time! (sleeping) basal metabolism - cell's work to maintain life processes; 2/3 energy a person expends per day fasting (choice) vs. starving (no choice) - body cannot distinguish difference between them, forced to draw on reserves of carbohydrate and fat Fasting carbohydrate, fat, protein all eventually used as energy begins with release of glucose from liver's glycogen stores, fatty acids from adipose cells breakdown and acetyl CoA produced - Krebs cycle to produce energy (ATP) decrease blood glucose levels serve as signal - promotes further fat breakdown; release of amino acids from muscles Fatty Acids as Fuel good for now, but glucose is needed brain, nervous system, and RBC - primary source brain/nerve cells consume 1/2 total glucose used/day (50%) 1/4 of energy body uses at rest spent by brain RBC completely dependent on glucose, brain/nerve cells prefer glucose for energy Protein to the Rescue amino acids yielding pyruvate (to make glucose); breakdown of body proteins; amino acids that canoot make glucose used for energy by other cells; expensive way to make glucos Continue reading >>

How Are Ketones Formed?

How Are Ketones Formed?

Ketones are a very important functionnal group in organic chemistry, and thus there are several ways to prepare them, the 2 most common being oxidations, and reductions. The first is straightforward. You can oxidize a secondary alcohol to a ketone. There are a lot of reagents that can do that, the most practical are probably the hypervalent iodine reagents (IBX, Dess-Martin periodinane, although the latter is more used for oxidation of primary alcohol to the aldehyde). Chromium and Manganese oxides can also be used, in some cases. Then there are the methodologies which will cleave a double bond and give you two ketones, like ozonolysis, or Osmium oxide reaction on double bonds. The second is a bit more devious: because it doesn't look like a typical reduction. But when a organocopper, organizinc or organomagnesium reagent (or other organometallic reagents, these are just the most commonly used in the lab), when they react with an acid derivative, it is a reduction ( the oxidation of the carbon goes from +3 to +2). Possibilities include reaction of the organometallic reagent with anhydrides or acyl chlorides, possibly catalyzed by a transition metal (Ni, Pd, Co, Fe…), reactions with Weinreb amides , or with morpholine amides, in the case of Grignard reagents. Remember that you cannot use directly an ester and a Grignard, apart from the 2 aforementioned cases, the ketone will be more reactive and thus the Grignard will react with the ketone as soon as it is formed, to form the tertiary alcohol. You can use carbonylation reactions. In these reactions, you use a nucleophile (typically an organostannane, but other can be used), an electrophile (usually an aryl or vinyl halide), under carbon monoxide atmosphere, with a Palladium catalyst. There's also the Pauson-Khand react Continue reading >>

L6 - Ketones & Cholesterol

L6 - Ketones & Cholesterol

Sort How is cholesterol biosynthesis regulated? Cholesterol biosynthesis is tightly regulated. Cellular cholesterol concentration is the key factor. Amount and activity of HMG-CoA reductase enzyme is regulated. Rate of synthesis is controlled by steroid response element. mRNA stability altered by non-steroid mevalonate derivatives. High levels of products lead to protein degradation. cAMP kinase reduces activity when ATP concentration is low. Anabolic insulin stimulates and catabolic glucagon inhibits pathway. Describe the 2 bile components of cholesterol. Cholesterol -> Cholic acid -> Glycocholic acid Cholic acid: Bile ACIDS are polar versions of cholesterol. Synthesised in liver, stored in gall bladder, released to bile. Detergent like properties solubilise dietary lipids. Glycocholic acid: Bile SALTS are conjugated bile acids, Conjugated species is hydrophilic. Glycine & taurine are frequent conjugates. Detergent like properties. Solubilise dietary lipids. Name 4 hormones that cholesterol can help create. PROGESTERONE • precursor to other steroids • prepares uterus for implantation • prevents ovulation in pregnancy TESTOSTERONE • promotes male sexual development • maintains male sexual characteristics CORTISOL • promotes gluconeogenesis • suppression of inflammation ESTRADIOL • promotes female sexual development • maintains female sexual characteristics Continue reading >>

Ketone Body Synthesis

Ketone Body Synthesis

Sort 1. Ketone body synthesis: Ketone bodies are x forms of lipid-based energy and consist mainly of x acid and its reduction product, x acid. β-hydroxybutyryl CoA and acetoacetyl CoA are x near the end of the β-oxidation scheme. x in an intermediate in the synthesis of acetoacetate from Acetyl CoA The primary site for formation of ketone bodies is x, with lesser activity in x. The entire process occurs within the x, beginning with condensation of two acetyl CoA molecules to make acetoacetyl CoA, as catalyzed by xase. Acetoacetyl CoA then condenses with another acetyl CoA to form β- hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (aka x). Cleavage of HMG CoA by HMG CoA xase yields acetoacetic acid and acetyl CoA. 1. Ketone body synthesis: Ketone bodies are water soluble forms of lipid-based energy and consist mainly of acetoacetic acid and its reduction product, β-hydroxybutyric acid. β-hydroxybutyryl CoA and acetoacetyl CoA are intermediates near the end of the β-oxidation scheme. HMG-CoA in an intermediate in the synthesis of acetoacetate from Acetyl CoA The primary site for formation of ketone bodies is liver, with lesser activity in kidney. The entire process occurs within the mitochondrial matrix, beginning with condensation of two acetyl CoA molecules to make acetoacetyl CoA, as catalyzed by β-ketothiolase. Acetoacetyl CoA then condenses with another acetyl CoA to form β- hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (aka HMG CoA). Cleavage of HMG CoA by HMG CoA Lyase yields acetoacetic acid and acetyl CoA. Acetoacetate Forms both D-β-Hydroxybutyrate and acetone In mitochondria a fraction of acetoacetate is reduced to D-β-hydroxybutyrate depending on the intramitochondrial x ratio. Some acetoacetate continually undergoes slow spontaneous nonx decarboxylation to acetone. In these pa Continue reading >>

Ketone Body Metabolism

Ketone Body Metabolism

Sort Scenario: Blood glucose levels decline due to starvation... Require: Tactic changes: Hormonal changes: Metabolic changes: Require: maintenance of blood glucose levels Tactic changes: - peripheral tissue glucose utilization + hepatic glucose production (gluconeogenesis) Hormonal changes: - insulin + glucagon + epinephrine and lipolytic hormones Metabolic changes: + lipolysis and ketogenesis for alternative fuels + hepatic beta oxidation to drive gluconeogenesis What substrates are required for gluconeogenesis to occur and how are these substrates replenished? Gluconeogenesis requires (1) C4 carbon sources and (2) high energy. -Carbon sources are replenished by glucogenic AA breakdown -Energy is replenished via beta oxidation of FA and oxidative phosphorylation -Acetyl CoA (produced by beta oxidation) promotes gluconeogenesis by activating pyruvate carboxylase (hormone required for gluconeogenesis) Continue reading >>

Test For Esters

Test For Esters

Start learning today for free! A carboxylic acid can be identified by the following tests: 1. Carboxylic acids and alcohols are often warmed together in the presence of a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid in order to observe the smell of the esters formed. if paper turns red it means suspected one is ester. Alcohols react with carboxylic acids to form fruity smelling compounds called esters. Berkeley Analytical tests toys, child care items and other children’s items for their content of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Inorganic Chemistry/Qualitative Analysis/Tests for anions. To a small portion of the organic compound taken in a The Zeisel determination tests for the presence of esters or ethers; Chemical test for cyanide tests for the presence of cyanide, CN D7638 - 10(2015) Standard Test Method for Determination of Fatty Acids and Esters in Glycerin , antifreeze, engine coolant, esters, ethylene, fatty acids, glycerin Quiz 14 Carboxylic Acids, Esters, Amines, and Amides Karen Timberlake, Chemistry, Los Angeles Valley College Answer the questions below and then click "submit" to Quizlet provides esters activities, flashcards and games. This is discussed in detail on another page, Questions to test your understanding. test for estersEster test. 25 Mar 2016 At some point of time, all of us have seen the 'gurus' on the fitness forums chiming into every testosterone thread with the cliche'd response of "test is test," and "it doesn't matter which ester you use. The reaction between alcohol and carboxylic acid is called esterification and is catalysed by an acid such as concentrated sulphuric acid. Laboratory testing for Ethyl Ethanoate 141-78-6. Esters, how they are formed, examples of them etc. Ester names are derived from the parent alcohol and the parent acid, where Continue reading >>

Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Metabolic pathway Catabolism Anabolism Mitochondria ATP NADH FADH GTP ADP AMP NADPH A series of chemical reactions that either break down a large compound into small pieces or synthesize bigger compounds from smaller molecules Breaking down large particles into smaller ones. Process which cells change smaller compounds into larger more complex ones. Where most of the ATP is captured when being made from CHO,PRO or FAT. Called the "power plant" of the cells. High energy molecules which is what fuels most of the cells and is used to synthesize molecules. Reduced form of NAD, acts as an electron carrier in cells and undergoes oxidation and reduction Reduced form of FAD, also acts like an electron carrier and undergoes oxidation and reduction Similar to ATP, but with 3 phosphates linked to guanosine. Compound produced upon hydrolysis of ATP and is used to synthesize ATP Product of hydrolysis from ADP and nucleic acids. Reduced form of NADP. Also acts as an electron carrier in cells and undergoes reduction and oxidation. Glycolysis Aerobic Anaerobic Pyruvate Lactate Krebs cycle Citrate Oxalate Anaerobic pathway of breaking down glucose molecules into 2 molecules of pyruvate and creates 2 molecules of ATP and NADH. Occurs in cytosol. Needs oxygen in order for metabolic pathway to happen No need of oxygen for the metabolic pathway to happen 3 carbon compound that is created from the breakdown of glucose, can also be derived from amino acids and glycerol. Ionized form of lactic acid and is produced when there is a lack of oxygen in cells to produce pyruvate Also known as citric acid cycle, takes place in mitochondria where acetyl part of acetyl CoA is oxidized to yield 2 CO2, and NADH, FADH2, and GTP. Organic acid which can be found in some leafy green veggies that binds to cal Continue reading >>

Pathophysiology Exam 2 - Part A

Pathophysiology Exam 2 - Part A

Shared Flashcard Set Details Title Pathophysiology Exam 2 - Part A Description Quiz questions Total Cards 147 Subject Pathology Level Undergraduate 3 Created 11/05/2010 Click here to study/print these flashcards. Create your own flash cards! Sign up here. Additional Pathology Flashcards Cards Term What event initiates the process of atherosclerosis? Definition Endothelial injury and release of cytokines Term Factors associated with endothelial injury in atherosclerosis include all of the following except: A) autoimmunity. B) anemia. C) bacterial infection. D) smoking. Definition B - anemia Term What form of hyperdyslipidemia is associated with the development of the fatty streak in atherosclerosis? Definition High LDL Term An unstable plaque in the coronary arteries can result in which complication? Definition Myocardial infarction Term In the development of primary hypertension, increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity causes: A) decreased heart rate. B) increased renal excretion of sodium. C) peripheral vasoconstriction. D) decreased insulin resistance. Definition C - peripheral vasoconstriction Term A risk factor that is associated with both atherosclerosis and primary hypertension is what? Definition Advanced age Term Complications of sustained hypertension include which of the following? A) Retinal damage B) Stroke C) Renal disease D) All of the above Definition D - all of the above Term Atherosclerosis of the aorta can cause isolated systolic hypertension by: A) promoting thrombus formation. B) stimulating increased cardiac output. C) decreasing arterial distensibility. D) increasing lumen diameter. Definition C - decreasing arterial distensibility Term A ruptured cerebral aneurysm often will result in what? Definition Stroke Term Clinical manifestation Continue reading >>

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