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How Are Ketones Broken Down

Does Fat Convert To Glucose In The Body?

Does Fat Convert To Glucose In The Body?

Your body is an amazing machine that is able to extract energy from just about anything you eat. While glucose is your body's preferred energy source, you can't convert fat into glucose for energy; instead, fatty acids or ketones are used to supply your body with energy from fat. Video of the Day Fat is a concentrated source of energy, and it generally supplies about half the energy you burn daily. During digestion and metabolism, the fat in the food you eat is broken down into fatty acids and glycerol, which are emulsified and absorbed into your blood stream. While some tissues -- including your muscles -- can use fatty acids for energy, your brain can't convert fatty acids to fuel. If you eat more fat than your body needs, the extra is stored in fat cells for later use. Fat has more than twice as many calories per gram as carbs and protein, which makes it an efficient form of stored energy. It would take more than 20 pounds of glycogen -- a type of carbohydrate used for fuel -- to store the same amount of energy in just 10 pounds of fat. Your Body Makes Glucose From Carbs Almost all the glucose in your body originated from carbohydrates, which come from the fruit, vegetables, grains and milk in your diet. When you eat these carb-containing foods, your digestive system breaks them down into glucose, which is then used for energy by your cells. Any excess glucose is converted into glycogen, then stored in your muscles and liver for later use. Once you can't store any more glucose or glycogen, your body stores any leftover carbs as fat. Glucose is your brain's preferred source of energy. However, when glucose is in short supply, your brain can use ketones -- which are derived from fat -- for fuel. Since your brain accounts for approximately one-fifth of your daily calori Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious problem that can occur in people with diabetes if their body starts to run out of insulin. This causes harmful substances called ketones to build up in the body, which can be life-threatening if not spotted and treated quickly. DKA mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes, it's important to be aware of the risk and know what to do if DKA occurs. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis Signs of DKA include: needing to pee more than usual being sick breath that smells fruity (like pear drop sweets or nail varnish) deep or fast breathing feeling very tired or sleepy passing out DKA can also cause high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) and a high level of ketones in your blood or urine, which you can check for using home-testing kits. Symptoms usually develop over 24 hours, but can come on faster. Check your blood sugar and ketone levels Check your blood sugar level if you have symptoms of DKA. If your blood sugar is 11mmol/L or over and you have a blood or urine ketone testing kit, check your ketone level. If you do a blood ketone test: lower than 0.6mmol/L is a normal reading 0.6 to 1.5mmol/L means you're at a slightly increased risk of DKA and should test again in a couple of hours 1.6 to 2.9mmol/L means you're at an increased risk of DKA and should contact your diabetes team or GP as soon as possible 3mmol/L or over means you have a very high risk of DKA and should get medical help immediately If you do a urine ketone test, a result of more than 2+ means there's a high chance you have DKA. When to get medical help Go to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department straight away if you think you have DKA, especially if you have a high level of ketones in Continue reading >>

A Keto Diet For Beginners

A Keto Diet For Beginners

A keto or ketogenic diet is a very low-carb diet, which turns the body into a fat-burning machine. It has many proven benefits for weight loss, health and performance, as millions of people have experienced already. 1 Here you’ll learn how to eat a keto diet based on real foods. You’ll find visual guides, recipes, meal plans and a simple 2-week get started program, all you need to succeed on keto. Get even more, custom meal plans, ask the experts and low-carb TV, with a free trial. 1. Introduction: What is ketosis? The “keto” in a ketogenic diet comes from the fact that it makes the body produce small fuel molecules called “ketones”. 2 This is an alternative fuel for the body, used when blood sugar (glucose) is in short supply. Ketones are produced if you eat very few carbs (that are quickly broken down into blood sugar) and only moderate amounts of protein (excess protein can also be converted to blood sugar). Ketones are produced in the liver, from fat. They are then used as fuel throughout the body, including the brain. The brain is a hungry organ that consumes lots of energy every day, 3 and it can’t run on fat directly. It can only run on glucose… or ketones. On a ketogenic diet, your entire body switches its fuel supply to run almost entirely on fat. Insulin levels become very low, and fat burning increases dramatically. It becomes easy to access your fat stores to burn them off. This is obviously great if you’re trying to lose weight, but there are also other less obvious benefits, such as less hunger and a steady supply of energy. When the body produces ketones, it’s said to be in ketosis. The fastest way to get there is by fasting – not eating anything – but nobody can fast forever. A keto diet, on the other hand, can be eaten indefinite Continue reading >>

Drink Developed For Military Boosts Cycling Performance

Drink Developed For Military Boosts Cycling Performance

(Reuters Health) - A drink that provides energy for the body in the form of ketones, rather than sugar or fat, helped competitive cyclists ride farther during a half-hour ride, according to a new study. Usually, energy for muscle cells comes from carbohydrates or fat, but when those fuels aren’t available and the body is in “starvation mode” the liver will break down fat stores into ketones to use as fuel. Ketosis, or production of ketones by the liver, ”is a natural response to energy crisis and is of vital importance to us as it allows us to survive ‘insults’ such as starvation and even the first few hours after birth when fuel levels are low,” said lead author Pete J. Cox of the University of Oxford in the UK. In the new study, researchers found that when ketones are provided in a drink, the body will use them for muscle fuel. Ketone-powered workouts resulted in less lactate, a byproduct of breaking down sugar that causes muscle cramps and soreness. The researchers studied 39 high-level athletes, including former Olympic cyclists, to see how their metabolism changed after consuming the ketone drink and exercising. Ketone uptake in the muscles increased as exercise got more intense. In long-distance workouts, muscles used more ketones as fuel rather than breaking down glucose. But in short bursts of high-intensity work, like sprints, muscles work anaerobically – without oxygen – and can’t use ketones as fuel, since ketones can’t be broken down without oxygen. To examine athletic performance, eight athletes fasted overnight before completing two bicycle exercise trials of one-hour steady-state cycling and a 30-minute time trial. For one trial, the cyclists drank a carbohydrate drink, and for another they had a drink with carbohydrates and ketones. Continue reading >>

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis is a normal metabolic process. When the body does not have enough glucose for energy, it burns stored fats instead; this results in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body. Some people encourage ketosis by following a diet called the ketogenic or low-carb diet. The aim of the diet is to try and burn unwanted fat by forcing the body to rely on fat for energy, rather than carbohydrates. Ketosis is also commonly observed in patients with diabetes, as the process can occur if the body does not have enough insulin or is not using insulin correctly. Problems associated with extreme levels of ketosis are more likely to develop in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with type 2 diabetes patients. Ketosis occurs when the body does not have sufficient access to its primary fuel source, glucose. Ketosis describes a condition where fat stores are broken down to produce energy, which also produces ketones, a type of acid. As ketone levels rise, the acidity of the blood also increases, leading to ketoacidosis, a serious condition that can prove fatal. People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to develop ketoacidosis, for which emergency medical treatment is required to avoid or treat diabetic coma. Some people follow a ketogenic (low-carb) diet to try to lose weight by forcing the body to burn fat stores. What is ketosis? In normal circumstances, the body's cells use glucose as their primary form of energy. Glucose is typically derived from dietary carbohydrates, including: sugar - such as fruits and milk or yogurt starchy foods - such as bread and pasta The body breaks these down into simple sugars. Glucose can either be used to fuel the body or be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. If there is not enough glucose available to meet energy demands, th Continue reading >>

What Is Acetoacetate?

What Is Acetoacetate?

When following a ketogenic diet, measuring ketone levels in the body is an important part of maintaining a healthy level of ketosis. There are three types of ketones created in the body, and it’s helpful to know the different roles each type plays, both for monitoring their levels and for understanding the ketosis process. In this article, we’re zeroing in on just one of those ketone bodies: acetoacetate. So, what is acetoacetate and how exactly does it fit into ketosis? To answer that question, let’s step back outside the aquarium (so-to-speak) and review what’s happening in ketosis. What is Acetoacetate in Terms of the Ketogenic Diet For most of us, the most common source of fuel for the body is glucose, because it is readily available when we eat foods containing carbohydrates, such as breads, pastas, sugars, fruits, or starches. When we digest carbs, they either turn immediately into glucose for the body to use or are stored as glycogen within our muscles, liver, and brain. However, if there aren’t sufficient levels of carb intake, such as when someone is on a ketogenic diet (low carb, moderate protein, and high fat), the body will shift to break down fat for fuel instead. During this process, which is known as ketogenesis, ketones like acetoacetate are formed by the liver. The goal of those on the ketogenic diet it to rely on ketones as a primary fuel. There are three main types of ketone bodies that can be detected in the bloodstream during ketosis. The body creates acetoacetate first. Then, BHB is created from acetoacetate, and acetone is created spontaneously as a byproduct of acetoacetate. Acetoacetate is converted into BHB, which is the rich source of energy for the brain we care about. This process of converting fatty acids to ketone bodies is essen Continue reading >>

Insulin Vs. Ketones

Insulin Vs. Ketones

If you’ve heard the word “ketone” before, I bet it was in the context of a conversation about someone with diabetes. And rightly so—diabetes (type 1 or 2) is a problem of insulin (not glucose!), and insulin and ketones are, in a way, opposites. Ketones are an inverse indicator of insulin because insulin inhibits ketone production (i.e. ketogenesis) [1, 2]. In other words, if insulin is high, ketones are low; if insulin is low, the liver breaks down fat into small pieces called ketones (insulin in fact tells the liver to make and store fat) [1]. For this reason, a diet that keeps insulin low is referred to as a “ketogenic diet”—the low insulin levels allows the production of ketones. Metabolic Garbage? I used to consider ketones as a simple indicator of insulin—for me they were only relevant insofar as I wanted insulin to be low and increased ketones are a sign of low insulin. However, ketones are enjoying their day in the sun, but it wasn’t always this way. Ketones were once considered “metabolic garbage” because scientists were unaware of any role for them. Oh how the times have changed! Not only are ketones recognized as a viable fuel source for almost every cell, including the brain and muscles, but they’re also important signaling molecules that have multiple beneficial effects. Some of the known benefits of ketones include increasing the number of mitochondria in the cell (where fats are broken down) [3], reducing oxidative stress [4], controlling inflammation [5], improving brain/cognitive function [6] and, in the case of some organisms (no evidence in humans), extending lifespan [7]. It’s for these reasons that people have started selling (and buying!) supplements with ketones. Nutritional vs. Supplemental Ketosis With evermore evidence Continue reading >>

Ketones In Urine – How To Test And What Levels Are Optimal

Ketones In Urine – How To Test And What Levels Are Optimal

There are likely two reasons you want to test the ketone levels in your urine: REASON 1 – you’ve got type one diabetes (or type two diabetes, in some cases) and you need to test the ketones levels in your urine to help you avoid ketoacidosis. If that’s the case, skip down to the sections on… Then, skip straight to the section on… REASON 2 – you’re on the Keto diet and you want to use urine strips to check if you’re in ketosis. If that’s the case, then don’t worry we’ll also cover: But skip the section on ketoacidosis – it doesn’t apply to you unless you’re diabetic! Note that information contained in this article (and website) is not intended to and shall not convey or recommend any medical or nutritional advice or course of action. Any diet, health, or nutritional program you undertake should be discussed with your doctor or other licensed medical professionals. All opinions expressed in this article are based solely on personal experiences and research. We are NOT licensed doctors, dietitians, or nutritionists. Testing Laboratory Microbiology - Air Quality - Mold Asbestos - Environmental - Lead emsl.com What are ketones? First things first – a quick 101 intro on what ketones actually are: Ketone bodies (or ketones) are produced by your liver during the break down of fatty acids when your body is low on glucose. Your body then uses these ketone bodies as fuel. You see, your cells can’t directly use the fatty acids in your fat stores to produce energy. And that’s because those fatty acids are unable to pass through the membrane which surrounds your cells. And if they can’t get inside? They can’t be used as fuel. So there’s an extra step to the process: First, the fatty acids travel to your liver where they’re broken down into ke Continue reading >>

Keto Diet Science: How Your Body Burns Fat

Keto Diet Science: How Your Body Burns Fat

By now, you’ve probably heard about the keto diet. You've probably heard that it all but bans carbs and sugars, or that it's been clinically shown to reduce epileptic seizures in kids, or even that it helps people condition their bodies to burn fat. As we detailed in our recent feature on the keto diet, all of those things are true. But as any bodybuilder knows, you don't need to be on the keto diet to burn fat. Heck, you can do it with a focused meal and exercise plan. So we've been wondering: When your body "burns fat" for energy, what's really going on there? How exactly does the keto diet work? And why the hell is it called the "keto" diet, anyway? Play Video Play Loaded: 0% Progress: 0% Remaining Time -0:00 This is a modal window. Foreground --- White Black Red Green Blue Yellow Magenta Cyan --- Opaque Semi-Opaque Background --- White Black Red Green Blue Yellow Magenta Cyan --- Opaque Semi-Transparent Transparent Window --- White Black Red Green Blue Yellow Magenta Cyan --- Opaque Semi-Transparent Transparent Font Size 50% 75% 100% 125% 150% 175% 200% 300% 400% Text Edge Style None Raised Depressed Uniform Dropshadow Font Family Default Monospace Serif Proportional Serif Monospace Sans-Serif Proportional Sans-Serif Casual Script Small Caps Defaults Done Well strap some protective boxing headgear over those thinking caps, bros, because we’re about to roundhouse kick you in the brain with some KNOWLEDGE. (For a detailed breakdown of the chemistry at work, be sure to check out our references: this explainer on ketone bodies from the University of Waterloo, and this ketosis explainer from Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology [PDF], plus our feature on the keto diet from the July/August issue of Men's Fitness.) Why does the body go into fat-burning mode? For most pe Continue reading >>

Ketones & Ketosis

Ketones & Ketosis

Learn more about Ketones and Ketosis along with KETO//OS a first of it's kind proprietary formula that provides elevated ketone levels to the body to put you in a state of ketosis. Ketosis is a metabolic process that occurs when the body does not have enough glucose for energy. Stored fats are broken down for energy, resulting in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body. Try Pruvit KETO//OS today since Pruvit Ketones are safe, natural and healthy for your body. Fill out the form below if you're interested in KETO//OS. To download Pruvit Frequently Asked Questions...Click Here. WHAT ARE KETONES? Ketones, B-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), acetoacetate (ACA) and acetone, are the by-products of fat breakdown. Ketones can be used by the tissues, including the brain, in the body in much the same way as glucose, and are thought to be a superior fuel source to glucose. Being in a state of ketosis refers to having elevated blood levels of ketone. Ketones are a normal and efficient source of fuel and energy for the human body. They are produced by the liver from fatty acids, which result from the breakdown of body fat in response to the absence of glucose/sugar. In a ketogenic diet, such as Atkins ... or diets used for treating epilepsy in children, the tiny amounts of glucose required for some select functions can be met by consuming a minimum amount of carbs - or can be manufactured in the liver from PROTEIN. When your body is producing ketones, and using them for fuel, this is called "ketosis". The Pruvit Weight Loss with KETO//OS will put therapeutic levels of ketones in the body. Ketosis is a state you’d like your body to get into if you’re at all interested in ridding your physique of body fat. In fact the body will use your stores of fat to simply get you through the Continue reading >>

Ketone Bodies

Ketone Bodies

Ketone bodies Acetone Acetoacetic acid (R)-beta-Hydroxybutyric acid Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids[1] during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise,[2], alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy.[3] In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids. Ketone bodies are produced by the liver under the circumstances listed above (i.e. fasting, starving, low carbohydrate diets, prolonged exercise and untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus) as a result of intense gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (not including fatty acids).[1] They are therefore always released into the blood by the liver together with newly produced glucose, after the liver glycogen stores have been depleted (these glycogen stores are depleted after only 24 hours of fasting)[1]. When two acetyl-CoA molecules lose their -CoAs, (or Co-enzyme A groups) they can form a (covalent) dimer called acetoacetate. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a reduced form of acetoacetate, in which the ketone group is converted into an alcohol (or hydroxyl) group (see illustration on the right). Both are 4-carbon molecules, that can readily be converted back into acetyl-CoA by most tissues of the body, with the notable exception of the liver. Acetone is the decarboxylated form of acetoacetate which cannot be converted Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

There is a lot of confusion about the term ketosis among medical professionals as well as laypeople. It is important to understand when and why nutritional ketosis occurs, and why it should not be confused with the metabolic disorder we call ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state where the liver produces small organic molecules called ketone bodies. Most cells in the body can use ketone bodies as a source of energy. When there is a limited supply of external energy sources, such as during prolonged fasting or carbohydrate restriction, ketone bodies can provide energy for most organs. In this situation, ketosis can be regarded as a reasonable, adaptive physiologic response that is essential for life, enabling us to survive periods of famine. Nutritional ketosis should not be confused with ketoacidosis, a metabolic condition where the blood becomes acidic as a result of the accumulation of ketone bodies. Ketoacidosis can have serious consequences and may need urgent medical treatment. The most common forms are diabetic ketoacidosis and alcoholic ketoacidosis. What Is Ketosis? The human body can be regarded as a biologic machine. Machines need energy to operate. Some use gasoline, others use electricity, and some use other power resources. Glucose is the primary fuel for most cells and organs in the body. To obtain energy, cells must take up glucose from the blood. Once glucose enters the cells, a series of metabolic reactions break it down into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy in the process. The body has an ability to store excess glucose in the form of glycogen. In this way, energy can be stored for later use. Glycogen consists of long chains of glucose molecules and is primarily found in the liver and skeletal muscle. Liver glycogen stores are used to mai Continue reading >>

What Are Ketones? Everything You Need To Know

What Are Ketones? Everything You Need To Know

One miraculous energy source has garnered the attention of many nutrition experts and researchers over the past decade. No, it is not carbohydrates, fats, or even protein. We call them ketones or ketone bodies (more on the difference between the two later). To your body, however, ketones are nothing new. In fact, your heart and renal cortex (the part of the kidney where ultrafiltration occurs) are using ketones as fuel right now. These cells prefer to use ketones instead of sugar. After days of fasting or ketogenic dieting, ketone production increases and other cells like your muscle and brain cells start to use them for energy as well. This is the primary goal of the ketogenic diet, but why does it matter? Ketones are just another fuel source, right? The Benefits of Using Ketones For Energy (Rather Than Sugar) Glucose is the primary energy source for almost every cell in the body. This is because it can be broken down into energy much more quickly than any other fuel source, and it does this without the help of the mitochondria (the main energy producing component of the cell). Using glucose for fuel, however, comes with some negative effects. What we gain in quickness, we lose in efficiency. During the process of sugar burning more free radicals and reactive oxygen species (harmful compounds that can cause cell damage) are released and less energy is created than when we use ketones and fat for fuel. Ketones are a more efficient fuel source that inhibits the production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species. This leads to a host of benefits, especially for the brain cells that use ketones instead of sugar for fuel. For example, studies done on people with different types of cognitive issues from Parkinson’s disease to epilepsy confirm that using ketones as fue Continue reading >>

Ketones 101: Exploring The Benefits Of Exogenous Ketone Use

Ketones 101: Exploring The Benefits Of Exogenous Ketone Use

Walk into any supplement store and you’ll see the shelves adorned with what seems like an endless number of products making too-good-to-be-true claims: Lose weight in 24 hours! Lose two inches in two weeks! Between excessive praise and pushy salespeople, it can be difficult to know which supplements are reasonably worth trying—and why. So, when exogenous ketone supplements started showing up on the market, we were honestly a bit skeptical: Are these new supplements worth incorporating into our regimens, and are their apparent benefits backed up by actual scientific research? Today’s post is dedicated to explaining how we came to conclude that yes, exogenous supplements are worth including into your daily routine, and we’re about to tell you why. What are Exogenous Ketones? Simply put, the term “exogenous” refers to things that come from outside the body. Supplements are therefore considered exogenous because you ingest them rather than producing the contents of that supplement inside the body. The opposite of exogenous is “endogenous,” which refers to things that you do produce within your body. To define what “ketones” are, we need to briefly talk about how our metabolism works. Whenever you eat carbohydrates, they’re broken down into glucose (or sugar), which provides your body with the energy it needs to function; however, when you utilize a low-carb diet and don’t have enough glucose, your body adapts by looking for other sources of energy in the body. Eventually, it will turn to your fat cells. Whenever fats are broken down for energy, ketone bodies are produced as a result. Glucose is no longer your body’s primary fuel source, ketones are. (It’s important to note that ketones are always present in the blood, but their levels increase du Continue reading >>

Ketosis, Ketones, And How It All Works

Ketosis, Ketones, And How It All Works

Ketosis is a process that the body does on an everyday basis, regardless of the number of carbs you eat. Your body adapts to what is put in it, processing different types of nutrients into the fuels that it needs. Proteins, fats, and carbs can all be processed for use. Eating a low carb, high fat diet just ramps up this process, which is a normal and safe chemical reaction. When you eat carbohydrate based foods or excess amounts of protein, your body will break this down into sugar – known as glucose. Why? Glucose is needed in the creation of ATP (an energy molecule), which is a fuel that is needed for the daily activities and maintenance inside our bodies. If you’ve ever used our keto calculator to determine your caloric needs, you will see that your body uses up quite a lot of calories. It’s true, our bodies use up much of the nutrients we intake just to maintain itself on a daily basis. If you eat enough food, there will likely be an excess of glucose that your body doesn’t need. There are two main things that happen to excess glucose if your body doesn’t need it: Glycogenesis. Excess glucose will be converted to glycogen and stored in your liver and muscles. Estimates show that only about half of your daily energy can be stored as glycogen. Lipogenesis. If there’s already enough glycogen in your muscles and liver, any extra glucose will be converted into fats and stored. So, what happens to you once your body has no more glucose or glycogen? Ketosis happens. When your body has no access to food, like when you are sleeping or when you are on a ketogenic diet, the body will burn fat and create molecules called ketones. We can thank our body’s ability to switch metabolic pathways for that. These ketones are created when the body breaks down fats, creating Continue reading >>

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