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High Fat Diet Induced Insulin Resistance

Myeloid Cell Neuropilin 1 Ameliorates High-fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistance Via Suppression Of Nlrp3 Inflammasome | Dai | Macrophage

Myeloid Cell Neuropilin 1 Ameliorates High-fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistance Via Suppression Of Nlrp3 Inflammasome | Dai | Macrophage

Myeloid cell neuropilin 1 ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance via suppression of Nlrp3 inflammasome The history of neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) research is checkered with many unexpected and exciting findings. Originally identified as a co-receptor for class 3 semaphorins, and several canonical growth factors, Nrp1 was shown to play important roles in the development of central nervous system, and angiogenesis within neuronal and endothelial cells, respectively. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that Nrp1 is also highly expressed in immune cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells. Until now, the functions of Nrp1 within these cells remained poorly studied and elusive. In this research highlight, we provide exciting insights on our recently published study that identified a novel role for myeloid cell Nrp1 in the mitigation of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance via suppression of Nlrp3 inflammasome. Johnson AM, Olefsky JM. The origins and drivers of insulin resistance. Cell 2013; 152:673-684. Qatanani M, Lazar MA. Mechanisms of obesity-associated insulin resistance: many choices on the menu. Genes & development 2007; 21:1443-1455. Stepanova OI, Krylov AV, Lioudyno VI, Kisseleva EP. Gene expression for VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and their receptors in murine lymphocytes and macrophages. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2007; 72:1194-1198. Casazza A, Laoui D, Wenes M, Rizzolio S, Bassani N, Mambretti M, et al. Impeding macrophage entry into hypoxic tumor areas by Sema3A/Nrp1 signaling blockade inhibits angiogenesis and restores antitumor immunity. Cancer cell 2013; 24:695-709. Miyauchi JT, Chen D, Choi M, Nissen JC, Shroyer KR, Djordevic S, et al. Ablation of Neuropilin 1 from glioma-associated microglia and macrophages slows tumor progression. Oncotarget 2016; 7:9801-9814 Continue reading >>

High-fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistance In Single Skeletal Muscle Fibers Is Fiber Type Selective

High-fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistance In Single Skeletal Muscle Fibers Is Fiber Type Selective

N2 - Skeletal muscle is the major site for insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, and muscle insulin resistance confers many negative health outcomes. Muscle is composed of multiple fiber types, and conventional analysis of whole muscles cannot elucidate fiber type differences at the cellular level. Previous research demonstrated that a brief (two weeks) high fat diet (HFD) caused insulin resistance in rat skeletal muscle. The primary aim of this study was to determine in rat skeletal muscle the influence of a brief (two weeks) HFD on glucose uptake (GU) insulin in single fibers that were also characterized for fiber type. Epitrochlearis muscles were incubated with [3H]-2-deoxyglucose (2DG) 100 U/ml insulin. Fiber type (myosin heavy chain expression) and 2DG accumulation were measured in whole muscles and single fibers. Although fiber type composition of whole muscles did not differ between diet groups, GU of insulin-stimulated whole muscles from LFD rats significantly exceeded HFD values (P < 0.005). For HFD versus LFD rats, GU of insulin-stimulated single fibers was significantly (P < 0.05) lower for IIA, IIAX, IIBX, IIB, and approached significance for IIX (P = 0.100), but not type I (P = 0.776) fibers. These results revealed HFD-induced insulin resistance was attributable to fiber type selective insulin resistance and independent of altered fiber type composition. AB - Skeletal muscle is the major site for insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, and muscle insulin resistance confers many negative health outcomes. Muscle is composed of multiple fiber types, and conventional analysis of whole muscles cannot elucidate fiber type differences at the cellular level. Previous research demonstrated that a brief (two weeks) high fat diet (HFD) caused insulin resistance in rat sk Continue reading >>

Increased Oxidative Stress Precedes The Onset Of High-fat Dietinduced Insulin Resistance And Obesity

Increased Oxidative Stress Precedes The Onset Of High-fat Dietinduced Insulin Resistance And Obesity

Volume 57, Issue 8 , August 2008, Pages 1071-1077 Increased oxidative stress precedes the onset of high-fat dietinduced insulin resistance and obesity Author links open overlay panel NaotoMatsuzawa-Nagataab ToshinariTakamurab Get rights and content Insulin resistance is a key pathophysiological feature of metabolic syndrome. However, the initial events triggering the development of insulin resistance and its causal relations with dysregulation of glucose and fatty acids metabolism remain unclear. We investigated biological pathways that have the potential to induce insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). We demonstrate that the pathways for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress are coordinately up-regulated in both the liver and adipose tissue of mice fed an HFD before the onset of insulin resistance through discrete mechanism. In the liver, an HFD up-regulated genes involved in sterol regulatory element binding protein 1crelated fatty acid synthesis and peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor related fatty acid oxidation. In the adipose tissue, however, the HFD down-regulated genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and up-regulated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex. Furthermore, increased ROS production preceded the elevation of tumor necrosis factor and free fatty acids in the plasma and liver. The ROS may be an initial key event triggering HFD-induced insulin resistance. Continue reading >>

High-fructose And High-fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistance Enhances Atherosclerosis In Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic Rabbits

High-fructose And High-fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistance Enhances Atherosclerosis In Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic Rabbits

High-fructose and high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance enhances atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits Individuals with insulin resistance and resulting impaired glucose tolerance along with type 2 diabetes showed an increased prevalence of atherosclerosis. Our aim in this study was to address whether diet-induced insulin resistance plays any roles in the development of aortic and coronary atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic rabbits. We fed Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits with a high-fructose and high-fat diet (HFFD) with restricted normal calories and compared the lesions of both aortic and coronary atherosclerosis with those of control WHHL rabbits fed a normal chow diet. HFFD-fed WHHL rabbits showed insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance accompanied by elevated plasma lipid levels and accumulation of adipose tissue even though their body weight was unchanged compared to the control rabbits. At 8 weeks, the aortic gross lesion area of HFFD-fed WHHL rabbits was increased by 40 % over the controls and their lesions were characterized by increased number of macrophages and smooth muscle cells. At 16 weeks, the lesions of HFFD-fed WHHL rabbits showed more advanced lesions such as lipid core formation and calcification. In addition, coronary atherosclerosis was significantly increased in HFFD-fed WHHL rabbits. These results suggest that insulin resistance accelerates lesion formation of atherosclerosis. Insulin ResistanceCoronary AtherosclerosisCholesteryl Ester Transfer ProteinMicrosomal Triglyceride Transfer ProteinAdvanced Lesion Insulin resistance (IR) is frequently associated with many metabolic diseases such as obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome [ 1 ]. Individuals with underlying Continue reading >>

Senna Alata Leaf Extract Restores Insulin Sensitivity In High-fat Diet-induced Obese Mice

Senna Alata Leaf Extract Restores Insulin Sensitivity In High-fat Diet-induced Obese Mice

Senna alata leaf extract restores insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-induced obese mice Senna alata (S. alata) has numerous pharmacological activities including anti-lipogenic effect in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. The present study investigated the effect of Senna alata (S. alata) leaf extracts on the regulation of abnormal glucose metabolism in HFD-induced obese mice. Male ICR mice were induced to become obese by being fed a HFD (45kcal% lard fat) for 12weeks. During the last 6weeks of diet feeding, the obese mice were treated with the water extract of S. alata leaf at 250 and 500mg/kg/day. After 6weeks of treatment, blood was collected for measuring biochemical parameters. The liver, epididymal fat and skeletal muscle tissues were excised and kept for determining histology and western blot analysis. Treatment with S. alata (250 and 500mg/kg) significantly reduced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia. The glucose intolerance was improved by S. alata. The elevated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) levels in obese mice were reduced in S. alata treatment. The level of serum adiponectin was increased in obese mice treated with S. alata (250 and 500mg/kg). The epididymal fat weight was reduced in S. alata treatment. The enlarged adipocyte size was smaller in obese mice treated with S. alata. In comparison with the obese control mice, the mice treated with S. alata showed a significant reduction of liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) proteins. Moreover, S. alata up-regulated the liver and muscle adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase phosphorylation (pAMPK) and muscle glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). The results indicate that the restoration of imp Continue reading >>

Tetradecylthioacetic Acid Prevents High Fat Diet Induced Adiposity And Insulin Resistance

Tetradecylthioacetic Acid Prevents High Fat Diet Induced Adiposity And Insulin Resistance

Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance *Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Bergen, Haukeland Hospital, N-5021 Bergen, Norway U465 INSERM, Institut Biomdical des Cordeliers, Paris, France Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark **Diabetes and Nutrition Research Laboratory, Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovak Republic Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway ***UR545 INSERM, Department d'Athrosclerose, Institut Pasteur de Lille and Facult de Pharmacie, Universit de Lille II, Lille, France 1To whom correspondence should be addressed. e-mail: rolf.berge{at}ikb.uib.no Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a non--oxidizable fatty acid analog, which potently regulates lipid homeostasis. Here we evaluate the ability of TTA to prevent diet-induced and genetically determined adiposity and insulin resistance. In Wistar rats fed a high fat diet, TTA administration completely prevented diet-induced insulin resistance and adiposity. In genetically obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats TTA treatment reduced the epididymal adipose tissue mass and improved insulin sensitivity. All three rodent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subtypes were activated by TTA in the ranking order PPAR > PPAR > PPAR. Expression of PPAR target genes in adipose tissue was unaffected by TTA treatment, whereas the hepatic expression of PPAR-responsive genes encoding enzymes involved in fatty acid uptake, transport, and oxidation was induced. This was accompanied by increased hepatic mitochondrial -oxidation and a decreased fatty a Continue reading >>

Increased Oxidative Stress Precedes The Onset Of High-fat Dietinduced Insulin Resistance And Obesity

Increased Oxidative Stress Precedes The Onset Of High-fat Dietinduced Insulin Resistance And Obesity

Increased oxidative stress precedes the onset of high-fat dietinduced insulin resistance and obesity Insulin resistance is a key pathophysiological feature of metabolic syndrome. However, the initial events triggering the development of insulin resistance and its causal relations with dysregulation of glucose and fatty acids metabolism remain unclear. We investigated biological pathways that have the potential to induce insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). We demonstrate that the pathways for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress are coordinately up-regulated in both the liver and adipose tissue of mice fed an HFD before the onset of insulin resistance through discrete mechanism. In the liver, an HFD up-regulated genes involved in sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c-related fatty acid synthesis and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-related fatty acid oxidation. In the adipose tissue, however, the HFD down-regulated genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and up-regulated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex. Furthermore, increased ROS production preceded the elevation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and free fatty acids in the plasma and liver. The ROS may be an initial key event triggering HFD-induced insulin resistance. 2018 Digital Science & Research Solutions, Inc. All Rights Reserved | About us Privacy policy Legal terms VPAT Citation Count is the number of times that this paper has been cited by other published papers in the database. The Altmetric Attention Score is a weighted count of all of the online attention Altmetric have found for an individual research output. This includes mentions in public policy documents and references in Wikipedia, the mainstream news, soc Continue reading >>

Association Of Muscle Lipidomic Profile With High-fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistance Across Five Mouse Strains.

Association Of Muscle Lipidomic Profile With High-fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistance Across Five Mouse Strains.

Association of muscle lipidomic profile with high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance across five mouse strains. Recommended by Amira Klip and Nicolas Pillon 09 Nov 2017 | Confirmation, Controversial Montgomery and colleagues used lipidomics to describe changes in skeletal muscle lipid profiles in five different strains of mice (C57BL6, 129X1, DBA/2, FVB/N, and BALB/c) subjected to a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. In a previous study, the authors had shown that all except BALB/c mice gain weight and develop glucose intolerance in that time {1}. Here, a comprehensive analysis revealed that in muscle, triglycerides... To read the rest of this recommendation and access over 145,000 article recommendations from 3,700+ journals across biomedicine, register Send a recommendation to your institution's librarian or information manager to request an extended free trial for articles in biology and medicine, contributed inclusion in F1000Prime to help you filter recommendations, plus relevant articles as engine clusters of related articles and be alerted as soon as similar articles appear in If you think you should be able to access this content, please contact us . If you've forgotten your password, please enter your email address below and we'll send you instructions on how to reset your password. The email address should be the one you originally registered with F1000. Email address not recognised, please try again We are unable to reset your password, please contact [email protected] to reactivate your account, quoting error code UACC/DEL You registered with F1000 via Google, so we cannot reset your password. If you still need help with your Google account password, please click here . You registered with F1000 via Facebook, so we cannot reset your password. If you still need help w Continue reading >>

Consumption Of A Mango Fruit Powder Protects Mice From High-fat Induced Insulin Resistance And Hepatic Fat Accumulation

Consumption Of A Mango Fruit Powder Protects Mice From High-fat Induced Insulin Resistance And Hepatic Fat Accumulation

Abstract Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the beneficial effects of mango fruit powder on the early metabolic adverse effects of a high-fat diet. Methods: The progressive dose-response effects of mango fruit powder on body composition, circulating parameters, and the expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation and insulin sensitivity in key tissues were studied in mice fed a moderate (45%) high-fat diet. Results: Findings suggest that mango fruit powder exerts physiological protective effects in the initial steps of insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation induced by a high-fat diet in mice. Moreover, AMPK and SIRT1 appear as key regulators of the observed improvement in fatty acid oxidation capacity, as well as of the improved insulin sensitivity and the increased glucose uptake and metabolism through the glycolytic pathway capacity in liver and skeletal muscle. Conclusion: In summary, this study provides evidence that the functional food ingredient (CarelessTM) from mango fruit prevents early metabolic alterations caused by a high-fat diet in the initial stages of the metabolic syndrome. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel Introduction Dysregulated glucose and lipid metabolism and, thus, energy homeostasis are early events in the development of insulin resistance, which in turn may lead to obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. The overall prevalence of insulin resistance in developed societies is high, with 11.5-14.0% of the European population [1], 20% of adults in Japan [2], and nearly 30% of adult Americans [3] being afflicted. The insensitivity of peripheral tissues to the effects of insulin starts when the nutrient storage metabolic pathways are exposed to persistent energy excess, surpassin Continue reading >>

Ethanol Extract From Ulva Prolifera Prevents High-fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistance, Oxidative Stress, And Inflammation Response In Mice

Ethanol Extract From Ulva Prolifera Prevents High-fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistance, Oxidative Stress, And Inflammation Response In Mice

Ethanol Extract from Ulva prolifera Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation Response in Mice Wei Song ,1,2 Zongling Wang ,1,2 Xuelei Zhang ,1,2 and Yan Li 1,2 1Key Laboratory of Science and Engineering for Marine Ecology and Environment, The First Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Qingdao 266061, China 2Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266235, China Correspondence should be addressed to Zongling Wang ; [email protected] Received 13 November 2017; Accepted 17 December 2017; Published 3 January 2018 Copyright 2018 Wei Song et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Ulva prolifera is the major causative species in the green tide, a serious marine ecological disaster, which bloomed in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea of China. However, it is also a popular edible seaweed and its extracts exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The present study investigated the effects of ethanol extract of U. prolifera (EUP) on insulin sensitivity, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress in high-fat-diet- (HFD-) treated mice. HFD-treated mice obtained drinking water containing 2% or 5% EUP. The results showed that EUP supplementation significantly prevented HFD-induced weight gain of liver and fat. EUP supplementation also improved glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD-treated mice. Moreover, EUP supplementation prevented the increased expression of genes involved in triglyceride synthesis and proinflammatory genes and the decreased expression of genes Continue reading >>

High Fat Diet Induced Insulin Resistance And Elevated Retinol Binding Protein 4 In Female Rats; Treatment And Protection With Berberis Vulgaris Extract And Vitamin A

High Fat Diet Induced Insulin Resistance And Elevated Retinol Binding Protein 4 In Female Rats; Treatment And Protection With Berberis Vulgaris Extract And Vitamin A

Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.26, No.6, November 2013, pp.1189-1195 1189 High fat diet induced insulin resistance and elevated retinol binding protein 4 in female rats; treatment and protection with Berberis Mohamed Mohammed El-Sayed1, Doaa Ahmad Ghareeb1*, Heba Allah Talat1 1Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt 2Protein Research Department, Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (GEBRI), SRTA City, Borg Al-Arab, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Abstract: This research was conducted to investigate two main aims; the first aim was to find if there is a relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4). The second aim was to use berberis vulgaris extract and vitamin A as protective and/or curative agents against insulin resistance. IR was developed by feeding the female rats a high fat diet (HFD) for six weeks then treating or protecting them with b. vulgaris extract (0.2 g/Kg body weight) or vitamin A (12.8g/Kg/day) for two weeks. Results: HFD intake elevated insulin level and RBP4 expression that associated with hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Co-administration of vitamin A and B. vulgaris extracts reduced blood glucose level, insulin, body weight and RBP4 expression before, during and after HFD. Furthermore, vitamin A reduced the blood glucose, triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol levels. IR syndrome associated with the RBP 4 alteration that gives high indication about the role of RBP4 expression in the IR progression and development. Furthermore, the treatment with vitamin A and/or b. vulgaris alleviated the IR syndrome through the action on RBP4 and Insulin secretion. On the other hand, vitamin A must be avoided for the predisposed IR and prediabetic patients. Keywords: I Continue reading >>

Stevioside Ameliorates High-fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistan..|inis

Stevioside Ameliorates High-fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistan..|inis

[en]Highlights: Stevioside ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. Stevioside alleviates the adipose tissue inflammation. Stevioside reduces macrophages infiltration into the adipose tissue. Stevioside suppresses the activation of NF-B in the adipose tissue. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence suggests that adipose tissue is the main source of pro-inflammatory molecules that predispose individuals to insulin resistance. Stevioside (SVS) is a widely used sweetener with multiple beneficial effects for diabetic patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of SVS on insulin resistance and the pro-inflammatory state of adipose tissue in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). Oral administration of SVS for 1 month had no effect on body weight, but it significantly improved fasting glucose, basal insulin levels, glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, these changes were accompanied with decreased expression levels of several inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue, including TNF-, IL6, IL10, IL1, KC, MIP-1, CD11b and CD14. Moreover, macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue was remarkably reduced by SVS. Finally, SVS significantly suppressed the nuclear factor-kappa b (NF-B) signaling pathway in adipose tissue. Collectively, these results suggested that SVS may ameliorate insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice by attenuating adipose tissue inflammation and inhibiting the NF-B pathway. Continue reading >>

Inflammation Is Necessary For Long-term But Not Short-term High-fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistance

Inflammation Is Necessary For Long-term But Not Short-term High-fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistance

Inflammation is necessary for long-term but not short-term high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance OBJECTIVE Tissue inflammation is a key factor underlying insulin resistance in established obesity. Several models of immuno-compromised mice are protected from obesity-induced insulin resistance. However, it is unanswered whether inflammation triggers systemic insulin resistance or vice versa in obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess these questions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to wild-type mice and three different immuno-compromised mouse models (lymphocyte-deficient Rag1 knockout, macrophage-depleted, and hematopoietic cell-specific Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase-deficient mice) and measured the time course of changes in macrophage content, inflammatory markers, and lipid accumulation in adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle along with systemic insulin sensitivity. RESULTS In wild-type mice, body weight and adipose tissue mass, as well as insulin resistance, were clearly increased by 3 days of HFD. Concurrently, in the short-term HFD period inflammation was selectively elevated in adipose tissue. Interestingly, however, all three immuno-compromised mouse models were not protected from insulin resistance induced by the short-term HFD. On the other hand, lipid content was markedly increased in liver and skeletal muscle at day 3 of HFD. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that the initial stage of HFD-induced insulin resistance is independent of inflammation, whereas the more chronic state of insulin resistance in established obesity is largely mediated by macrophage-induced proinflammatory actions. The early-onset insulin resistance during HFD feeding is more likely related to acute tissue lipid overload. OBJECTIVE Tissue inflammation i Continue reading >>

Osteopontin Knockout Abates High Fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistance And Adipose Tissue Inflammation

Osteopontin Knockout Abates High Fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistance And Adipose Tissue Inflammation

Osteopontin knockout abates high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation In recent years type 2 diabetes has been shown to consist of not only insulin resistance of insulin target tissues (muscle, adipose tissue, and liver) but inflammation of adipose tissue as well. This inflammatory state is characterized by increased macrophage infiltration and pro -inflammatory cytokine expression. Given the known pro- inflammatory roles of osteopontin in many pathological states in addition to its cell migration enhancing properties, osteopontin was examined for its effect on diet-induced obesity. Osteopontin knockout mice exhibited increased liver insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp after two and 16 weeks on high fat diet compared to the wild type mice. Increased muscle insulin sensitivity was also observable after two weeks on diet by clamp in the knockout mice. Enhanced insulin signaling in muscle, adipose tissue, and liver, assessed by Akt phosphorylation, was also observed in the osteopontin knockout mice versus the wild type mice after high fat feeding, indicating attenuated insulin resistance. Osteopontin knockout mice also showed diminished adipose tissue hypertrophy, triple-positive pro-inflammatory cell infiltration into adipose tissue, and inflammatory cytokine expression, indicating less inflammation of the adipose tissue after short-term high fat diet. Total osteopontin expression as well as differential isomeric expression of it in the adipose tissue was observed to increase after high-fat diet in wild type mice, further implicating its role in inflammation of the adipose tissue. Osteopontin appears to mediate the effects of short- and long-term diet-induced obesity in a cytokine- like manner, leading to localized infl Continue reading >>

P24sucrose- And High Fat-induced Insulin Resistance Leads To Endothelial Dysfunction And Is Associated With Ketohexokinase Activation | Heart

P24sucrose- And High Fat-induced Insulin Resistance Leads To Endothelial Dysfunction And Is Associated With Ketohexokinase Activation | Heart

P24 Sucrose- and high fat-induced insulin resistance leads to endothelial dysfunction and is associated with ketohexokinase activation P24 Sucrose- and high fat-induced insulin resistance leads to endothelial dysfunction and is associated with ketohexokinase activation 1Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, Leeds Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, LIGHT Laboratories, University of Leeds, Clarendon Way, Leeds, UK 2Leeds Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Wellcome Trust Brenner Building (level 9), St Jamess University Hospital, Beckett Street, Leeds, UK Introduction Cardiovascular diseases affect an increasing number of people and are one of the major causes of mortality. Over-consumption of fructose, widely used in soft drinks, compromises normal insulin transduction pathways, leading to impaired insulin signalling. Fructose is mainly metabolised by the enzyme ketohexokinase (KHK) in the liver. However, the mechanism underlying fructose-induced insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the role of KHK in mediating these effects. Methods C57/BL6 mice were fed with three different diets for 20 weeks, namely low-fat (LFD), high-fat (HFD) and high-fat supplemented with sucrose (HFHS). Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were carried out after 5th, 11th and 16th weeks. Levels of various proteins were assessed by Western blotting. Endothelial function was analysed by measuring isometric tensions in organ bath set-ups. Results Glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity were decreased after 5, 11 and 16 weeks of HFHS diet. Moreover, fasting glucose and plasma insulin levels of HFHS mice were increased compared to LFD and HFD. IR-beta expression and IRS-1 levels were decreased in HFD and HFHS. Continue reading >>

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