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High Fat Diet And Insulin Resistance

The Connection Between Insulin Resistance And The High-carb, Low-fat Diet

The Connection Between Insulin Resistance And The High-carb, Low-fat Diet

Dr. Tim Noakes, a well-respected scientist, researcher, physician and professor at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, is one of the world’s foremost experts on low-carb diets Legal action was taken to strip him of his medical license for promoting the low-carb diet. It’s the first time in history that a diet has been put before a legal jury to decide whether or not it’s correct A low-carb, high-fat diet is crucial for preventing or reversing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; treating type 2 diabetes with insulin is one of the worst mistakes you can make By Dr. Mercola Dr. Tim Noakes, a well-respected scientist, researcher, physician and professor at the Division of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, is one of the world's foremost experts on low-carb diets. In fact, he was instrumental in getting the low-carb diet revolution off the ground. He's also an accomplished athlete. As a long-distance endurance runner with 70 marathons under his belt, he had long promoted high-carb diets, himself consuming 400 grams of carbs a day or more when preparing for a race. Eventually, he discovered this wasn't the best way to improve athletic endurance and health, and ended up writing a number of popular books on low-carb diets. From High to Low Carb Noakes graduated from medical school in 1974. At the time, he was also running, and this was when the high carbohydrate diet really started to become popularized. Following the advice of one of his professors at the cardiology unit where he worked, he changed to a high-carb diet and began promoting it in his writings, including the book, "Lore of Running," which was widely read. "There it says that you must eat lots of carbohydrates for both health and performance. I contin Continue reading >>

36 How To Become Insulin Resistant (the Paleo Way) 2

36 How To Become Insulin Resistant (the Paleo Way) 2

My channel viewers are well familiar with the famous old experiment that placed two men, Vilhjalmur Stefansson and Karsten Andersson, on a diet entirely composed of meat for a whole year. This is a low carber favorite because a superficial reading of the summary from this experiment stated that the meaty dieters got through their year just fine. I think very few low carbers have read this other paper about that crazy experiment. By the end of their year of meat and fat, Andersson had sugar in his urine. (NOTE: Glycosuria was measured following a test meal.) Sugar in the urine is an indicator of uncontrolled diabetes. This should cause sugar-obsessed low carbers to do some soul searching because these men consumed only meat. There wasn't a single speck of flour or sugar in their diets that could be scapegoated for this. Even worse for the low carbers, Andersson's urine returned to normal after he resumed eating carbs. This graph shows you what happened to Andersson's blood sugar. The top line represents his blood sugar (in response to an oral glucose challenge) while eating only meat. The bottom line shows his lower blood sugar (in response to the same challenge) after he resumed eating carbs. One of the journal accounts of this experiment, which you won't find online, also described the glucose intolerance induced by all that meat and fat. They had a “high sustained level of blood sugar” after a glucose tolerance test, this says. This makes sense in the context of other research on protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism. This very interesting study from 2011 by Martin Weickert and colleagues compared diets that were formulated to match each other except with regard to protein content. One test diet was high-carb, the other high-protein. Weickert found that the hi Continue reading >>

High Amounts Of Fat May Improve Insulin Sensitivity – New Study

High Amounts Of Fat May Improve Insulin Sensitivity – New Study

Studies show that calorie-reduced diets improve insulin sensitivity, regardless of their fat content. However, it’s unclear if this is due to the composition of the diet or weight loss. For this reason, a group of scientists compared the effects of high- and low-fat diets, while maintaining stable weight. Below is a review of their findings, published in the European Journal of Nutrition. BACKGROUND Insulin sensitivity refers to how sensitive the body is to the effects of insulin. Low insulin sensitivity, also known as insulin resistance, means the body doesn’t respond to insulin efficiently. This adverse condition characterizes type 2 diabetes and can lead to abnormally high blood sugar after meals. It’s unclear exactly what causes insulin resistance, but several studies have examined how diet composition affects insulin sensitivity. Two short-term studies compared the effects of diets high in fat (50–55% of calories) and low in fat (20–25% of calories) on insulin sensitivity. They found no significant differences in insulin sensitivity between diets. Another study in older individuals showed that a 4-week, high-fat diet (42% of calories), high in saturated fat (24% of calories), did not cause significant changes in insulin sensitivity. What’s more, an 11-day study found that a very-high-fat diet (83% of calories) had no effects on insulin sensitivity, compared to a diet that contained no fat. However, the evidence is not entirely conclusive. Some studies indicate that low-fat diets may improve insulin sensitivity. In short, it seems that eating high amounts of fat does not increase your risk of becoming insulin resistant, but more research is needed. ARTICLE REVIEWED Researchers from the University of Washington in the US compared the effects of a very hig Continue reading >>

Nutrients | Free Full-text | Bovine -lactalbumin Hydrolysates (-lah) Ameliorate Adipose Insulin Resistance And Inflammation In High-fat Diet-fed C57bl/6j Mice

Nutrients | Free Full-text | Bovine -lactalbumin Hydrolysates (-lah) Ameliorate Adipose Insulin Resistance And Inflammation In High-fat Diet-fed C57bl/6j Mice

Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 242; doi: 10.3390/nu10020242 Bovine -Lactalbumin Hydrolysates (-LAH) Ameliorate Adipose Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Fed C57BL/6J Mice Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, Key Laboratory of Functional Dairy, Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 27 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018 Obesity-induced adipose inflammation has been demonstrated to be a key cause of insulin resistance. Peptides derived from bovine -lactalbumin have been shown to inhibit the activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), scavenge 2,2-azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate] (ABTS+) radical and stimulate glucagon-like peptide-2 secretion. In the present study, the effects of bovine -lactalbumin hydrolysates (-LAH) on adipose insulin resistance and inflammation induced by high-fat diet (HFD) were investigated. The insulin resistance model was established by feeding C57BL/6J mice with HFD (60% kcal from fat) for eight weeks. Then, the mice were fed with HFD and bovine -LAH of different doses (100 mg/kg b.w., 200 mg/kg b.w. and 400 mg/kg b.w.) for another 12 weeks to evaluate its protective effects against HFD-induced insulin resistance. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (ipITT) were conducted after intervention with -LAH for 1 Continue reading >>

Low-carb Diet Vs. Low-fat Diet

Low-carb Diet Vs. Low-fat Diet

How Jessica Increased Her Insulin Sensitivity by 25x in 6 Months by Transitioning to a Low-Fat Diet Since the time she was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in 1996, she has worked hard to follow a strict low-carb diet, in order to control her blood glucose to the best of her ability. Over the course of time however, she found that no matter how few carbohydrate-rich foods she ate, her blood glucose was quite challenging to control. Searching for an easier approach to managing diabetes, Jessica adopted a low-carb diet in 2015. On her low-carb diet, she reduced her total carbohydrate intake to approximately 20 grams per day, hoping that it would give her tight blood glucose control. Following this low-carb diet, Jessica's blood glucose was chronically elevated. Routinely, when she checked her blood glucose - either before or after a meal - she often saw values in the high 200s or low 300s. To cope with increasing insulin requirements , Jessicas doctor recommended starting 1000 mg of Metformin on a daily basis in addition to basal and bolus insulin. She found her doctors advice quite strange, given that Metformin is often prescribed for people with type 2 diabetes suffering from insulin resistance. Despite this, she followed her doctor's advice and began taking 1000 mg of Metformin per day, desperate for any solution that would help improve her diabetes health. Jessica found herself losing energy rapidly. From the time she woke up in the morning to the time she went to sleep, staying awake seemed increasingly difficult, and exercise was almost entirely out of the question. Jessica knew something was terribly wrong, she just didn't know what to do to improve her health. Enter Low-Fat, Plant-Based, Whole-Food Nutrition While perusing on the Internet, Jessica stumbled across o Continue reading >>

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No two individuals are alike, and at Arivale, we analyze important data sets from your DNA, biomarkers, and lifestyle to identify a dietary plan that will best serve you and your goals. One of the dietary strategies an Arivale Coach might recommend is a low-fat, or perhaps specifically a low-saturated-fat, diet. Our members are sometimes surprised about this, saying, “Why would you recommend a low-fat diet? That doesn’t sound very cutting edge.” Low-fat diets—typically considered to be less than 30 percent of calories from fat—have diminished in popularity over the last 20 years, but there may be good scientific reason to question this trend. What the research says. Many decades of research studies—ranging from population studies to clinical trials—have shown that reducing dietary fat, particularly saturated fat, can help reduce risk for cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance, inflammation, obesity, and a number of other conditions. For example, studies show individuals who adopt a low-fat diet for only a few weeks significantly improve insulin resistance, a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes.1,2 Another study of a population with one of the highest diabetes risks in the world—Pima Indians—found those living in Arizona eating a high-fat, low-fiber diet had much higher diabetes rates than genetically identical Pima populations living in the Mexican desert eating a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber diet.3 In terms of cardiovascular disease, while there are many studies of benefits of reducing total and/or saturated fat, Dr. Dean Ornish’s study demonstrating a low-fat diet actually reverses coronary artery atherosclerosis is perhaps the most profound—as few non-drug interventions have been shown to have this strong an effect.4 More re Continue reading >>

High-fat Diets Cause Insulin Resistance Despite An Increase In Muscle Mitochondria

High-fat Diets Cause Insulin Resistance Despite An Increase In Muscle Mitochondria

High-fat diets cause insulin resistance despite an increase in muscle mitochondria We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features already built in. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. High-fat diets cause insulin resistance despite an increase in muscle mitochondria Chad R. Hancock, Dong-Ho Han, [...], and John O. Holloszy It has been hypothesized that insulin resistance is mediated by a deficiency of mitochondria in skeletal muscle. In keeping with this hypothesis, high-fat diets that cause insulin resistance have been reported to result in a decrease in muscle mitochondria. In contrast, we found that feeding rats high-fat diets that cause muscle insulin resistance results in a concomitant gradual increase in muscle mitochondria. This adaptation appears to be mediated by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) by fatty acids, which results in a gradual, posttranscriptionally regulated increase in PPAR coactivator 1 (PGC-1) protein expression. Similarly, overexpression of PPAR results in a large increase in PGC-1 protein in the absence of any increase in PGC-1 mRNA. We interpret our findings as evidence that raising free fatty acids results in an increase in mitochondria by activating PPAR, which mediates a posttranscriptional increase in PGC-1. Our findings argue against the concept that insulin resistance is mediated by a deficiency of muscle mitochondria. Keywords: mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial dysfunction, PPAR, skeletal muscle, PGC-1 It has b Continue reading >>

How Does Fat Affect Insulin Resistance And Diabetes?

How Does Fat Affect Insulin Resistance And Diabetes?

According to the Centers for Disease Control, 29 million people in America have diabetes and 86 million have prediabetes. Insulin resistance is recognized as a predictor of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and obesity. But what causes insulin resistance? In this NutritionFacts.org video, Dr. Michael Greger talks about how fat affects insulin resistance, and about how the most effective way to reduce insulin sensitivity is to reduce fat intake. We’ve also provided a summary of Dr. Greger’s main points below. Insulin Resistance of People on High-Fat Diets vs. High-Carb Diets In studies performed as early as the 1930s, scientists have noted a connection between diet and insulin intolerance. In one study, healthy young men were split into two groups. Half of the participants were put on a fat-rich diet, and the other half were put on a carb-rich diet. The high-fat group ate olive oil, butter, mayonnaise, and cream. The high-carb group ate pastries, sugar, candy, bread, baked potatoes, syrup, rice, and oatmeal. Within two days, tests showed that the glucose intolerance had skyrocketed in the group eating the high-fat diet. This group had twice the blood sugar levels than the high-carb group. The test results showed that the higher the fat content of the diet, the higher the blood sugar levels would be. What Is Insulin Resistance? It turns out that as the amount of fat in the diet goes up, so does one’s blood sugar spikes. Athletes frequently carb-load before a race because they’re trying to build up fuel in their muscles. We break down starch into glucose in our digestive tract; it circulates as blood glucose (blood sugar); and it is then used by our muscle cells as fuel. Blood sugar, though, is like a vampire. It needs an invitation to enter our cells. And that invit Continue reading >>

What Causes Insulin Resistance?

What Causes Insulin Resistance?

Michael: You wrote: ” Part of the question in my mind are the relative benefits of higher HDL vs lower LDL; a topic I would love to see taken up on a NF video.” I have suggested that this be a topic of future videos. In the meantime, below is some information I’ve gathered about HDL which may be helpful to you. . **************** I am not an expert on the topic of HDL, but some of my favorite NutritionFacts forum members and some experts have had a thing or two to say on the matter. BOTTOM LINE: I synthesize the information below to mean we do not need to worry about HDL levels or HDL falling in the context of a whole plant food based diet, when LDL goes down or is already at a healthy level. . In other words, if you have high/unsafe cholesterol levels (total and LDL) overall, then also having high HDL can be protective (especially if you got that high HDL through exercise or some other healthy behavior rather than diet). But in the face of healthy LDL levels, the HDL level doesn’t seem to matter. I may be wrong about this, but see what you think. ************************************ . First, check out the following article from heart health expert Dean Ornish. He does a great job of explaining the role of HDL and when we need to worry about it’s levels vs when we do not. “A low HDL in the context of a healthy low-fat diet has a very different prognostic significance than a low HDL in someone eating a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet.” . Two of our more knowledgable forum particpants, Gatherer and Darryl, have put together for us some of the strongest evidence–a list of good studies. Gatherer wrote (from comment ) : . “”Don’t put too much stock in HDL levels. Here is a news release “Raising ‘good’ cholesterol doesn’t protect against heart di Continue reading >>

High Fat Diet Induces Brain Insulin Resistance And Cognitive Impairment In Mice

High Fat Diet Induces Brain Insulin Resistance And Cognitive Impairment In Mice

Volume 1863, Issue 2 , February 2017, Pages 499-508 High fat diet induces brain insulin resistance and cognitive impairment in mice Consumption of high fat diet and sugary drink (HFS) leads to abnormal metabolic phenotype in mice Feeding of HFS also leads to impairment of brain insulin signaling linked with neuroinflammation. Insulin resistant due to HFS associated with biochemical changes in markers related with Alzheimer disease pathology. High fat diet-induced obesity is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and other chronic, diet related illnesses, including dementia. Alzheimer disease is the most common form of dementia, and is characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in brain. This study was designed to determine whether diet-induced changes in peripheral insulin sensitivity could contribute to alterations in brain insulin signaling and cognitive functions. Six week old, male C57BL/6NHsd mice were randomly assigned a high fat diet (40% energy from fat) with 42g/L liquid sugar (HFS) added to the drinking water or a normal chow diet (12% energy from fat) for 14weeks. Metabolic phenotypes were characterized for energy expenditure, physical activity, and food intake, and glucose and insulin tolerance tests. In addition, we examined the changes in protein expression related to brain insulin signaling and cognitive function. Mice fed HFS exhibited a statistically significant increase in obesity, and lower glucose and insulin tolerance as compared to animals fed the normal chow diet. In brain, HFS elicited IR as evidenced by a significant decrease in tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor and an increase serine phosphorylation of IRS-1. These changes were accompanied by inflammatory (NFB, JNK) and stress responses (p38 MAPK, Continue reading >>

Fat Is Not The Cause Of Insulin Resistance

Fat Is Not The Cause Of Insulin Resistance

Fat Is NOT the Cause of Insulin Resistance Our Educational Content is Not Meant or Intended for Medical Advice or Treatment Fat is NOT the Cause of Insulin Resistance There isn't a relationship between eating saturated fats and diabetes. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugars and lowers it. In the presence of insulin, you are not going to burn fat and it causes fat to be stored. Insulin resistance is different. As insulin connects to the cell, the cell does not absorb it anymore it blocks it. On the other side of the cell you have low insulin and the cell is starving of: Which then sends a signal back to produce more insulin. People with insulin resistance have 5 to 7 times more insulin than normal people. So many people have insulin resistance and dont even know it because it takes 10 years for it to develop it. It causes a stubborn belly fat and a fatty liver which cause insulin resistance. It's a huge ugly cycle. Guru's Give False Information About Diabetes There are gurus out there pushing this avoidance of saturated fats. Joslin Diabetes Center have 5 Myths on a section of their website that are bogus information.Some of the things they write as "Myths" are actualy true and what they report as "Facts" are way off. The following is from Joslin Diabete Center website under 'Diabetes and Nutrition': 5 Common Myths with People with Diabetes Debunked 1. People with diabetes have to eat different from their family, right? (Myth) "Fact: People with diabetes can eat the same foods their family eat. The Truth: Of course people with diabetes have to eat differently than their family. What if the family are eating sugar? 2. People with diabetes should never give in to food cravings. (Myth) Facts: If a craving does occur let yourself have a small taste of whatever y Continue reading >>

What Causes Insulin Resistance? Lipid Overload

What Causes Insulin Resistance? Lipid Overload

Over the past year I have interacted with hundreds of people with diabetes, and have come to learn one very important lesson that has changed my view of diabetes altogether. This realization came to me early on in my career as a nutrition and fitness coach for people with diabetes, and continues to hold true. While insulin resistance is a condition that is most commonly associated with type 2 diabetes, an increasing body of evidence is now shedding light on the fact that insulin resistance is a common thread that underlies many health conditions previously unassociated with blood sugar, including (but not limited to) heart disease, diabetes, atherosclerosis, the metabolic syndrome, obesity and cancer. What that means is simple: insulin resistance significantly increases your risk for the development of a collection of health conditions that can significantly reduce your quality of life and decrease your life expectancy. Watch this video for a synopsis of the causes of insulin resistance: What is insulin and why should you care? Insulin is a hormone which is released by the pancreas in response to rising blood glucose. When you consume carbohydrates, the glucose that enters the bloodstream knocks on the door of the beta cells in the pancreas as a signal to make insulin. Insulin serves as the key that unlocks the door to allow glucose to enter body tissues. Insulin tells your cells “Yoo hoo! Pick up this glucose. It’s all over the place.” Without insulin, cells in the liver, muscle, and fat have a difficult time vacuuming up glucose from the blood. These tissues are capable to vacuuming up only a small percentage (5-10%) of the glucose in circulation without the help of insulin. When insulin is present, the amount of glucose that can be transported into tissues sign Continue reading >>

Estrogens Protect Against High-fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistance And Glucose Intolerance In Mice

Estrogens Protect Against High-fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistance And Glucose Intolerance In Mice

Estrogens Protect against High-Fat Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance and Glucose Intolerance in Mice Team 9 (E.R., H.C., J.-F.A., P.G.), Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) Unite 858 et Universite de Toulouse, Institut de Medecine Moleculaire de Rangueil, Institut Federatif de Recherche (IFR) 31, Toulouse, France Department of Team 2 (E.R., A.W., R.B.), INSERM Unite 858, Institut de Medecine Moleculaire de Rangueil, IFR31, 31432 Toulouse, France Search for other works by this author on: Department of Team 2 (E.R., A.W., R.B.), INSERM Unite 858, Institut de Medecine Moleculaire de Rangueil, IFR31, 31432 Toulouse, France Search for other works by this author on: Team 9 (E.R., H.C., J.-F.A., P.G.), Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) Unite 858 et Universite de Toulouse, Institut de Medecine Moleculaire de Rangueil, Institut Federatif de Recherche (IFR) 31, Toulouse, France Search for other works by this author on: Team 9 (E.R., H.C., J.-F.A., P.G.), Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) Unite 858 et Universite de Toulouse, Institut de Medecine Moleculaire de Rangueil, Institut Federatif de Recherche (IFR) 31, Toulouse, France Search for other works by this author on: Department of Team 2 (E.R., A.W., R.B.), INSERM Unite 858, Institut de Medecine Moleculaire de Rangueil, IFR31, 31432 Toulouse, France Search for other works by this author on: Team 9 (E.R., H.C., J.-F.A., P.G.), Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) Unite 858 et Universite de Toulouse, Institut de Medecine Moleculaire de Rangueil, Institut Federatif de Recherche (IFR) 31, Toulouse, France Service de Diabetologie (P.G.), Pole Cardio-Vasculaire et Metabolique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d Continue reading >>

A High-fat, Ketogenic Diet Causes Hepatic Insulin Resistance In Mice, Despite Increasing Energy Expenditure And Preventing Weight Gain

A High-fat, Ketogenic Diet Causes Hepatic Insulin Resistance In Mice, Despite Increasing Energy Expenditure And Preventing Weight Gain

Go to: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diets (KD) have been suggested to be more effective in promoting weight loss than conventional caloric restriction, whereas their effect on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism and the mechanisms by which they may promote weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to explore the role of KD on liver and muscle insulin sensitivity, hepatic lipid metabolism, energy expenditure, and food intake. Using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, we studied insulin action in mice fed a KD or regular chow (RC). Body composition was assessed by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Despite being 15% lighter (P < 0.001) than RC-fed mice because of a 17% increase in energy expenditure (P < 0.001), KD-fed mice manifested severe hepatic insulin resistance, as reflected by decreased suppression (0% vs. 100% in RC-fed mice, P < 0.01) of endogenous glucose production during the clamp. Hepatic insulin resistance could be attributed to a 350% increase in hepatic diacylglycerol content (P < 0.001), resulting in increased activation of PKCε (P < 0.05) and decreased insulin receptor substrate-2 tyrosine phosphorylation (P < 0.01). Food intake was 56% (P < 0.001) lower in KD-fed mice, despite similar caloric intake, and could partly be attributed to a more than threefold increase (P < 0.05) in plasma N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine concentrations. In conclusion, despite preventing weight gain in mice, KD induces hepatic insulin resistance secondary to increased hepatic diacylglycerol content. Given the key role of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the development of type 2 diabetes and the widespread use of KD for the treatment of obesity, these results may have potentially important clinical implications. Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liv Continue reading >>

What's The Mechanism Behind High Fat Diet Model That Causes Insulin Resistance?

What's The Mechanism Behind High Fat Diet Model That Causes Insulin Resistance?

Krista's reference relates to LDL receptor metabolism so don't think that answers the question. Birgitte's article looks like it might speak to the various issues being considered but I only have access to the abstract at present (which only tells me what the article will tell me). It makes physiologic sense however that when lipids are prevalent in the bloodstream, they will be used preferentially as fuel and will signal the cells to reduce their glucose transport and metabolism thus resulting in insulin resistance. Should be a straightforward feedback loop. Samuel VT, Petersen KF, Shulman GI. Lipid-induced insulin resistance: unravelling the mechanism.Lancet. 2010 Jun 26;375(9733):2267-77. Lipids impaired insulin-stimulated glucose use by muscles through inhibition of glycolysis at key points. However, work over the past two decades has shown that lipid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle stems from defects in insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity. The steatotic liver is also resistant to insulin in terms of inhibition of hepatic glucose production and stimulation of glycogen synthesis. In muscle and liver, the intracellular accumulation of lipids-namely, diacylglycerol-triggers activation of novel protein kinases C with subsequent impairments in insulin signalling. This unifying hypothesis accounts for the mechanism of insulin resistance in obesity, type 2 diabetes, lipodystrophy, and ageing; and the insulin-sensitising effects of thiazolidinediones Afonso et al British J Nutrition 2010, 104, 1450-1459 showed that a high fat diet caused reductionof meal-induced insulin sensitization (MIS) that progressed with duration of the diet and correlated with obesity. MIS is seen as a dramatic potentiation of the hypoglycemic effect of insulin pulses after a Continue reading >>

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