High Anion Gap Acidosis

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Anion gap usmle - anion gap metabolic acidosis normal anion gap metabolic acidosis

Clinical Aspects Of The Anion Gap

The anion gap (AG) is a calculated parameter derived from measured serum/plasma electrolyte concentrations. The clinical value of this calculated parameter is the main focus of this article. Both increased and reduced anion gap have clinical significance, but the deviation from normal that has most clinical significance is increased anion gap associated with metabolic acidosis. This reflects the main clinical utility of the anion gap, which is to help in elucidating disturbances of acid-base balance. The article begins with a discussion of the concept of the anion gap, how it is calculated and issues surrounding the anion gap reference interval. CONCEPT OF THE ANION GAP - ITS DEFINITION AND CALCULATION Blood plasma is an aqueous (water) solution containing a plethora of chemical species including some that have a net electrical charge, the result of dissociation of salts and acids in the aqueous medium. Those that have a net positive charge are called cations and those with a net negative charge are called anions; collectively these electrically charged species are called ions. The law of electrochemical neutrality demands that, in common with all solutions, blood serum/plasma is e Continue reading >>

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  1. 2 answers

    How many grams of sugar will kick you out of ketosis?

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    sophisticated step. browse using yahoo or google. this can assist!

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More at Dr M. Hanna website http://www.drmhanna.com http://www.mhannamd.com

Medical Mnemonics: Causes Of Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis – “gold Mark”

The classic mnemonic often used to remember the causes of anion gap metabolic acidosis is “MUDPILES” M – Methanol U – Uremia D – Diabetic ketoacidosis P – Propylene Glycol I – Isoniazid L – Lactic Acidosis E – Ethylene Glycol S – Salicylates More recently a new mnemonic has been suggested to update new our understanding of anion-gap generating acids. The updated mnemonic “GOLD MARK” was proposed in a 2008 article in The Lancet. G – Glycols (ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) O – Oxoproline L – L-Lactate D – D-Lactate M – Methanol A – Aspirin R – Renal Failure K – Ketoacidosis As medicine evolves, so do our Mnemonics. This is the fifth medical mnemonic in our series of Monday Mnemonics. Continue reading >>

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  1. tereolivia

    Should my heart palpitations worry me?

    I was recently diagnosed with diabetes type 2. I've been dealing with heart palpitations for years. I took tests (as a teen) and my heart came out normal. They told me not to worry about it. This past year I developed a cough when I laugh or overexert myself. The cough has gone away within two weeks of exercise. But I still feel breathless at times. But oddly enough I only feel breathless when I become aware of my breathing. I've had dizzy spells, but nothing major. I don't know if it's anxiety.
    My mother passed away from cancer last year and we rushed her to the hospital because she couldn't breathe. I'm now afraid of not being able to breathe.
    I asked my doctor to do a heart test and he said he'd do one when I go back in a month to check how stable my sugar has been.
    Edit: fixed autocorrect errors

  2. furball64801

    Since were not heart docs maybe schedule with a specialist I have had that off an on for50 yrs and passed all tests.

  3. AnnieP

    Definitely check with the doctor. Heart palpitations can be caused by all sorts of things, some bad, some neutral. Best to get it checked out and know for sure.

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Inspired by Dr. Myat Soe, MD Internal Medicine Series: Clinical Clerkships Overview and Causes of Non-Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis Made with help of Blueberry Flashback Recorder

Treatment Of Acute Non-anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis

Acute non-anion gap metabolic acidosis, also termed hyperchloremic acidosis, is frequently detected in seriously ill patients. The most common mechanisms leading to this acid–base disorder include loss of large quantities of base secondary to diarrhea and administration of large quantities of chloride-containing solutions in the treatment of hypovolemia and various shock states. The resultant acidic milieu can cause cellular dysfunction and contribute to poor clinical outcomes. The associated change in the chloride concentration in the distal tubule lumen might also play a role in reducing the glomerular filtration rate. Administration of base is often recommended for the treatment of acute non-anion gap acidosis. Importantly, the blood pH and/or serum bicarbonate concentration to guide the initiation of treatment has not been established for this type of metabolic acidosis; and most clinicians use guidelines derived from studies of high anion gap metabolic acidosis. Therapeutic complications resulting from base administration such as volume overload, exacerbation of hypertension and reduction in ionized calcium are likely to be as common as with high anion gap metabolic acidosis Continue reading >>

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  1. leeleelee

    I have been water fasting for 4 days so far (my goal is 40 days) but am finding myself a little hungry..
    what types of things can I drink that will not cause me to loose the ketosis I am in?

  2. givemehipbones_

    Story if this sounds dumb but what is ketosis?

  3. leeleelee

    From what I understand It's a state where your body burns excess fat for fuel and not muscle or any other foods that you have recently eaten... usually occurs during fasting!!!

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