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Glycogen Is The Storage Form Of Glucose In Plants True Or False

Nutrition- Carbs - Chapter 2

Nutrition- Carbs - Chapter 2

Which sugar is an exception and comes from animals? What is the formula for glucose molecule? Carbs are formed by______in the process of_____? How many kcal per gram do they yield when burned for energy in the body? 3) continue brain and nervous system function while sleeping 4) spare protein from being used for energy 6) provide bulk in the diet ( fiber) and keep us full Which carbs belong to chemical classification of carbs? Monosaccharides and disaccharides belong to simple or complex carbs? Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides belong to simple or complex sugars? What are some food examples of simple sugars? candy , cake, soda, ripe fruit, baked goods Simple sugars are usually bitter in taste. True or false? False. Simple sugars are usually sweet in taste. What are some food examples of complex sugars? whole grains, brown rice, cereal, wheat pasta, legumes, fruits and veggies Which group of carbs ( simple or complex) has more fat and calories and less nutritional value to our body? Which group of carbs has less fat and calories and supplies our body with vitamins, minerals, fiber and water? What are the names of 3 different monosaccharides? thousands of straight- chain glucose molecules branches chains of glucose ; forms a stringy paste when heated How much time of energy does glycogen provides to our body? Is glycogen animal and plant storage of energy? no. glycogen is the animal and human storage form of energy GLycogen is synthesized and stored mainly in...? hundreds of glucose units in a long chain with many branches No. Fiber doesnt break down to smaller units during digestion Found exclusively in plants giving them its structure 1)Soluble fiber - functional - dissolves in water 2) Insoluble fiber - dietary - doesnt dissolve in water - dissolves in water and fo Continue reading >>

Complex Carbohydrates Are Formed By Linkage Of Monosaccharides

Complex Carbohydrates Are Formed By Linkage Of Monosaccharides

Because sugars contain many hydroxyl groups, glycosidic bonds can join one monosaccharide to another. Oligosaccharides are built by the linkage of two or more monosaccharides by O-glycosidic bonds (Figure 11.10). In maltose, for example, two d-glucose residues are joined by a glycosidic linkage between the α-anomeric form of C-1 on one sugar and the hydroxyl oxygen atom on C-4 of the adjacent sugar. Such a linkage is called an α-1,4-glycosidic bond. The fact that monosaccharides have multiple hydroxyl groups means that various glycosidic linkages are possible. Indeed, the wide array of these linkages in concert with the wide variety of monosaccharides and their many isomeric forms makes complex carbohydrates information-rich molecules. Go to: 11.2.1. Sucrose, Lactose, and Maltose Are the Common Disaccharides A disaccharide consists of two sugars joined by an O-glycosidic bond. Three abundant disaccharides are sucrose, lactose, and maltose (Figure 11.11). Sucrose (common table sugar) is obtained commercially from cane or beet. The anomeric carbon atoms of a glucose unit and a fructose unit are joined in this disaccharide; the configuration of this glycosidic linkage is α for glucose and β for fructose. Sucrose can be cleaved into its component monosaccharides by the enzyme sucrase. Lactose, the disaccharide of milk, consists of galactose joined to glucose by a β-1,4-glycosidic linkage. Lactose is hydrolyzed to these monosaccharides by lactase in human beings (Section 16.1.12) and by β-galactosidase in bacteria. In maltose, two glucose units are joined by an α-1,4 glycosidic linkage, as stated earlier. Maltose comes from the hydrolysis of starch and is in turn hydrolyzed to glucose by maltase. Sucrase, lactase, and maltase are located on the outer surfaces of epith Continue reading >>

Nutrion - Carbohydrates

Nutrion - Carbohydrates

Starch, glycogen, cellulose and most other fibers are what type of carb? Does excess sugar or weight gain cause diabetes? starch is the storage form of glucose in plants; glycogen is the storage form of glucose in animals Where does most of chemical digestions of carbs take place? In what form are carbs absorbed in the small intestine? Glucose is converted to glycogen by what organs? mouthstomachsmall intestinebloodstreamlivercells What type of nutrient is good to eat in the morning so that you feel fuller longer? complex carbs like fiber because they slow down digestion Carbohydrates are your major source of energy during mild or intense exercise? When you are lacking carbs, what does your body use for energy? What is the storage form of carbs in plants? What is the storage form of carbs in animals? Where and by what enzymes are carbs digested? True or False - Carbohydrates are digested in the stomach. Carbs do one of two things when they reach the liver. What are those two things? stored as glycogen, or transformed into glucose and shipped to cells for energy Can galactose be transported to cells for energy? NO. The only form of carbs that our bodies accept for energy is GLUCOSE Where is insulin secreted from and what is its function? beta cells of the pancreas; functions to open gates of cells so that glucose can be moved from the blood into cells when blood glucose levels are high Where is glucagon secreted from and what is its function? alpha cells of the pancreas; functions to transform stored glycogen in the liver into glucose to increase blood glucose levels ranking of foods based on their ability to raise blood glucose levels and raise insulin levels = carbs in a specific food X glycemic index of that food Instant mashed potatoes have quite a high glycemic ind Continue reading >>

Exercise Science 2 Final (true Or False)

Exercise Science 2 Final (true Or False)

Carbohydrates provide 4 kilocalories of energy per gram of food Insulin is a hormone that regulates glucose levels in our blood Carbohydrates is the most effective fuel for the body. Digestion of carbohydrates begins immediately in the mouth with enzymes breaking it down immediately. After absorption by the small intestine, glucose can be used directly by the cell for energy. After absorption by the small intestine, glucose can be stored as glycogen in the muscles and liver. After absorption by the small intestine, glucose provided carbon skeletons to synthesize non-essential amino acids. Fructose is the sweetest of the monosaccharaides. Monosaccharaide and diasaccharides collectively make up the simple sugars. Glucose, fructose, and galactose are simple sugars Three disaccharides are sucrose, lactose, and maltose Sucrose occurs naturally in most foods, particularly beet sugar, cane sugar, maple syrup, and honey Lactose is glucose and galactose, it's often called milk sugar. Maltose occurs un beer, cereals, and germinating seeds. Polysaccharides include plan and animal categories. Starch and fiber represent the 2 most common forms of polysaccharides Starch is found in bread, cereal, spaghetti and pastries. Large amounts also exist in peas, beans, potatoes. Complex carbohydrates refers to dietary starch. Monosacharides and disaccharides are collectively called simple sugars. Carbohydrates serve 3 primary functions related to energy metabolism and exercise performance: 1. Energy source, 2. protein sparer, 3. metabolic primer. When glucose levels fall before normal it is called hypoglycemia. For physically active people, adequate daily carb intake maintains the body's limited glycogen stores. If carb intake exceeds the cell's capacity to store glycogen, it is readily conv Continue reading >>

Glycogen

Glycogen

Schematic two-dimensional cross-sectional view of glycogen: A core protein of glycogenin is surrounded by branches of glucose units. The entire globular granule may contain around 30,000 glucose units.[1] A view of the atomic structure of a single branched strand of glucose units in a glycogen molecule. Glycogen (black granules) in spermatozoa of a flatworm; transmission electron microscopy, scale: 0.3 µm Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans,[2] animals,[3] fungi, and bacteria. The polysaccharide structure represents the main storage form of glucose in the body. Glycogen functions as one of two forms of long-term energy reserves, with the other form being triglyceride stores in adipose tissue (i.e., body fat). In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and skeletal muscle.[2][4] In the liver, glycogen can make up from 5–6% of the organ's fresh weight and the liver of an adult weighing 70 kg can store roughly 100–120 grams of glycogen.[2][5] In skeletal muscle, Glycogen is found in a low concentration (1–2% of the muscle mass) and the skeletal muscle of an adult weighing 70 kg can store roughly 400 grams of glycogen.[2] The amount of glycogen stored in the body—particularly within the muscles and liver—mostly depends on physical training, basal metabolic rate, and eating habits. Small amounts of glycogen are also found in other tissues and cells, including the kidneys, red blood cells,[6][7][8] white blood cells,[medical citation needed] and glial cells in the brain.[9] The uterus also stores glycogen during pregnancy to nourish the embryo.[10] Approximately 4 grams of glucose are present in the blood of humans at all times;[2] in fasted individuals, blood glucos Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates - Glycogen

Carbohydrates - Glycogen

Polysaccharides are carbohydrate polymers consisting of tens to hundreds to several thousand monosaccharide units. All of the common polysaccharides contain glucose as the monosaccharide unit. Polysaccharides are synthesized by plants, animals, and humans to be stored for food, structural support, or metabolized for energy. Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in animals and humans which is analogous to the starch in plants. Glycogen is synthesized and stored mainly in the liver and the muscles. Structurally, glycogen is very similar to amylopectin with alpha acetal linkages, however, it has even more branching and more glucose units are present than in amylopectin. Various samples of glycogen have been measured at 1,700-600,000 units of glucose. The structure of glycogen consists of long polymer chains of glucose units connected by an alpha acetal linkage. The graphic on the left shows a very small portion of a glycogen chain. All of the monomer units are alpha-D-glucose, and all the alpha acetal links connect C # 1 of one glucose to C # 4 of the next glucose. The branches are formed by linking C # 1 to a C # 6 through an acetal linkages. In glycogen, the branches occur at intervals of 8-10 glucose units, while in amylopectin the branches are separated by 12-20 glucose units. Continue reading >>

Ch 5 Carbohydrates Flashcards | Quizlet

Ch 5 Carbohydrates Flashcards | Quizlet

-made by plants from CO2 & H2O using energy from the sun -ideal nutrient to meet your body's needs plants use the sun's energy to combine carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen to form carbohydrates. is the main biological energy storage process. Energy from sunlight is stored in the chemical bonds of glucose. carbon dioxide + water + sunlight glucose + oxygen - stored in a fruit or vegetable or seed or other plant is the biological energy releasing process. Energy stored in the bonds of glucose (and many other molecules) is released to do work in living cells glucose + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water + energy -are the main fuel that cells use for cellular work 1. glucose: primary energy for cells, aka dextrose. not abundant in food (fruits, vegetables, berries, grapes, honey, corn & carrots) 2. fructose: "fruit sugar/levulose" has to be broken down to glucose (fruit, honey HFCS) 3. galactose: part of "milk sugar" lactose, rarely free in foods disaccharides - definition & by what process -Disaccharides are joined by the process of dehydration synthesis Maltose = glucose + glucose "malt sugar", found in germinating seeds & wherever starch is being digested Sucrose = glucose + fructose "table sugar" Lactose = glucose + galactose "milk sugar" sucrose - definition, how is it made & where found - refinement strips away vitamins & minerals -occurs naturally in honey, maple syrup, carrots, sweet fruits such as pineapple - Contribute energy to foods Provide 4 kcal/g -Nutritive sweeteners added during processing or preparation e.g., sucrose and high fructose corn syrup Substances added to a food to sweeten it but provide no or few calories Poorly absorbed and may cause diarrhea Supply 2 kcal/g Intensely-sweet synthetic compounds that sweeten foods without providing kcal - Saccharin, as Continue reading >>

Nutrition True Or False 4

Nutrition True Or False 4

True or False: Consuming the RDA of foods will guarantee the d. deficiency will occur True or False: 3-day dietary recall will give a better representation of a person's normal diet than a 3-day food record True or False: Nutrients classified as conditionally essential are not normally essential, but become so under certain conditions True or False: Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized in the body, therefore, are required in the diet True or False: The term processed food refers to food that is treated to extend storage life or improve taste True or False: An enzyme is made out of protein. Can also join with vitamins to improve function True or False: Micronutrients are always smaller than macronutrients True or False: Plant protein is considered higher quality than animal protein because they have all the essential amino acids in much larger quantities True or False: There are 30 amino acids commonly found in foods True or False: Most of the cholesterol in the body is synthesized in the liver and only a small percentage is obtained in our diet True or False: The average person in the US consumes more fat from plant than from animal True or False: Palmitic acid and oleic acid are the most abundant fatty acids True or False: Fiber makes foo bulky, which increases satiety and can reduce energy intake by 100-200 calories True or False: Glycogen is the storage form of carbohydrate in animals including humans True or False: The glycemic index ranks carbohydrate-rich foods based on their effect on blood glucose levels True or False: Not eating within the hour after exercise can negatively affect long-term exercise performance. Continue reading >>

Storage Forms Of Glucose In Organisms

Storage Forms Of Glucose In Organisms

When carbohydrates from the foods you consume are digested, glucose is the smallest molecule into which a carbohydrate is broken down. Glucose molecules are absorbed from intestinal cells into the bloodstream. The bloodstream then carries the glucose molecules throughout the body. Glucose enters each cell of the body and is used by the cell’s mitochondrion as fuel. Carbohydrates are in nearly every food, not just bread and pasta, which are known for “carbo loading.” Fruits, vegetables, and meats also contain carbohydrates. Any food that contains sugar has carbohydrates. And, most foods are converted to sugars when they are digested. Once an organism has taken in food, the food is digested, and needed nutrients are sent through the bloodstream. When the organism has used all the nutrients it needs to maintain proper functioning, the remaining nutrients are excreted or stored. You store it: Glycogen Animals (including humans) store some glucose in the cells so that it is available for quick shots of energy. Excess glucose is stored in the liver as the large compound called glycogen. Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose, but its structure allows it to pack compactly, so more of it can be stored in cells for later use. If you consume so many extra carbohydrates that your body stores more and more glucose, all your glycogen may be compactly structured, but you no longer will be. Starch it, please: Storing glucose in plants The storage form of glucose in plants is starch. Starch is a polysaccharide. The leaves of a plant make sugar during the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis occurs in light (photo = light), such as when the sun is shining. The energy from the sunlight is used to make energy for the plant. So, when plants are making sugar (for fuel, energy) o Continue reading >>

Why Is Ribose Not A Dietary Consideration

Why Is Ribose Not A Dietary Consideration

Carbohydrates Structures and Function Simple sugars: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides) Complex sugar: polysaccharides (starch and fiber) Monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, and galactose – isomers of each other) Glucose (also called dextrose and blood sugar) has a six carbon (hexose) ring structure Fructose (also called levulose) has a six carbon ring structure Found in fruit, honey, and corn syrup used in soft drink and food production 8 to 10% of our energy intake Metabolized into glucose in the liver Converted into glycogen, lactic acid, or fat if consumption is high Galactose has a six carbon ring structure Not usually found in nature but exists mostly as a unit of the disaccharide lactose which is found in nature Converted to glucose in the liver or stored as glycogen Ribose has a five carbon ring structure and used in genetic material (?) Oligosaccharides Raffinose (trisaccharide - made up of glucose, fructose, and galactose) Stachyose (tetrasaccharide - made up of a glucose, fructose, and two galactose) Bacteria in the large intestines break apart these oligosaccharides, producing gas and other byproducts Complex Cabohydrates (Digestible starch and glycogen and indigestible fiber) Starch Amylose is a straight chain polymer Amylopectin is a branched chain polymer Amylopectin raises blood sugar levels quicker because of the branched configuration which enables more digestive capabilities Fiber Dietary fibers also composed of the non-carbohydrate called lignin All dietary fibers come from plants and are not digested in the stomach But fibers can be soluble and insoluble in water Those that are soluble include pectins, gums, and mucilages and are metabolized by bacteria in the intestines Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption Begins in the mouth (sal Continue reading >>

Bbc - Gcse Bitesize: Photosynthesis

Bbc - Gcse Bitesize: Photosynthesis

Plants make their own food by photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide and water react together in the presence of light and chlorophyll to make glucose and oxygen. The glucose is converted into starch, fats and oils for storage. It is used to make cellulose for cell walls, and proteins for growth and repair. It is also used by the plant to release energy by respiration. Photosynthesis is the chemical change which happens in the leaves of green plants. It is the first step towards making food, not just for plants but ultimately every animal on the planet as well. During this reaction, carbon dioxide and water are converted into glucose and oxygen. The reaction requires light energy, which is absorbed by a green substance called chlorophyll. Photosynthesis takes place in leaf cells. These contain chloroplasts - tiny objects that contain chlorophyll. Here are the equations for photosynthesis: Higher tier only for the following equation Glucose is soluble. It is transported in the plant as soluble sugars but stored as starch - which is insoluble, so it cannot escape from the cells. The stored starch can be turned back into glucose later and used to release energy by respiration. Starch and glucose can also be used by the plant to make: Continue reading >>

Free Unfinished Flashcards About Nutrition Carbs

Free Unfinished Flashcards About Nutrition Carbs

What is the main function of carbs? choose 1fuel and energy, fat, bone strength, muscle tone What is the difference between simple and complex carbs? simple carbs are sugars & complex carbs are starch and fiber Significance of the liver in the digestion of carbs? choose 1, transports carbs through the body, converts sugars, stores sugars The liver converts sugars; fructose and galactose to glucose. If there is an excess of fructose or galactose they are converted to fat. begins in the mouth via saliva, mixes in stomach, enzymes in small intestine breaks down & absorbs, large intestine also absorbs remaining fiber is excreted through feces. When digested where are carbs delivered to? choose 1, muscles, liver, pancreas, gallbladder What happens to the delivered carbs when they reach their destination? enzymes in liver convert carbs to make them usable What are the monosaccharides? choose 3glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, luctose; & where are they found? 1. Glucose- Most abundant2. Fructose- Sugar in fruits3. Galactose- Monosaccharide Galactose comes from milk What are the three kinds of disaccharides?choose 3, luctose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, lactose, galactose; what are they made out of? and found? 1. Lactose- Glucose & Galactose; Milk2. Maltose- Glucose & Glucose; Starch3. Sucrose- Glucose & Fructose; Table Sugar What are three food types simple carbs are found? fruits, chicken, eggs, milk, vegetables, cinnamon What are complex carbohydrates? choose 1,monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides Polysaccharides- which are many sugars strung together What are refined carbs? choose 1, newer, processed, crystalized, harvested, drained Processed- carbs are stripped out of everything but the highly digestible carbohydrate (starch or sugar). What are the three t Continue reading >>

Science At A Distance

Science At A Distance

Read each of the Quick Questions below and write down your answer. When you have finished the test, click on the ANSWERS button and see how well you have done. 1) Macromolecules are the parts used to make biopolymers. (True / False)? 2) Monomers are simple molecules that can be joined together in longer chains or strings. (True / False)? 3) Covalent bonds hold monomers together in biopolymers. (True / False)? 4) In heteropolymers all the monomer units are exactly alike. (True / False)? 5) As two monomer units are joined together a molecule of water is also formed. (True / False)? 6) Lipids and some polysaccharides are examples of homopolymers. (True / False)? 7) Proteins and nucleic acids are examples of homopolymers. (True / False)? 8) Hydrocarbons are found in waxes and fatty acids but not in lipids. (True / False)? 9) Hydrocarbons are found as a component in lipids. (True / False)? 10) All fatty acids have a carboxylic acid reactive group at one end of the hydrocarbon chain. (True / False)? 11) Hydrocarbons are always hydrophilic. (True / False)? 12) Carboxylic acid groups are always hydrophilic. (True / False)? 13) A triglyceride is an example of a neutral lipid. (True / False)? 14) There are two different sugars joined together in a typical monosaccharide molecule. (True / False)? 15) There are two of the same sugars joined together in a typical monosaccharide molecule. (True / False)? 16) A polysaccharide chain can have a single linear chain or a multiply branched chain. (True / False)? 17) Carbohydrates consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratios 2:4:2. (True / False)? 18) Glucose is a disaccharide. (True / False)? 19) Starch is a homopolymer of glucose. (True / False)? 20) Starch is a heteropolymer of glucose. (True / False)? 21) Glycogen is found main Continue reading >>

True Or False Midterm Review - Nutrition Ess 3 Nutrition/health With Art/gilbert At University Of California - Santa Barbara - Studyblue

True Or False Midterm Review - Nutrition Ess 3 Nutrition/health With Art/gilbert At University Of California - Santa Barbara - Studyblue

Glucose is the end product of both simple and complex carbohydrate consumption in humans. Simply stated, glyogen is the stored form of glucose.. Although it is detrimental to long term athletic performance, eating sugar before short term events can improve results. Glucagon stores and releases glucose from or to the blood. Fructose is the sweetest of all sugars, even sweeter than sucrose (table sugar). Fiber provides the individual with few if any calories and is considered nutritionally unimportant People consume very little glycogen, so it is extremely important as the body's storehouse of regularly utilized energy. Even though there are far fewer carbohydrates than fats in the body, carbs are actually more important as a fuel source. There is no RDA for carbs, but they are still essential Complex carbs are long chains of simple carbs. Although fat can be used for energy, the body seems to need more carbs than other fuel sources. Spoon for spoon, sugar contains more calories than honey. Most fibers are made of glucose units that cant be broken by human digestive enzymes. Carbohydrate should be kept available to prevent the use of protein for energy. This is called protein-sparing action of carbs. A source of dietary carbohydrate is needed at intervals throughout the day. Carbs are second only to proteins as a recommended source of energy for the body Although fiber provides no calories to the body, they are still considered complex carbs. The liver is responsible for secreting hormones that control blood glucose levels. Complex carbs include sweeteners and starch. When excess carbs are eaten, the body will continue to store them as glycogen until blood glucose returns to normal. The worst problem with the over consumption of sugar is obesity. The average person shoul Continue reading >>

Nutrition: Ch 4

Nutrition: Ch 4

Sort - Enhances flavor - Supplies texture and color to baked goods - Provides fuel for fermentation, causing break to rise of producing alcohol - Acts as a bulking agent in ice cream and baked goods - Balances the acidity of tomato- and vinegar- based products As an additive, sugar: Table sugar = 2 monosaccharides bonded together as a disaccharide, sucrose whereas in honey some of them are free Both contain glucose and fructose and both end up as glucose and fructose in the body Similarities / differences honey vs table sugar - Limit between-meal juices and snacks containing sugars and starches - Brush with fluoride - Floss - Rinse with water if brushing and flossing are not possible - Routine dental checkups To prevent dental caries: Continue reading >>

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