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Glycerol To Glucose

A Method For The Measurement Of Lactate, Glycerol And Fatty Acid Production From 14c-glucose In Primary Cultures Of Rat Epididymal Adipocytes

A Method For The Measurement Of Lactate, Glycerol And Fatty Acid Production From 14c-glucose In Primary Cultures Of Rat Epididymal Adipocytes

A method for the measurement of lactate, glycerol and fatty acid production from C-glucose in primary cultures of rat epididymal adipocytes A. C. Ho-Palma, F. Rotondo, M. D. M. Romero, S. Memmolo, X. Remesar, J. A. Fernndez-Lpez and M. Alemany, Anal. Methods, 2016,8, 7873 If you are not the author of this article and you wish to reproduce material from it in a third party non-RSC publication you must formally request permission using RightsLink. Go to our Instructions for using RightsLink page for details. Authors contributing to RSC publications (journal articles, books or book chapters) do not need to formally request permission to reproduce material contained in this article provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material. Reproduced material should be attributed as follows: Reproduced from Ref. XX with permission from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and The Royal Society of Chemistry. Reproduced from Ref. XX with permission from the PCCP Owner Societies. Reproduced from Ref. XX with permission from the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and The Royal Society of Chemistry. For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals and books: Reproduced from Ref. XX with permission from The Royal Society of Chemistry. If the material has been adapted instead of reproduced from the original RSC publication "Reproduced from" can be substituted with "Adapted from". In all cases the Ref. XX is the XXth reference in the list of references. If you are the author of this article you do not need to formally request permission to reproduce figures, diagrams etc. contained in this article in third party publications or in a thesis or dissertation provided that the correct acknowledge Continue reading >>

Jci -interstitial Fluid Concentrations Of Glycerol, Glucose, And Amino Acids In Human Quadricep Muscle And Adipose Tissue. Evidence For Significant Lipolysis In Skeletal Muscle.

Jci -interstitial Fluid Concentrations Of Glycerol, Glucose, And Amino Acids In Human Quadricep Muscle And Adipose Tissue. Evidence For Significant Lipolysis In Skeletal Muscle.

Interstitial fluid concentrations of glycerol, glucose, and amino acids in human quadricep muscle and adipose tissue. Evidence for significant lipolysis in skeletal muscle. D G Maggs, , W V Tamborlane, R S Sherwin J Clin Invest. 1995; 96(1) :370-377. . To determine the relationship between circulating metabolic fuels and their local concentrations in peripheral tissues we measured glycerol, glucose, and amino acids by microdialysis in muscle and adipose interstitium of 10 fasted, nonobese human subjects during (a) baseline, (b) euglycemic hyperinsulinemia (3 mU/kg per min for 3 h) and, (c) local norepinephrine reuptake blockade (NOR). At baseline, interstitial glycerol was strikingly higher (P < 0.0001) in muscle (3710 microM) and adipose tissue (2760 microM) compared with plasma (87 microM), whereas interstitial glucose (muscle 3.3, fat 3.6 mM) was lower (P < 0.01) than plasma levels (4.8 mM). Taurine, glutamine, and alanine levels were higher in muscle than in adipose or plasma (P < 0.05). Euglycemic hyperinsulinemia did not affect interstitial glucose, but induced a fall in plasma glycerol and amino acids paralleled by similar changes in the interstitium of both tissues. Local NOR provoked a fivefold increase in glycerol (P < 0.001) and twofold increase in norepinephrine (P < 0.01) in both muscle and adipose tissues. To conclude, interstitial substrate levels in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue differ substantially from those in the circulation and this disparity is most pronounced for glycerol which is raised in muscle as well as adipose tissue. In muscle, insulin suppressed and NOR increased interstitial glycerol concentrations. Our data suggest unexpectedly high rates of [] Continue reading >>

Glucose-to-glycerol Conversion In Long-lived Yeast Provides Anti-aging Effects

Glucose-to-glycerol Conversion In Long-lived Yeast Provides Anti-aging Effects

Cell biologists have found a more filling substitute for caloric restriction in extending the life span of simple organisms. Researchers show that yeast cells maintained on a glycerol diet live twice as long as normal -- as long as yeast cells on a severe caloric-restriction diet. They are also more resistant to cell damage. Cell biologists have found a more filling substitute for caloric restriction in extending the life span of simple organisms. In a study published May 8 in the open-access journal PLoS Genetics, researchers from the University of Southern California Andrus Gerontology Center show that yeast cells maintained on a glycerol diet live twice as long as normal -- as long as yeast cells on a severe caloric-restriction diet. They are also more resistant to cell damage. Many studies have shown that caloric restriction can extend the life span of a variety of laboratory animals. Caloric restriction is also known to cause major improvements in a number of markers for cardiovascular diseases in humans. This study is the first to propose that "dietary substitution" can replace "dietary restriction" in a living species. "If you add glycerol, or restrict caloric intake, you obtain the same effect," said senior author Valter Longo. "It's as good as calorie restriction, yet cells can take it up and utilize it to generate energy or for the synthesis of cellular components." Longo and colleagues Min Wei and Paola Fabrizio introduced a glycerol diet after discovering that genetically engineered long-lived yeast cells that survive up to 5-fold longer than normal have increased levels of the genes that produce glycerol. In fact, they convert virtually all the glucose and ethanol into glycerol. Notably, these cells have a reduced activity in the TOR1/SCH9 pathway, which i Continue reading >>

Production Of Glycerol From Glucose By Coexpressing Glycerol-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase And Glycerol-3-phosphatase In Klebsiella Pneumoniae

Production Of Glycerol From Glucose By Coexpressing Glycerol-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase And Glycerol-3-phosphatase In Klebsiella Pneumoniae

Volume 105, Issue 5 , May 2008, Pages 508-512 Production of glycerol from glucose by coexpressing glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycerol-3-phosphatase in Klebsiella pneumoniae Author links open overlay panel YuZheng LiZhao JianguoZhang HaiyiZhang XingyuanMa DongzhiWei Get rights and content As a valuable chemical, 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) could be biosynthesized by glycerol fermentation. However, no natural microorganisms that could directly convert glucose into 1,3-PD have been found so far. In this work, genes coding for two enzymes, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD, EC 1.1.1.8) and glycerol-3-phosphatase (GPP, EC 3.1.3.21), which were responsible for glycerol production, were organized into the plasmid pUC18K under control of the respective lac promoters. Two recombinant proteins were expressed successfully in wild-type Klebsiella pneumoniae. A glycerol concentration of 6.8 g l1 was obtained in flask culture. When glucose was exhausted, dihydroxyacetone was added and medium pH was adjusted to 7.0, and then a 1,3-PD concentration of 0.58 g l1 was achieved with engineered K. pneumoniae from glucose. Continue reading >>

Glucose Can Be Synthesized From Noncarbohydrate Precursors - Biochemistry - Ncbi Bookshelf

Glucose Can Be Synthesized From Noncarbohydrate Precursors - Biochemistry - Ncbi Bookshelf

Glucose is formed by hydrolysis of glucose 6-phosphate in a reaction catalyzed by glucose 6-phosphatase. We will examine each of these steps in turn. 16.3.2. The Conversion of Pyruvate into Phosphoenolpyruvate Begins with the Formation of Oxaloacetate The first step in gluconeogenesis is the carboxylation of pyruvate to form oxaloacetate at the expense of a molecule of ATP . Then, oxaloacetate is decarboxylated and phosphorylated to yield phosphoenolpyruvate, at the expense of the high phosphoryl-transfer potential of GTP . Both of these reactions take place inside the mitochondria. The first reaction is catalyzed by pyruvate carboxylase and the second by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. The sum of these reactions is: Pyruvate carboxylase is of special interest because of its structural, catalytic, and allosteric properties. The N-terminal 300 to 350 amino acids form an ATP -grasp domain ( Figure 16.25 ), which is a widely used ATP-activating domain to be discussed in more detail when we investigate nucleotide biosynthesis ( Section 25.1.1 ). The C -terminal 80 amino acids constitute a biotin-binding domain ( Figure 16.26 ) that we will see again in fatty acid synthesis ( Section 22.4.1 ). Biotin is a covalently attached prosthetic group, which serves as a carrier of activated CO2. The carboxylate group of biotin is linked to the -amino group of a specific lysine residue by an amide bond ( Figure 16.27 ). Note that biotin is attached to pyruvate carboxylase by a long, flexible chain. The carboxylation of pyruvate takes place in three stages: Recall that, in aqueous solutions, CO2 exists as HCO3- with the aid of carbonic anhydrase (Section 9.2). The HCO3- is activated to carboxyphosphate. This activated CO2 is subsequently bonded to the N-1 atom of the biotin ring to Continue reading >>

Glycerol Is A Major Substrate For Glucose, Glycogen, And Nonessential Amino Acid Synthesis In Late-term Chicken Embryos

Glycerol Is A Major Substrate For Glucose, Glycogen, And Nonessential Amino Acid Synthesis In Late-term Chicken Embryos

The objective was to determine the contributions of glucose to glycogen synthesis and glycerol to glycogen, glucose, and nonessential AA (NEAA) synthesis on embryonic day (e) 14/15 and e19/20. Chicken embryos from small (56.6 0.88 g) and large eggs (71.7 1.09 g) were repeatedly dosed with either [13C3]glycerol (14 mg/d for 4 d) or [13C6]glucose (15 mg/d for 3 d) into the chorio-allantoic fluid before blood and tissue collection. 13C-Mass isotopomer enrichments in blood glucose, liver, and muscle glycogen, and blood and tissue NEAA were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Glucose metabolism did not differ between small- and large-egg embryos. Although glucose entry was 60% less for e20 compared with e15 embryos, e20 embryos conserved glucose more efficiently as a result of 2- to 3-fold greater (P < 0.001) rates of glucose carbon recycling. Importantly, the direct contribution of glucose to liver glycogen synthesis was minimal on e15, and on e20 direct incorporation of glucose into liver glycogen was only 17%. By comparison, [13C3]glycerol dosing led to the appearance of [M + 1], [M + 2], and [M + 3] isotopomers in blood glucose and in liver and muscle glycogen on e14 and e19. Here, the 13C-isotopomer enrichments in blood glucose were ~2-fold greater (P < 0.05) in small- than in large-egg embryos on e14 and e19. Furthermore, [13C3]glycerol dosing led to substantial labeling of [M + 1], [M + 2], and [M + 3] isotopomers of alanine, aspartate, and glutamate in blood and in tissues where 13C enrichments were greater (P < 0.05) in liver of small-egg embryos. In summary, this study provides unequivocal evidence that glycerol is a precursor for glucose and NEAA synthesis. Furthermore, glycerol, but not egg-derived glucose, is a major substrate for synthesis of liver and muscle glyco Continue reading >>

Cory Cycle , Glucose-alanine Cycle And Glycerol-glucose Cycle

Cory Cycle , Glucose-alanine Cycle And Glycerol-glucose Cycle

... cortisol, growth hormone, thyreoid hormones (T3 and T4) and many others. The proper functions of these hormones is precise control of glucose concentration in the blood. Insulin and glucagon are two major hormones involved in regulation of blood glucose level. They are both secreted in response to blood sugar levels, but in opposite fashion. At the same time, enhanced insulin secretion induced increased glucagon secretion. Insulin has a hypoglycemic effect. Secretion of insulin is a response to increased glucose level in the blood. In addition to the direct effects of hyperglycemia in enhancing the uptake of glucose into both the liver and peripheral tissues, the hormon insulin plays a central role in the regulation of the blood glucose concentration. Similarly, as blood glucose falls, the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreatic islets goes down. Glucagon, as a direct antagonist of insulin, has a hyperglycemic effect. Secretion of glucagon is a response to decreased glucose level in the blood (Chattoraj & Watts,1986; Ginsberg, 1990 a, 1990b; Mayes,1975; King, 2011). Insulin is a small protein consisting of an alpha chain of 21 amino acids linked by two disulfide (SS) bridges to a beta chain of 30 amino acids. The precursor of insulin is a proinsulin, which contains C peptide (conective peptide). The conversion of proinsulin to insulin requires biologic proteolysis (Ginsberg,1990; Bowen, 2010; Harper, 1975; Chattoraj & Watts,1986). The stimulus for insulin secretion is a high blood glucose. Insulin is produced by cells of Langerhans islets in pancreas and is secreted into the blood as a direct response to hyperglycemuia. Beta cells have channels in their plasma membrane that serve as glucose detectors. When blood glucose levels rise (after a meal), insulin is s Continue reading >>

Assessment Of Bio-hydrogen Production From Glycerol And Glucose By Fermentative Bacteria | Dimanta | Energetika

Assessment Of Bio-hydrogen Production From Glycerol And Glucose By Fermentative Bacteria | Dimanta | Energetika

Assessment of bio-hydrogen production from glycerol and glucose by fermentative bacteria I. Dimanta, V. Nikolajeva, A. Gruduls, I. Muinieks, J. Kleperis Microorganisms are capable to produce hydrogen during fermentation of organic substrates and industrial waste products can be used as feedstock for hydrogen producing bacteria. One of the substrates that can be effectively used for microbial hydrogen production is glycerol, which is a by-product from the process of biodiesel production, but glucose is mainly used as a model substrate. Different bacterial isolates were tested for hydrogen gas production rates from glucose and glycerol with test-systems constructed in our laboratory. Test-systems were optimised to allow adequate substrate and bacterial strain hydrogen productivity estimation in the liquid and gaseous phases. It was concluded that several of the isolated bacterial strains are suitable for bio-hydrogen production using glycerol as a substrate. Assessment was developed to establish whether microbial conversion of glycerol is an economically and environmentally viable possibility for bio-hydrogen production. The raw material cost noticeably decreases because of large quantities of available crude glycerol after biodiesel production and the highly reduced nature of carbon in glycerol perse. Continue reading >>

Formation Of Glycerol From Glucose In Rat Brain And Cultured Brain Cells. Augmentation With Kainate Or Ischemia

Formation Of Glycerol From Glucose In Rat Brain And Cultured Brain Cells. Augmentation With Kainate Or Ischemia

Formation of glycerol from glucose in rat brain and cultured brain cells. Augmentation with kainate or ischemia Address correspondence and reprint requests to Bjrnar Hassel, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, P.O. Box 25, N2027 Kjeller, Norway. Email: [email protected] This paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor Herman S. Bachelard, who inspired this work. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. An increase in the concentration of glycerol in the ischemic brain is assumed to reflect degradation of phospholipids of plasma membranes. However, glycerol could, theoretically, be formed from glucose, which after glycolytic conversion to dihydroxyacetone phosphate, could be converted to glycerol3phosphate and hence to glycerol. We show here that 13Clabeled glycerol accumulate in incubation media of cultured cerebellar granule cells and astrocytes incubated with [13C]glucose, 3 mmol/L, demonstrating the formation of glycerol from glucose. Coincubation of cerebellar granule cells with kainate, 50 mol/L, led to increased glucose metabolism and increased accumulation of [13C]glycerol. Accumulation of [13C]glycerol and its precursor, [13C]glycerol3phosphate, was evident in brain, but not in serum, of kainatetreated rats that received [U13C]glucose, 5 mol/g bodyweight, intravenously and survived for 5 min. Global ischemia induced by decapitation also caused accumulation of [13C]glycerol and [13C]glycerol3phosphate. These results show that glycerol can be formed from glucose in brain; they also demonstrate the existen Continue reading >>

Gluconeogenesis: Endogenous Glucose Synthesis

Gluconeogenesis: Endogenous Glucose Synthesis

Reactions of Gluconeogenesis: Gluconeogenesis from two moles of pyruvate to two moles of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate consumes six moles of ATP. This makes the process of gluconeogenesis very costly from an energy standpoint considering that glucose oxidation to two moles of pyruvate yields two moles of ATP. The major hepatic substrates for gluconeogenesis (glycerol, lactate, alanine, and pyruvate) are enclosed in red boxes for highlighting. The reactions that take place in the mitochondria are pyruvate to OAA and OAA to malate. Pyruvate from the cytosol is transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane by the pyruvate transporter. Transport of pyruvate across the plasma membrane is catalyzed by the SLC16A1 protein (also called the monocarboxylic acid transporter 1, MCT1) and transport across the outer mitochondrial membrane involves a voltage-dependent porin transporter. Transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane requires a heterotetrameric transport complex (mitochondrial pyruvate carrier) consisting of the MPC1 gene and MPC2 gene encoded proteins. Following reduction of OAA to malate the malate is transported to the cytosol by the malate transporter (SLC25A11). In the cytosol the malate is oxidized to OAA and the OOA then feeds into the gluconeogenic pathway via conversion to PEP via PEPCK. The PEPCK reaction is another site for consumption of an ATP equivalent (GTP is utilized in the PEPCK reaction). The reversal of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) reaction requires a supply of NADH. When lactate is the gluconeogenic substrate the NADH is supplied by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) reaction (indicated by the dashes lines), and it is supplied by the malate dehydrogenase reaction when pyruvate and alanine are the substrates. Secondly, one mo Continue reading >>

Propionic Acid Fermentation Of Glycerol And Glucose By Propionibacterium Acidipropionici And Propionibacterium Freudenreichii Ssp.shermanii

Propionic Acid Fermentation Of Glycerol And Glucose By Propionibacterium Acidipropionici And Propionibacterium Freudenreichii Ssp.shermanii

A comparative study was carried out in anaerobic batch cultures on 20 g/l of either glycerol or glucose using two propionibacteria strains, Propionibacterium acidipropionici and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii. In all cases, fermentation end-products were the same and consisted of propionic acid as the major product, acetic acid as the main by-product and two minor metabolites, n-propanol and succinic acid. Evidence was provided that greater production of propionic acid by propionibacteria was obtained with glycerol as carbon and energy sources. P. acidipropionici showed higher efficiency in glycerol conversion to propionic acid with a faster substrate consumption (0.64 g l1 h1) and a higher propionic acid production (0.42 g l1 h1 and 0.79 mol/mol). The almost exclusive production of propionic acid from glycerol by this bacterium suggested an homopropionic tendency of this fermentation. Acetic acid final concentration was two times lower on glycerol (2 g/l) than on glucose (4 g/l) for both micro-organisms. P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii exhibited a glycerol fermentation pattern typical of non-associated glycerol-consumption-product formation. This could indicate a particular metabolism for P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii oriented towards the production of other specific components. These results tend to show that glycerol could be an excellent alternative to conventional carbon sources such as carbohydrates for propionic acid production. FermentationPropionic AcidSuccinic AcidGlycerol ConversionExclusive Production These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Received: 21 May 1999 / Accepted: 1 November 1999 This is a preview of subscripti Continue reading >>

Glycerol Kinase Interacts With Nuclear Receptor Nr4a1 And Regulates Glucose Metabolism In The Liver

Glycerol Kinase Interacts With Nuclear Receptor Nr4a1 And Regulates Glucose Metabolism In The Liver

Glycerol kinase interacts with nuclear receptor NR4A1 and regulates glucose metabolism in the liver *Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, China; Graduate School, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China; 1These authors contributed equally to this work. Institute of AcuMoxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China; State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, National Center for Protein Sciences, Beijing Institute of Lifeomics, Beijing, China; and 1These authors contributed equally to this work. *Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, China; Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China *Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, China; Graduate School, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China; State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, National Center for Protein Sciences, Beijing Institute of Lifeomics, Beijing, China; and Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China *Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, China; Graduate School, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China; Glycerol kinase (Gyk), consisting of 4 isoforms, plays a critical role in metabolism by converting glycerol to glycerol 3-phosphate in an ATP-dependent reaction. Only Gyk isoform b is present in whole cells, but its function in the nucleus remains elusive. Previous studies have shown that nuclear orphan receptor subfamily 4 group A member (NR4A)-1 is an important regulator of hepatic glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. We aimed to elucidate the functional interaction between nuclear Gyk and NR4A1 during hepatic gluconeogenesis in the unfed state and diabetes. We identified nuclear Gyk as a novel corepress Continue reading >>

Glyceroneogenesis And The Source Of Glycerol For Hepatic Triacylglycerol Synthesis In Humans*

Glyceroneogenesis And The Source Of Glycerol For Hepatic Triacylglycerol Synthesis In Humans*

[2H]water, 99.9%2H, and [1,2,3-13C3]glycerol, 99% 13C, were obtained from Isotech, Inc. (Miamisburg, OH). The respective contributions of plasma glycerol and pyruvate were quantified in two separate groups of nonpregnant and pregnant women. Written informed consent was obtained from each woman and her spouse (when available) after fully explaining the procedure. The protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University Hospitals of Cleveland. Glycerol Incorporation in Triacylglycerol [1,2,3-13C]Glycerol (over 99%13C) was infused in five normal nonpregnant women after an overnight fast. They were physically healthy and had a negative history of diabetes or other metabolic disorders in their family. The tracer glycerol was dissolved in normal saline, sterilized by Millipore filtration, and tested for pyrogenicity and sterility. All subjects reported to the Clinical Research Center at University of Hospitals of Cleveland following a 12-h fast. The tracer was infused at a constant rate of 0.03 mg/kg of body weight/min for a period of 5 h, following a priming dose of 0.5 mg/kg. Arterialized blood samples were obtained in heparinized syringes from the opposite arm at 30-min intervals starting at 1 h. Blood samples were centrifuged immediately, and the plasma samples were stored at 70 C until analysis. Pyruvate Incorporation into Triacylglycerol The contribution of pyruvate to glycerol in triacylglycerol was evaluated using the total body water labeling method described for determining the rate of gluconeogenesis in vivo ( 12 , 13 ). The volunteers had been studied previously, and the details of the experimental design and the data on glucose turnover and gluconeogenesis have been reported previously ( 12 ). Plasma samples for the quantification of glycero Continue reading >>

Glycerol Production From Glucose And Fructose By 3t3-l1 Cells: A Mechanism Of Adipocyte Defense From Excess Substrate

Glycerol Production From Glucose And Fructose By 3t3-l1 Cells: A Mechanism Of Adipocyte Defense From Excess Substrate

Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here . Glycerol Production from Glucose and Fructose by 3T3-L1 Cells: A Mechanism of Adipocyte Defense from Excess Substrate Affiliations Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av.Diagonal 643, 08028, Barcelona, Spain, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, CIBER Obesity and Nutrition, Barcelona, Spain Affiliation Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av.Diagonal 643, 08028, Barcelona, Spain Affiliations Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av.Diagonal 643, 08028, Barcelona, Spain, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, CIBER Obesity and Nutrition, Barcelona, Spain Affiliations Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av.Diagonal 643, 08028, Barcelona, Spain, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, CIBER Obesity and Nutrition, Barcelona, Spain Continue reading >>

Glycerol Production From Glucose And Fructose By 3t3-l1 Cells: A Mechanism Of Adipocyte Defense From Excess Substrate

Glycerol Production From Glucose And Fructose By 3t3-l1 Cells: A Mechanism Of Adipocyte Defense From Excess Substrate

Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here . Glycerol Production from Glucose and Fructose by 3T3-L1 Cells: A Mechanism of Adipocyte Defense from Excess Substrate Affiliations Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av.Diagonal 643, 08028, Barcelona, Spain, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, CIBER Obesity and Nutrition, Barcelona, Spain Affiliation Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av.Diagonal 643, 08028, Barcelona, Spain Affiliations Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av.Diagonal 643, 08028, Barcelona, Spain, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, CIBER Obesity and Nutrition, Barcelona, Spain Affiliations Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av.Diagonal 643, 08028, Barcelona, Spain, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, CIBER Obesity and Nutrition, Barcelona, Spain Continue reading >>

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