diabetestalk.net

Glycerol To Glucose

Share on facebook

What is GLUCONEOGENESIS? What does GLUCONEOGENESIS mean? GLUCONEOGENESIS meaning - GLUCONEOGENESIS definition - GLUCONEOGENESIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates. From breakdown of proteins, these substrates include glucogenic amino acids (although not ketogenic amino acids); from breakdown of lipids (such as triglycerides), they include glycerol (although not fatty acids); and from other steps in metabolism they include pyruvate and lactate. Gluconeogenesis is one of several main mechanisms used by humans and many other animals to maintain blood glucose levels, avoiding low levels (hypoglycemia). Other means include the degradation of glycogen (glycogenolysis) and fatty acid catabolism. Gluconeogenesis is a ubiquitous process, present in plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and other microorganisms. In vertebrates, gluconeogenesis takes place mainly in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the cortex of the kidneys. In ruminants, this tends to be a continuous process. In many other animals, the process occurs during periods of fasting, starvation, low-carbohydrate diets, or intense exercise. The process is highly endergonic until it is coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP or GTP, effectively making the process exergonic. For example, the pathway leading from pyruvate to glucose-6-phosphate requires 4 molecules of ATP and 2 molecules of GTP to proceed spontaneously. Gluconeogenesis is often associated with ketosis. Gluconeogenesis is also a target of therapy for type 2 diabetes, such as the antidiabetic drug, metformin, which inhibits glucose formation and stimulates glucose uptake by cells. In ruminants, because dietary carbohydrates tend to be metabolized by rumen organisms, gluconeogenesis occurs regardless of fasting, low-carbohydrate diets, exercise, etc.

Gluconeogenesis: Endogenous Glucose Synthesis

Reactions of Gluconeogenesis: Gluconeogenesis from two moles of pyruvate to two moles of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate consumes six moles of ATP. This makes the process of gluconeogenesis very costly from an energy standpoint considering that glucose oxidation to two moles of pyruvate yields two moles of ATP. The major hepatic substrates for gluconeogenesis (glycerol, lactate, alanine, and pyruvate) are enclosed in red boxes for highlighting. The reactions that take place in the mitochondria are pyruvate to OAA and OAA to malate. Pyruvate from the cytosol is transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane by the pyruvate transporter. Transport of pyruvate across the plasma membrane is catalyzed by the SLC16A1 protein (also called the monocarboxylic acid transporter 1, MCT1) and transport across the outer mitochondrial membrane involves a voltage-dependent porin transporter. Transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane requires a heterotetrameric transport complex (mitochondrial pyruvate carrier) consisting of the MPC1 gene and MPC2 gene encoded proteins. Following reduction of OAA to malate the malate is transported to the cytosol by the malate transporter (SLC25A11). In the cyt Continue reading >>

Share on facebook

Popular Questions

  1. lejeunesage

    If you're like me, at some point you heard someone (like Dr. Ernie Johnson or Dr. Gary Clark) say fizz-EE-at-rist instead of fizz-EYE-ut-rist/fizz-EYE-a-trist and wondered if somehow you were saying it wrong.
    The short answer is that you're not wrong. So, what's up with the alternative pronunciation.
    Let's start with the root of the problem: iatros (ἰατρός), the ancient Greek word for physician.
    The word is pronounced EE-at-ros. So, the people who say fizz-EE-at-rist or fizz-EE-at-ree (that just sounds wrong) are being more faithful to the ancient Greek root.
    So, are the rest of us wrong?
    No.
    If you were saying the word around 500 years ago (had the discipline been in existence), you would have actually pronounced it fizz-EE-at-rist. But around 500 years ago, the pronunciation of stressed vowels in English shifted - it's called the Great Vowell Shift... look it up, it's like, an actual thing!
    If you've taken any other Western European language, you'll see that they pronounce a, e, i, "ah," "ay," and "ee" respectively. English speakers don't anymore. Nobody tries to put food on the TAH-ble for instance when it's just as easy to put food on the TAY-ble.
    So, if you want to be consistent with the rest of modern English, say physiatry like you say psychiatry. It's the same ἰατρός root, and it's consistent with the way people say pod-EYE-uh-tree or EYE-at-ro-gen-ic.
    The reason people say syke-ee-AT-ric (psychiatric) and fizz-ee-AT-ric (physiatric) is because in those words, the stress is not on the i. If you want to be technical, it's on the penultate instead of the antipenultate syllable.
    So, to make a long story short, neither pronunciation is wrong, but fizz-EE-at-rist is probably more affected. If people who say it that way wanted to be consistent, they'd talk about, among other things,
    - HE-pertension
    - HIPPO-tension! (hypotension)
    - hippo-glee-SAY-mia (hypoglycemia)
    - Sick-ee-at-rists (psychiatrists)
    - BEceps and TREEceps muscles (biceps and triceps)
    But... I haven't yet met anyone who says that. So, let's relax about pronunciation and focus on being good phys-EYE-atrists.

  2. padresp

    Awesome.
    Also, from http://www.physiatry.org/?page=history,
    "In 1946, the AMA Council on Physical Medicine voted to sponsor the term "physiatrist" (fizz-ee-at'-trist) and physiatry (fizz-ee-at'-tree) with the accent on the third syllable. This is how the pronunciation appears in most American dictionaries."

  3. Taus

    I have never met anyone except very old school academic rehab docs who pronounce it that way w the emphasis in "AT"
    You may have a shred of a chance of another physician, let alone laymen, knowing what you're talking about if you emphasize the "Eye"

  4. -> Continue reading
read more
Share on facebook

Buy Me Bacon? http://paypal.me/KetointheUK Breathalyser I got on Amazon http://geni.us/breathketone if you like my content please consider supporting my channel via Patreon at http://www.patreon.com/ketointheuk MY FAVOURITE KETO RECIPE BOOKS BY MARTINA FROM KETODIETAPP http://geni.us/ketodietappbooks 28 DAY KETO PRIMAL MEAL PLAN + guide + weekly shopping list http://po.st/primalmealplan 28 DAY KETO PALEO MEAL PLAN + guide + weekly shopping list http://po.st/paleomealplan You live the keto Lifestyle? NOW WEAR IT! Ginger's Keto Merchandise is finally here https://shop.spreadshirt.co.uk/ketoin... Subscribe and hit the for upload notifications! Never miss a Ginger video! Articles and background on ketones reading as alcohol in breath: https://proteinpower.com/drmike/2007/... https://blog.ketointhe.uk/2018/10/ket... https://www.reddit.com/r/keto/comment... http://community.myfitnesspal.com/en/... http://eatingacademy.com/nutrition/ke... How do you test for ketones? Either you go uncertain with the cheap and easy Ketostix for Urianalisys or you prick your fingers multiple times a day to test for Blood Ketones. Or you breath in a regular alcohol Breathalyzer, a tenth of the cost of the Ketonix, and if you are in ketosis Acetone in your breath will read as Isopropanol, and there you can have a live reading of your ketones for a fraction of the cost of all other methods of testing for ketones. Want to make sure you get reminded with every new recipe? There's a Mailing List for that: http://eepurl.com/bwE9aX Come interact and share your recipes and ideas on Instagram: http://instagr.am/ketointhe.uk Our Facebook Group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/lowca... Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/lowcarbuk/ Twitter: http://twitter.com/KetoInTheUK Blog: http://blog.ketointhe.uk My Specs come from Firmoo, you can get 15% off through my link http://po.st/gingerglasses All of My videos in neat Playlists Ginger's Keto Recipes http://po.st/ketorecipes Ginger's Keto Talkies http://po.st/ketotalkies Keto Friendly Foods Tuesdays http://po.st/ketotuesdays No Stupid Questions Thursdays http://po.st/ketothursdays Keto Food Hauls and Shopping Lists http://po.st/ketohauls Basics Keto Recipes http://po.st/ketobasics How To Keto - The Essential Keto Beginner's Guide http://po.st/howtoketo Ginger's Livestreams Chit Chat Keto Q&As http://po.st/ketolivestreams This video is not designed to and does not provide medical advice, professional diagnosis, opinion, treatment or services to you or to any other individual. Through my videos, blog posts, website information, I give suggestions for you and your doctor to research and provide general information for educational purposes only. The information provided in this video or site, or through linkages to other sites, is not a substitute for medical or professional care, and you should not use the information in place of a visit, call consultation or the advice of your physician or other healthcare provider. Keto In The UK are not liable or responsible for any advice, course of treatment, diagnosis or any other information, services or product you obtain through this video or site.

Gluconeogenesis

Not to be confused with Glycogenesis or Glyceroneogenesis. Simplified Gluconeogenesis Pathway Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates. From breakdown of proteins, these substrates include glucogenic amino acids (although not ketogenic amino acids); from breakdown of lipids (such as triglycerides), they include glycerol (although not fatty acids); and from other steps in metabolism they include pyruvate and lactate. Gluconeogenesis is one of several main mechanisms used by humans and many other animals to maintain blood glucose levels, avoiding low levels (hypoglycemia). Other means include the degradation of glycogen (glycogenolysis)[1] and fatty acid catabolism. Gluconeogenesis is a ubiquitous process, present in plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and other microorganisms.[2] In vertebrates, gluconeogenesis takes place mainly in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the cortex of the kidneys. In ruminants, this tends to be a continuous process.[3] In many other animals, the process occurs during periods of fasting, starvation, low-carbohydrate diets, or intense exercise. The process is hi Continue reading >>

Share on facebook

Popular Questions

  1. Courtney Schumacher

    Ketoacidosis

    Comas

    Medical Treatments

    Medical Conditions and Diseases


    Neuroscience

    Medicine and Healthcare



    Why does Ketoacidosis cause coma? How is it treated?




    1 Answer







    I’m assuming that you do know that ketoacidosis does not have to mean that you have high blood sugar. It means that you have a high level of ketones in your blood, which are usually by-products of your body trying to break down fatty acids for fuel it’s not getting from your food intake.
    It is usually treated with fluids, electrolytes, and insulin. It is much more common in those with type 1 diabetes then type 2, but it can still occur.

    You can look up more specific information on diabetes at the Mayo Clinic site.

    111 Views








    Promoted by PlateJoy


    A weight loss program so good your insurance pays for it.

    Click to see if your insurance participates!




    Learn More at platejoy.com/health








    Related Questions




    How can ketoacidosis cause a coma?


    How does diabetic ketoacidosis cause vomiting?


    Why is there hyperkalemia in diabetic ketoacidosis?


    Can a heart attack cause a coma?


    What causes coma?


    Can antidepressants lead to a coma?


    Can coma cause dimensia?


    What is the cause of ketoacidosis?


    How does diabetic ketoacidosis cause abdominal pain?


    How are sugar induced comas treated?


    Does semi induced comas cause brain damage?


    How is ketoacidosis diagnosis?


    Can a stab wound cause coma?


    What's the difference between diabetic ketoacidosis and starvation ketoacidosis?


    What does it feel like to be in a coma?
    Ask New Question






    Related Questions



    How can ketoacidosis cause a coma?


    How does diabetic ketoacidosis cause vomiting?


    Why is there hyperkalemia in diabetic ketoacidosis?


    Can a heart attack cause a coma?


    What causes coma?


    Can antidepressants lead to a coma?


    Can coma cause dimensia?


    What is the cause of ketoacidosis?


    How does diabetic ketoacidosis cause abdominal pain?


    How are sugar induced comas treated?
    Ask New Question

  2. -> Continue reading
read more
Share on facebook

Project Name: Creation of e-Contents on fermentation technology Project Investigator: Dr. Ramesh Kothari Module Name: Fermentative production of penicillin

Assessment Of Bio-hydrogen Production From Glycerol And Glucose By Fermentative Bacteria | Dimanta | Energetika

Assessment of bio-hydrogen production from glycerol and glucose by fermentative bacteria I. Dimanta, V. Nikolajeva, A. Gruduls, I. Muinieks, J. Kleperis Microorganisms are capable to produce hydrogen during fermentation of organic substrates and industrial waste products can be used as feedstock for hydrogen producing bacteria. One of the substrates that can be effectively used for microbial hydrogen production is glycerol, which is a by-product from the process of biodiesel production, but glucose is mainly used as a model substrate. Different bacterial isolates were tested for hydrogen gas production rates from glucose and glycerol with test-systems constructed in our laboratory. Test-systems were optimised to allow adequate substrate and bacterial strain hydrogen productivity estimation in the liquid and gaseous phases. It was concluded that several of the isolated bacterial strains are suitable for bio-hydrogen production using glycerol as a substrate. Assessment was developed to establish whether microbial conversion of glycerol is an economically and environmentally viable possibility for bio-hydrogen production. The raw material cost noticeably decreases because of large qu Continue reading >>

Share on facebook

Popular Questions

  1. razmataz1314

    Questions re fruit, veggies, ketosis (have read stickies!)

    So over the past 15 months I've been trying to lose weight. I was 6ft, 309 pounds at peak. Currently down to 215, and in order to actually start being healthy as opposed to just less fat, I want to start eating clean instead of just doing calorie deficit to lose weight.
    Whats odd in my situation is that I live on a tiny, remote tropical island. Veggies are rare here. I can get lots of extremely fresh tropical fruit though (tons of bananas, breadfruit, star fruit, tangerines, pineapple, oranges, etc.) Coconut (including homemade coconut milk and coconut oil) is also widely available. So my clean diet would basically be seafood (reef fish, yellowfin, crab, lobster), chicken, some canned or cured meats (like bacon or canned corned beef), fruit, and occasional veggies (frozen stir fry medleys, kimchi, occasional fresh leafy cabbage).
    Questions:
    1) Any tips regarding the relative lack of veggies, other than just trying to eat them whenever I can get my hands on them? I can get really basic (i.e. cheap random brand) daily multivitamins here but thats it.
    2) Will the prevalence of so much fruit prevent me from going into ketosis? Other than the fruit this will be a pretty low carb diet. I'm worried that I could end up at this state where I don't go into ketosis because of too much fruit-based carbs, but because of the relative lack of carbs I'm always low on glucose so constantly craving carbs, getting brain fog, etc. Or am I just fundamentally misunderstanding something here? I undestand I might get cravings for a month or so, but will the fruit in the diet make the cravings persist? I'm extremely reluctant to cut out fresh fruit as its obscenely delicious, fresh, and cheap here.
    3) Are starchy fruits (like breadfruit or starchy varieties of banana) much better than potatoes, flour, etc.?
    Hope I haven't violated any major norms in making this thread... thanks, and thanks for all the info on here which has helped me lose almost 100lbs so far.

  2. hardheart

    1. First of all, congratulations on losing nearly 100lbs. Good work.
    2. I'm not a resident expert on ketosis and low-carb but I would venture to say that if you're eating fruit everyday you won't be hitting ketosis very frequently if at all. Maybe one of the more experienced people with low-carb can speak on this.
    3. It depends how much banana vs. how much potato. Eating 10 bananas is going to be worse than eating 1 potato.
    4. Lack of veggies: You have the internet, so I assume you can get supplements. I know shipping is probably atrocious and nearly prohibitive but it may be worth exploring. Look in to getting veggie supplements. I assume since you're asking you don't have the time to grow you're own? I also understand that ocean climates can be a major pain in the ass to grow in due to the daylight hours (some parts of the equator getting 16 hours of strong light per day) and this may be the reason. I'd suggest getting some seeds and growing your own.

  3. Pitmiksovic

    razmataz1314 said: ↑
    2) Will the prevalence of so much fruit prevent me from going into ketosis? Other than the fruit this will be a pretty low carb diet. I'm worried that I could end up at this state where I don't go into ketosis because of too much fruit-based carbs, but because of the relative lack of carbs I'm always low on glucose so constantly craving carbs, getting brain fog, etc. Or am I just fundamentally misunderstanding something here? I undestand I might get cravings for a month or so, but will the fruit in the diet make the cravings persist? I'm extremely reluctant to cut out fresh fruit as its obscenely delicious, fresh, and cheap here. It depends on how much fruit. For ketosis the general range I have seen is no more than 60-100 g of carbs/day. You can do a low carb non-ketogenic diet though too by keeping carbs close to this range. It all works as long as you maintain your deficit. I would say forget about the ketosis, eat all the fruit you want while maintaining your deficit. Between the fresh seafood, the coconut and the other fruits, you've got a clean diet where as long as you maintain a deficit on, your weight loss will continue. If you enjoy the fruit that much and its cheap and widely available I see no reason to not eat it. If you can eat something delicious and still lose weight I would continue eating it.

  4. -> Continue reading
read more

No more pages to load

Related Articles

  • Glycerol To Glucose

    Elucidation of the co-metabolism of glycerol and glucose in Escherichia coli by genetic engineering, transcription profiling, and 13C metabolic flux analysis Glycerol, a byproduct of biodiesel, has become a readily available and inexpensive carbon source for the production of high-value products. However, the main drawback of glycerol utilization is the low consumption rate and shortage of NADPH formation, which may limit the production of NADPH ...

    ketosis Apr 21, 2018
  • Glycerol Vs Glucose

    The ability of E. coli to transform crude glycerol, waste of biodiesel production, into ethanol will allow for a zero waste process stream, leading to an increase in the economic viability of biofuels industry. The main aspect of this investigation is to study and compare the use of glucose, glycerol and crude glycerol as a carbon source for anaerobic growth of E. coli in order to produce ethanol and H2. The comparison was carried out in two sep ...

    blood sugar May 2, 2018
  • Glycerol Vs Glucose E Coli

    Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here . Improving the Expression of Recombinant Proteins in E. coli BL21 (DE3) under Acetate Stress: An Alkaline pH Shift Approach Affiliations Innovation & Application Institute (IAI), Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, China, State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao ...

    blood sugar Apr 30, 2018
  • Fermentation Of Glucose And Glycerol

    CHEN 4800/5800: Bioprocess Engineering, Spring 1996 University of Colorado-Boulder,Chemical Engineering Dept. In this laboratory exercise, we will study the growth characteristics of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and continuous cultures. A lab-scale (5 liter) fermentor will be used to study batch growth kinetics of the yeast growing on glucose as the single carbon substrate provided in the presence of oxygen. A second fermentor wil ...

    blood sugar May 1, 2018
  • What Does A Glucose And Glucose Make?

    Simple sugars are carbohydrates. Glucose and fructose are monosaccharides and sucrose is a disaccharide of the two combined with a bond. Glucose and fructose have the same molecular formula (C6H12O6) but glucose has a six member ring and fructose has a five member ring structure. Fructose is known as the fruit sugar as its make source in the diet is fruits and vegetables. Honey is also a good source. Glucose is known as grape sugar, blood sugar o ...

    blood sugar Apr 6, 2018
  • Can Glycerol Be Converted To Glucose

    Gluconeogenesis is the process that leads to the generation of glucose from a variety of sources such as pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and certain amino acids. Larry R. Engelking, in Textbook of Veterinary Physiological Chemistry (Third Edition) , 2015 Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver and kidneys. Gluconeogenesis supplies the needs for plasma glucose between meals. Gluconeogenesis is stimulated by the diabetogenic hormones (glucagon, growth ho ...

    ketosis Apr 24, 2018

More in ketosis