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Glucose To Fat Pathway

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What is CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM? What does CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM mean? CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM meaning - CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM definition - CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms. The most important carbohydrate is glucose, a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that is metabolized by nearly all known organisms. Glucose and other carbohydrates are part of a wide variety of metabolic pathways across species: plants synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water by photosynthesis, storing the absorbed energy internally, often in the form of starch or lipids. Plant components are consumed by animals and fungi, and used as fuel for cellular respiration. Oxidation of one gram of carbohydrate yields approximately 4 kcal of energy, while the oxidation of one gram of lipids yields about 9 kcal. Energy obtained from metabolism (e.g., oxidation of glucose) is usually stored temporarily within cells in the form of ATP. Organisms capable of aerobic respiration metabolize glucose and oxygen to release energy with carbon dioxide and water as byproducts. Carbohydrates can be chemically divided into two types: complex and simple. Simple carbohydrates consist of single or double sugar units (monosaccharides and disaccharides, respectively). Sucrose or table sugar (a disaccharide) is a common example of a simple carbohydrate. Complex carbohydrates contain three or more sugar units linked in a chain, with most containing hundreds to thousands of sugar units. They are digested by enzymes to release the simple sugars. Starch, for example, is a polymer of glucose units and is typically broken down to glucose. Cellulose is also a polymer of glucose but it cannot be digested by most organisms. Bacteria that produce enzymes to digest cellulose live inside the gut of some mammals, such as cows, and when these mammals eat plants, the cellulose is broken down by the bacteria and some of it is released into the gut. Doctors and scientists once believed that eating complex carbohydrates instead of sugars would help maintain lower blood glucose. Numerous studies suggest, however, that both sugars and starch produce an unpredictable range of glycemic and insulinemic responses. While some studies support a more rapid absorption of sugars relative to starches other studies reveal that many carbohydrates such as those found in white bread, some types of white rice, and potatoes have glycemic indices similar to simple carbohydrates such as sucrose. Sucrose, for example, has a glycemic index (83) lower than expected because the sucrose molecule is half fructose, which has little effect on blood glucose. The value of classifying carbohydrates as simple or complex is questionable. The glycemic index is a better predictor of a carbohydrate's effect on blood glucose. Carbohydrates are a superior short-term fuel for organisms because they are simpler to metabolize than fats or those amino acids (components of proteins) that can be used for fuel. In animals, the most important carbohydrate is glucose. The concentration of glucose in the blood is used as the main control for the central metabolic hormone, insulin. Starch, and cellulose in a few organisms (e.g., some animals (such as termites) and some microorganisms (such as protists and bacteria)), both being glucose polymers, are disassembled during digestion and absorbed as glucose. Some simple carbohydrates have their own enzymatic oxidation pathways, as do only a few of the more complex carbohydrates. The disaccharide lactose, for instance, requires the enzyme lactase to be broken into its monosaccharide components; many animals lack this enzyme in adulthood. Carbohydrates are typically stored as long polymers of glucose molecules with glycosidic bonds for structural support (e.g. chitin, cellulose) or for energy storage (e.g. glycogen, starch). However, the strong affinity of most carbohydrates for water makes storage of large quantities of carbohydrates inefficient due to the large molecular weight of the solvated water-carbohydrate complex.

Does Carbohydrate Become Body Fat?

Dear Reader, Ah, poor carbohydrates, maligned by diets such as Atkins’ and the ketogenic diet. However, carbohydrates are your body’s main source of energy — in fact your muscles and brain cells prefer carbs more than other sources of energy (triglycerides and fat, for example). To answer your question: research completed over the last several decades suggests that if you are eating a diet that is appropriate for your levels of daily activity, little to no carbohydrate is converted to fat in your body. For most people (unless you have a metabolic disorder) when you eat carbs they are digested, broken down to glucose, and then transported to all the cells in your body. They are then metabolized and used to support cellular processes. If you’re active and eating appropriately for your activity level, most of the carbs you consume are more or less burned immediately. There are two caveats here: first, if you’re eating a lot more calories per day than you are burning, then yes, your liver will convert excess calories from carbohydrate into fats; second, not all carbs are created equal. If you consume too many calories from simple sugars like sucrose and fructose (think sugary Continue reading >>

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  1. Rcroix

    Hello everyone.
    I have been on the 2:5 for about 6 months and lost about 10kg (over 20lbs) So thank you Dr Mosley!
    A lot of the reviews of the fasting lifesyle seem to suggest that it is just a way to reduce average weekly calories, but I’m sure most of you think there is more going on than simple calorie reduction.
    During the last 10 days I didn’t fast as I was on holiday traveling and found it difficult. Amazingly I did not gain any weight. This has happend on two occasions during the last 6 months.
    I think the fasting days are forcing the body to relearn how to burn fat. I’m a bit confused about the correct scientific terms for this ‘lypolysis’ is I believe the breackdown of fats (into amino acids) and ketosis the burning of
    fat as fuel.
    What ever the terminology it seems like the fasting days teach the body a long forgotten trick of switching from available glucose derived from what we just ate, to reserves stored as fat.
    I suggest that this trait applies to non fast days too, hence the lack of weigh gain during holidays.
    I used to do a bit of distance running and am quite familiar with the concept of ‘hitting the wall’. This is when a runner runs out of glucose and has to switch to fat burning (around the 18mile mark). Often that process is difficult, I have had to sit on the ground for about 3 minutes until my legs felt like they would work again.
    I’m not running now so I can’t try a quick marathon to see if the diet has helped with the switch.
    I welcome your thoughts.
    Good luck
    Martin.
    Perhaps Dr Mosely could weigh in on this with some scientific evidence.

  2. zec4peach

    I love science and this is why I love the 5.2 as it makes so much sense.
    Your body will go into ketosis when fasting for a short time, this is probably why some people get headaches. It will also make you very thirsty and wee a lot as your body tries to flush out the by products from fat metabolism. This is a common symptom of type 1 diabetes but obviously they go into a severe more ketoacidosis due to prolonged lack of insulin and metabolism of glucose and start burning muscle for fuel.
    It’s quite complicated stuff but if you google fasting ketosis there’s loads of interesting info online. Michaels book was lacking in any science stuff which is a shame as I think people are interested.
    I know that athletes or very fit people are more efficient at burning fat as they are used to it so yes I think the 5.2 does reset the metabolism in a similar way.
    I have managed to this this after years of cycling and find I can ride for a few hours on an empty stomach. Always need coffee though !!!
    Z

  3. Nika

    Hey Martin!
    I’m also very interested in ketosis. I tried it out a few weeks ago and didn’t eat any carbs for 1,5 week. I lost quite some weight, but felt like I couldn’t sustain it – I started feeling really weak, dizzy, couldn’t walk straight some days and all in all didn’t get the energy boosts some people boast about.
    So now I just cut carbs on my fast days and allow myself fruit and yoghurt on normal days – still prefer not to eat rice, noodles, bread and potatoes though. Sometimes a baked good or chocolate pudding as a treat, but not regularly. I do think this really contributes to my quicker than average weightloss (7kg in 3 weeks, of which most during that first 1,5 week).
    I’ve also started working out fasted. I do this after work before my only meal of the day, so after fasting for over 20 hours. I do HIIT (Insanity), which combines cardio and strength through bodyweight exercises. So far my results have been worse than when I did the program before when eating regularly, but I’m waiting to see how it goes in two weeks when I do my second fit test. My body is most likely also learning how to switch to burning fat efficiently.
    What you said about going on a holiday, this reminded me of the “carb loaders” I know. They basically cut carbs during the week, then they “carbload” on Saturday – eating everything from pizza to ribs to whatever they want. They say that it doesn’t cause them to gain weight, because the body is still in fat burning mode and the glucose from the carbs goes straight to the muscles, giving the muscles the strength to keep working out through the next week. Hence carb ‘loading’. These people are basically in ketosis 3 days a week (it usually takes the body about 3 days to go into full ketosis).
    These are all bodybuilder types though, who do mostly strength training so it doesn’t really sound like a great idea for me. I wanna be lean, not buff.
    Anyway, long post – gonna head over to the next one
    Annika

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What is BASAL METABOLIC RATE? What does BASAL METABOLIC RATE mean? BASAL METABOLIC RATE meaning - BASAL METABOLIC RATE definition - BASAL METABOLIC RATE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimal rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit time ranging from watt (joule/second) to ml O2/min or joule per hour per kg body mass J/(hkg)). Proper measurement requires a strict set of criteria be met. These criteria include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, while in the post-absorptive state (i.e., not actively digesting food). In bradymetabolic animals, such as fish and reptiles, the equivalent term standard metabolic rate (SMR) is used. It follows the same criteria as BMR, but requires the documentation of the temperature at which the metabolic rate was measured. This makes BMR a variant of standard metabolic rate measurement that excludes the temperature data, a practice that has led to problems in defining "standard" rates of metabolism for many mammals. Metabolism comprises the processes that the body needs to function. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy expressed in calories that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest. Some of those processes are breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth, brain and nerve function, and contraction of muscles. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) affects the rate that a person burns calories and ultimately whether that individual maintains, gains, or loses weight. The basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by individuals. It is influenced by several factors. BMR typically declines by 12% per decade after age 20, mostly due to loss of fat-free mass, although the variability between individuals is high. The body's generation of heat is known as thermogenesis and it can be measured to determine the amount of energy expended. BMR generally decreases with age and with the decrease in lean body mass (as may happen with aging). Increasing muscle mass has the effect of increasing BMR. Aerobic (resistance) fitness level, a product of cardiovascular exercise, while previously thought to have effect on BMR, has been shown in the 1990s not to correlate with BMR when adjusted for fat-free body mass. But anaerobic exercise does increase resting energy consumption (see "aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise"). Illness, previously consumed food and beverages, environmental temperature, and stress levels can affect one's overall energy expenditure as well as one's BMR. BMR is measured under very restrictive circumstances when a person is awake. An accurate BMR measurement requires that the person's sympathetic nervous system not be stimulated, a condition which requires complete rest. A more common measurement, which uses less strict criteria, is resting metabolic rate (RMR).

Metabolic Pathways

There are three groups of molecules that form the core building blocks and fuel substrates in the body: carbohydrates (glucose and other sugars); proteins and their constituent amino acids; and lipids and their constituent fatty acids. The biochemical processes that allow these molecules to be synthesized and stored (anabolism) or broken down to generate energy (catabolism) are referred to as metabolic pathways. Glucose metabolism involves the anabolic pathways of gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis, and the catabolic pathways of glycogenolysis and glycolysis. Lipid metabolism involves the anabolic pathways of fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis and the catabolic pathways of lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation. Protein metabolism involves the anabolic pathways of amino acid synthesis and protein synthesis and the catabolic pathways of proteolysis and amino acid oxidation. Under conditions when glucose levels inside the cell are low (such as fasting, sustained exercise, starvation or diabetes), lipid and protein catabolism includes the synthesis (ketogenesis) and utilization (ketolysis) of ketone bodies. The end products of glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, amino acid oxidation and ket Continue reading >>

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  1. asmith79

    Diabetes, type 2, uncontrolled for I-10

    I am looking for any information on coding Diabetes, Type 2, uncontrolled for ICD 10. In a recent educational discussion there was some confusion on which was the appropriate code to use, E11.9 or E11.65. The thought behind E11.65 is that the terms "uncontrolled" and "out of control" have the same meaning. When you look in the alpha index under diabetes, out of control, ( page 95) , it directs you to code "Diabetes, specificed type, with hyperglycemia" which would take you to E11.65.
    Does anyone have any information that could help clarify this? Anything would be appreciated!
    Thanks!!!

  2. Amy Pritchett

    The ICD-10-CM page 95 states "Diabetes inadequately controlled using hyperglycemia" see by type. Therefore, if the patient is type II you would code E11.65 which is the inadequately controlled portion, type II.
    Hope this helps

  3. asmith79

    Thank you amy, that is my thought as well. However, the argument i am hearing is that if the note just states "uncontrolled", how are we to determine if it is hypo or hyper? The e11.65 specifically states hyper. There is also arguments that "uncontrolled" and "out of control" do not mean the same thing.

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Introduction to cellular respiration, including glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and the electron transport chain. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/b... Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/b... Biology on Khan Academy: Life is beautiful! From atoms to cells, from genes to proteins, from populations to ecosystems, biology is the study of the fascinating and intricate systems that make life possible. Dive in to learn more about the many branches of biology and why they are exciting and important. Covers topics seen in a high school or first-year college biology course. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy is a nonprofit with a mission to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We believe learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. We use intelligent software, deep data analytics and intuitive user interfaces to help students and teachers around the world. Our resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance, history, grammar and more. We offer free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 100 million people use our platform worldwide every year. For more information, visit www.khanacademy.org, join us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter at @khanacademy. And remember, you can learn anything. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy's Biology channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC82q... Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_...

Pathways In The Coordination Of Cellular Glucose And Fat Metabolism

Pathways in the coordination of cellular glucose and fat metabolism Last Updated on Sat, 04 Mar 2017 | Fatty Acids The metabolism of fat and carbohydrate are closely linked; optimal oxidation of fat and conservation of glucose occur in the fed state and the opposite in the fasted state. Current theory identifies two major biochemical pathways as central components of this integrated coordination of energy metabolism . These are the glucose-fatty acid cycle first described in 1963 (Randle et al., 1963) and the malonyl CoA / carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT)-1 pathway which was suggested by the studies of McGarry and coworkers in the late 1970s (McGarry et al., 1977). Importantly, these two pathways complement each other (Fig. 2.1). The glucose- fatty acid cycle links carbohydrate and fat metabolism and was one of the first theories to describe how fatty acids influence glucose metabolism . It centres on the proposition that increased beta-oxidation (utilisation) of fatty acids in skeletal muscle results in a reduced uptake and oxidation of glucose (Fig. 2.1), offering additional fine-tuning to the 'coarse' control of glucose and fat utilisation that is enforced at whole body le Continue reading >>

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  1. Bret Scher

    Nutritional ketosis can be very beneficial. Ketosis is when your internal glucose and insulin levels are low enough that your body no longer wants to store excess energy as fat, and instead, breaks down your fat stores and converts them into energy in the form of ketones. A ketone body is actually a more efficient fuel source than glucose (ketones require 2 molecules of oxygen to produce ATP, the main chemical source of energy, whereas glucose requires 4 molecules of oxygen). You can achieve nutritional ketosis by limiting your carbohydrate intake to less than 20grams per day, and instead eating a very high fat diet with >80% of your calories coming form fat. Starvation ketosis is another way to get into ketosis, and as the name implies, requires not eating at all. That could be anywhere from 14–48 hours and still be potentially healthy. After 48 hours, however, you likely get more harm than good from starvation ketosis. Once in ketosis, many people experience greater energy levels, improved mental clarity, and increased fat loss just to name a few. There is a well describes adaptation period of about 2 weeks called the “keto flu” where your body adjusts to ketosis and you may actually feel worse at first. But once your body adapts, you will start to feel the benefits. There are also ketone supplements available now that can help you get in to ketosis. Ket-OS by Pruvit is one supplement. Check out Dustin Schaffer’s website to learn more about the keto lifestyle and exogenous ketone supplements

  2. Marcel Hartmann.

    Everyone reacts differently. Theoretically, there is nothing wrong with ketones being the primary source of fuel for the body. In-fact, It has been proven to be more adequate in supplying energy that carbohydrates.

  3. Taylor Baker

    The difference between "Ketosis" and "Ketoacidosis" is that the latter is the extreme ketosis that has developed so much that it has acidified the blood, which in effect, will kill you. A lot of people THINK that ketoacidosis is only caused by diabetes, but this is not true. It can also be caused by things like Alcohol, etc. that mess with the liver (though the Diabetic form, called DKA, is the most common that is seen in practice.) Essentially what this means is that if your in "Ketosis", you are sort of half way to a state of ketoacidosis, though still in a controlled state. This means that your more likely to end up in a state of ketoacidosis, if exposed to anything which could cause it. (the acidosis part comes from the fact that when ketones are burnt at the cellular level, they release by-product acids similar in chemical structure to acetone.) You also have to remember, that Ketosis is an Altered state, which one is not in by default, (a healthy newborn will NEVER be in a state of ketosis upon birth, regardless of whether the mother is on a ketogenic diet or not.) Therefore, one could reasonably conclude that this is probably not a good idea, or we would have been born doing it.

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