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Glucose And Glycogen

What Is Glycogen? | Musclesound

What Is Glycogen? | Musclesound

Tags: glycogen , muscle fuel , muscle health When we eat carbohydrates, our body changes it into a form of sugar called glucose that can be used for energy. The glucose, in turn, is changed to Glycogen, a form of sugar that can be easily stored by our muscles and liver. It is the predominant storage form of glucose and carbohydrates in animals and humans. While glycogen is indispensable to athletes,we have a very limited capacity to store it. For example, carbohydrates account for only about 1-2% of total bodily energy stores1. Most of this is stored as glycogen in muscle (80%) and liver (14%), and about 6% is stored in the blood as glucose. Despite its limited storage capacity, glycogen is crucial for energy production at all levels of effort. At rest, muscle glycogen is used for about 15-20% of energy production. At moderate intensities (~55-60% of max) glycogen usage could rise to as much as 80-85%2, and this increases even more at higher exercise intensities. Research has shown that aerobic endurance is directly related to the initial muscle glycogen stores, that strenuous exercise cannot be maintained once these stores are depleted, and that perception of fatigue during prolonged intense exercise parallels the decline in muscle glycogen3. Ensure you are optimizing glycogen stores before exercise, maintaining it during exercise, and replenishing it after exercise. The impact of carefully designed nutritional strategies can be monitored via MuscleSound. Goodman, MN. Amino acid and protein metabolism. In Exercise, nutrition and energy metabolism, Eds. E.S. Horton, R.L. Tertujn, 89-99. New York: Macmillan. Katz A, Broberg S, Sahlin K, Wahren J. Leg glucose uptake during maximal dynamic exercise in humans. Am J Physiol. 251(1 Pt 1):E65-70. 1986 Ivy, JL. Regulation Of M Continue reading >>

Glycogen And Glucose

Glycogen And Glucose

Glycogen and Glucose are the two forms of sugar that your body employs to store and use as energy . Glucose is the sugar your body converts into energy. Glycogen is the sugar your body stores in both your liver and muscle cells. Your body can't use glycogen directly as a source of energy, and cannot store glucose. When you eat a well-balanced meal with both carbohydrates and protein, your body converts and absorbs the carbohydrates and part of the protein into glucose. It then attempts to maintain an even blood glucose level. When your blood glucose is too high, your pancreas produces insulin to convert some of that glucose into glycogen and then stores it for later use. When it is running low, it produces glucagon, a hormone secreted by the pancreas which stimulates your liver to convert some glycogen into glucose. Once converted, the glucose can be released into your blood stream. (The glycogen stored in your muscles can't be converted back into sugar, so it can only be used by your muscles.) Your liver can only store 90 to 110 grams of glycogen (the equivalent of about three to four hours of normal activity). When your glycogen reserves are full, and you still have glucose in your blood or glucose being absorbed into your bloodstream from a meal, your liver then starts to convert glucose into fat. That is actually a normal process because with a regular size meal, you will invariably fill up your glycogen reserves. Therefore it is customary to store some fat when you eat. If you don't eat between meals, after around three hours your liver glycogen will be running low and your body will start converting that fat into energy until you eat your next meal. Overall, this is a healthy, natural process of filling up your glycogen supply, storing some fat, and then accessing Continue reading >>

Understanding Glycolysis: What It Is And How To Feed It

Understanding Glycolysis: What It Is And How To Feed It

In theprevious article Bioenergetics And Nutrition: Creatine, Carbs, And Protein, I explained the first of three energy systems, our ATP-PC system. In this article I would like to dive into glycolysis. Glycolysis takes over as the main energy system in activities that are slightly longer in duration and have a smaller energy demand than our ATP-PC system. Many of us train in this pathway and many sports require a high demand of the glycolytic pathway for fuel. Understanding the system and substrates involved can help increase you performance in these areas. Glycolysis is the breakdown of carbohydrates. It lasts from roughly ten seconds into physical activity up to about two to three minutes. The energy for glycolysis comes from glucose, or our stored form of glucose - glycogen. Glycogen is stored in muscle tissue and the liver, and the average person holds about 1,500-2,000 calories of stored glycogen. Broken down there are about 100g of glycogen in the liver and upwards of 400g of stored glycogen in muscle tissue. Glycogen in the Liver and Muscles Storing glycogen in the liver and muscles serves an important function in human metabolism. Our liver is the organ responsible for controlling blood sugar between meals. When insulin levels fall, the opposing hormone, glucagon, is released. Glucagon stimulates the liver to release some of its stored glycogen into the blood to maintain blood sugar levels. Glycogen stored in the muscle tissue serves an important role as well. Our muscles main function is to move bones. This allows us to do all the locomotive tasks associated with daily living. What better place to store energy then within the tissues that require this energy to move us around? After the first seven to ten seconds of moving we utilize this glycolytic pathway for Continue reading >>

Storage Of Glucose As Glycogen

Storage Of Glucose As Glycogen

The liver secretes glucose into the bloodstream as an essential mechanism to keep blood glucose levels constant. Liver, muscle, and other tissues also store glucose as glycogen, a high‐molecular‐weight, branched polymer of glucose. Glycogen synthesis begins with glucose‐1‐phosphate, which can be synthesized from glucose‐6‐ phosphate by the action of phosphoglucomutase (an isomerase). Glucose‐1‐phosphate is also the product of glycogen breakdown by phosphorylase: The K eq of the phosphorylase reaction lies in the direction of breakdown. In general, a biochemical pathway can't be used efficiently in both the synthetic and the catabolic direction. This limitation implies that there must be another step in glycogen synthesis that involves the input of extra energy to the reaction. The extra energy is supplied by the formation of the intermediate UDP‐glucose. This is the same compound found in galactose metabolism. It is formed along with inorganic pyrophosphate from glucose‐1‐phosphate and UTP. The inorganic pyrophosphate is then hydrolyzed to two phosphate ions; this step pulls the equilibrium of the reaction in the direction of UDP‐glucose synthesis (see Figure 1). Figure 1 Glycogen synthase transfers the glucose of UDP‐glucose to the nonreducing end (the one with a free Carbon‐4 of glucose) of a preexisting glycogen molecule (another enzyme starts the glycogen molecule), making an A, 1‐4 linkage and releasing UDP (see Figure 2 ). This reaction is exergonic, though not as much as the synthesis of UDP‐ glucose is. Figure 2 Summing up, the synthesis of glycogen from glucose‐1‐phosphate requires the consumption of a single high‐energy phosphate bond and releases pyrophosphate (converted to phosphates) and UDP. Overall, the reaction is: G Continue reading >>

Glycogen Structure Uridine Diphosphate Glucose (udp-glucose) Is The Immediate Precursor For Glycogen Synthesis. Glycogen Synthase Will Only Add Glucose Units From Udp-glucose Onto A Preexisting Glycogen Chain That Has At Least Four Glucose Residues. Linkage Of The First Few Glucose Units To Form The Minimal

Glycogen Structure Uridine Diphosphate Glucose (udp-glucose) Is The Immediate Precursor For Glycogen Synthesis. Glycogen Synthase Will Only Add Glucose Units From Udp-glucose Onto A Preexisting Glycogen Chain That Has At Least Four Glucose Residues. Linkage Of The First Few Glucose Units To Form The Minimal "primer" Needed For Glycogen Synthase Recognition Is Catalyzed By A Protein Called Glycogenin, Which Attaches To The First Glucose And Catalyzes Linkage Of The First Eight Glucoses By Alpha(1,4) Bonds. The Enzyme, Glycogenin, Initiates Glycogenynthesis (oregonstate.edu/.../summer09/lecture/glycogennotes.html; Voet & Voet, 2004b). The Enzyme Glycogen Synthase Then Catalyzes Elongation Of Glycogen Chains Initiated By Glycogenin To A Chane Of 9 11 Glucose Molecule. Glycogen Synthase Catalyzes Transfer Of The Glucose Moiety Of Udp-glucose To The Hydroxyl At C 4 Of The Terminal Residue Of A Glycogen Chain To Form An (1-4)-glycosidic Linkage (fig 2) (mayes,1975; King, 2011; Voet &

... and cardiology) neuropsychiatry disorders and so on. Glucose is the name of the simple sugar found in plant and animal tissues. It is made within plants as a product of photosynthesis. Although glucose can be produced within the human body, most of it is supplied to people by dietary carbohydrate intake principally as starch. Once consumed and digested, glucose will either be used immediately or stored as glycogen for future use, (Caraway & Watts,1986; Mayer,1975). Glucose is the major energy source for human body and is derived primarily from dietary carbohydrates (grains, starchy vegetables, and legumes), from body stores of carbohydrates (glycogen) and from the synthesis of glucose from protein and glycerol moiety of triglycerides (gluconeogenesis) (King, 2011). The glucose level in blood is kept within narrow range through a variety of influences. While there is some variation in blood glucose as circumstance changes (feeding, prolonged fasting), levels above or below the normal range usually indicate disease. High blood glucose due to diabetes mellitus is the most commonly encountered disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. Low blood glucose is an uncommon cause of serious diseases. There are numerous rare conditions that cause hypoglycemia in neonatal period and early childhood. In adults, low blood glucose in the fasting state is almost always due to a serious underlying condition (Caraway & Watts,1986; King, 2011; Mayer, 1975; Service,1992) . Carbohydrates are important components of the diet. The carbohydrates that we ingest range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) to disaccharides (lactose, sucrose) and complex polysaccharides, starch and glycogen. Most carbohydrates are digested by salivary and pancreatic amylases, and are further Continue reading >>

Glycogen Depletion: Signs, Symptoms And Working Out

Glycogen Depletion: Signs, Symptoms And Working Out

Glycogen Depletion: Signs, Symptoms and Working Out Glucose is the gasoline to your hard-working body machine. If you fill your vehicle up with the good stuff premium gasoline in the form of nutrient dense whole-foods your body will operate efficiently like a fancy hybridcar, not one of those standard minivans. Why a hybrid? Well, whats impressive is that your body doesnt just know how to use fuel, it also knows how to store fuel to keep you moving throughout the day without having to stop and fill your tank repeatedly. It burns glucose (the fuel) and stores it as glycogen for later. Whats the difference between glucose and glycogen? Glycogen is a more complex version of glucose, called a polysaccharide (poly = many, saccharide = sugar). When our body needs a quick boost of energy or when we arent getting enough glucose from food, glycogen depletion occurs as your body uses up all the stored fuel, giving you no way to get where you want to go. How your body stores glucose for longer drives To understand glycogen depletion, lets first explain how your body reserves energy (glucose) for emergencies. To clue you into the importance of glucose, seventy-five percent of glycogen (stored glucose) is used by the brain and central nervous system. Its no wonder why we get hangry ! Glycogen is either created directly from food (glycogen synthesis) or through an indirect pathway ( gluconeogenesis ). When you eat a meal with carbohydrates, your body releases insulin, which takes glucose from the blood for energy into the cells. When the body gets excess fuel, the glucose molecules are linked together in a chain, producing longer units, called glycogen. Glycogen has a max level of storage before it gets converted to fat . Storage levels depend on your body and factors such as activi Continue reading >>

What Is Glycogen And How Does It Fuel Exercise?

What Is Glycogen And How Does It Fuel Exercise?

Glycogen is the main way the body stores glucose for later use. Since most of the carbohydrate we eat ends up as glucose, it's important to be able to store some of it to control blood glucose levels and provide glucose to the parts of the body that need it. Glycogen molecules are that storage. Glycogen in animals, including humans, has been compared to starch in plants, as starch molecules are the main glucose storage in plants. Confusion Alert: Glycogen is sometimes confused with the hormone glucagon, which is also important in carbohydrate metabolism and blood glucose control. Glycogen is a large molecule produced in the liver and stored mainly in the liver and muscle cells. After we eat more carbohydrate than our bodies can use at the moment, glycogen is made from the leftover glucose. Later, when blood sugar levels fall, the glycogen is broken down to release more glucose into the blood. Low-carb diets initially deplete glycogen storage, although to some extent any weight loss diet has a similar effect. Since glycogen molecules have quite a bit of water attached (threeto four times the weight of the glucose), some "water weight" is lost at the beginning of a weight loss diet, and this is particularly true on a low-carb diet. The glycogen stores are partially replaced subsequently, which means some of the "water weight" also returns. This results in a temporary weight loss stall (but not a fat loss stall). The body can store about 2000 calories of glucose as glycogen. This becomes an issue for endurance athletes (e.g. marathon runners and long-distance cyclists) who can burn that many calories in a couple of hours. When athletes run out of glycogen, they experience a very uncomfortable state commonly called "hitting the wall" where they lack the energy to continue Continue reading >>

Principles Of Biochemistry/glucose, Glycogen And Diabetes

Principles Of Biochemistry/glucose, Glycogen And Diabetes

Glucose (C6H12O6, also known as D-glucose, dextrose, or grape sugar) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) and an important carbohydrate in biology. Cells use it as a source of energy and a metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and starts cellular respiration. Glucose exists in several different structures, but all of these structures can be divided into two families of mirror-images (stereoisomers). Only one set of these isomers exists in nature, those derived from the "right-handed form" of glucose, denoted D-glucose. D-glucose is often referred to as dextrose. The term dextrose is derived from dextrorotatory glucose. Solutions of dextrose rotate polarized light to the right (in Latin: dexter = "right"). Starch and cellulose are polymers derived from the dehydration of D-glucose. The other stereoisomer, called L-glucose, is hardly found in nature. The name "glucose" comes from the Greek word glukus (γλυκύς), meaning "sweet". The suffix "-ose" denotes a sugar. The name "dextrose" and the 'D-' prefix come from Latin dexter ("right"), referring to the handedness of the molecules. Glucose is a monosaccharide with formula C6H12O6 or H-(C=O)-(CHOH)5-H, whose five hydroxyl (OH) groups are arranged in a specific way along its six-carbon backbone.[1] In its fleeting open-chain form, the glucose molecule has an open (as opposed to cyclic) and unbranched backbone of six carbon atoms, C-1 through C-6; where C-1 is part of an aldehyde group H(C=O)-, and each of the other five carbons bears one hydroxyl group -OH. The remaining bonds of the backbone carbons are satisfied by hydrogen atoms -H. Therefore glucose is an hexose and an aldose, or an aldohexose. Each of the four carbons C-2 through C-5 is chiral, meaning that its four bonds conne Continue reading >>

Glycogen Metabolism

Glycogen Metabolism

Glycogen is a readily mobilized storage form of glucose. It is a very large, branched polymer of glucose residues (Figure 21.1) that can be broken down to yield glucose molecules when energy is needed. Most of the glucose residues in glycogen are linked by α-1,4-glycosidic bonds. Branches at about every tenth residue are created by α-1,6-glycosidic bonds. Recall that α-glycosidic linkages form open helical polymers, whereas β linkages produce nearly straight strands that form structural fibrils, as in cellulose (Section 11.2.3). Glycogen is not as reduced as fatty acids are and consequently not as energy rich. Why do animals store any energy as glycogen? Why not convert all excess fuel into fatty acids? Glycogen is an important fuel reserve for several reasons. The controlled breakdown of glycogen and release of glucose increase the amount of glucose that is available between meals. Hence, glycogen serves as a buffer to maintain blood-glucose levels. Glycogen's role in maintaining blood-glucose levels is especially important because glucose is virtually the only fuel used by the brain, except during prolonged starvation. Moreover, the glucose from glycogen is readily mobilized and is therefore a good source of energy for sudden, strenuous activity. Unlike fatty acids, the released glucose can provide energy in the absence of oxygen and can thus supply energy for anaerobic activity. The two major sites of glycogen storage are the liver and skeletal muscle. The concentration of glycogen is higher in the liver than in muscle (10% versus 2% by weight), but more glycogen is stored in skeletal muscle overall because of its much greater mass. Glycogen is present in the cytosol in the form of granules ranging in diameter from 10 to 40 nm (Figure 21.2). In the liver, glycoge Continue reading >>

Glycogen

Glycogen

Schematic two-dimensional cross-sectional view of glycogen: A core protein of glycogenin is surrounded by branches of glucose units. The entire globular granule may contain around 30,000 glucose units.[1] A view of the atomic structure of a single branched strand of glucose units in a glycogen molecule. Glycogen (black granules) in spermatozoa of a flatworm; transmission electron microscopy, scale: 0.3 µm Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans,[2] animals,[3] fungi, and bacteria. The polysaccharide structure represents the main storage form of glucose in the body. Glycogen functions as one of two forms of long-term energy reserves, with the other form being triglyceride stores in adipose tissue (i.e., body fat). In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and skeletal muscle.[2][4] In the liver, glycogen can make up from 5–6% of the organ's fresh weight and the liver of an adult weighing 70 kg can store roughly 100–120 grams of glycogen.[2][5] In skeletal muscle, Glycogen is found in a low concentration (1–2% of the muscle mass) and the skeletal muscle of an adult weighing 70 kg can store roughly 400 grams of glycogen.[2] The amount of glycogen stored in the body—particularly within the muscles and liver—mostly depends on physical training, basal metabolic rate, and eating habits. Small amounts of glycogen are also found in other tissues and cells, including the kidneys, red blood cells,[6][7][8] white blood cells,[medical citation needed] and glial cells in the brain.[9] The uterus also stores glycogen during pregnancy to nourish the embryo.[10] Approximately 4 grams of glucose are present in the blood of humans at all times;[2] in fasted individuals, blood glucos Continue reading >>

Glycogen - Diabetes Self-management

Glycogen - Diabetes Self-management

The chief storage form of carbohydrate in animals (including humans). Glycogen is stored mainly in the bodys liver and muscle tissue. When blood glucose levels are high, excess glucose normally is stored as glycogen. When blood glucose levels drop, glycogen is converted back into glucose. Prolonged exercise can deplete a persons glycogen stores. This means that people with diabetes can develop severe hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) many hours after exercise, as the body replenishes its supply of glycogen in the muscles and tissues by taking glucose from the blood. Two hormones control the breakdown of glycogen: epinephrine (adrenaline), released by the adrenal glands, and glucagon , secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas. After many years of diabetes, these hormones may fail to work properly. The timely breakdown of glycogen into glucose may thus not occur, making people more prone to episodes of severe hypoglycemia without warning. Glucagon in injectable form is commercially available in special kits for treating severe hypoglycemia. Because someone whose blood sugar drops to very low levels may be unable to treat himself, friends and family of people with diabetes should learn how to inject glucagon. Injected glucagon quickly converts glycogen back into glucose to help restore normal blood sugar levels. This article was written by Robert S. Dinsmoor, a Contributing Editor of Diabetes Self-Management. Disclaimer Statements: Statements and opinions expressed on this Web site are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the publishers or advertisers. The information provided on this Web site should not be construed as medical instruction. Consult appropriate health-care professionals before taking action based on this information. Continue reading >>

Glycogen Biosynthesis; Glycogen Breakdown

Glycogen Biosynthesis; Glycogen Breakdown

Glycogen is a polymer of glucose (up to 120,000 glucose residues) and is a primary carbohydrate storage form in animals. The polymer is composed of units of glucose linked alpha(1-4) with branches occurring alpha(1-6) approximately every 8-12 residues. The end of the molecule containing a free carbon number one on glucose is called a reducing end. The other ends are all called non-reducing ends. Related polymers in plants include starch (alpha(1-4) polymers only) and amylopectin (alpha (1-6) branches every 24-30 residues). Glycogen provides an additional source of glucose besides that produced via gluconeogenesis. Because glycogen contains so many glucoses, it acts like a battery backup for the body, providing a quick source of glucose when needed and providing a place to store excess glucose when glucose concentrations in the blood rise. The branching of glycogen is an important feature of the molecule metabolically as well. Since glycogen is broken down from the "ends" of the molecule, more branches translate to more ends, and more glucose that can be released at once. Liver and skeletal muscle are primary sites in the body where glycogen is found. The primary advantagesof storage carbohydrates in animals are that 1) energy is not released from fat (other majorenergy storage form in animals) as fast as from glycogen; 2) glycolysis provides a mechanism of anaerobic metabolism (importantin muscle cells that cannot get oxygen as fast as needed); and 3) glycogen provides a means of maintaining glucose levels thatcannot be provided by fat. Breakdown of glycogen involves 1) release of glucose-1-phosphate (G1P), 2) rearranging the remaining glycogen (as necessary) to permit continued breakdown, and 3) conversion of G1P to G6P for further metabolism. Remember that G6P can be Continue reading >>

Glycogen And Diabetes - Role, Storage, Release & Exercise

Glycogen And Diabetes - Role, Storage, Release & Exercise

Glycogen is a stored form of glucose. It is a large multi-branched polymer of glucose which is accumulated in response to insulin and broken down into glucose in response to glucagon . Glycogen is mainly stored in the liver and the muscles and provides the body with a readily available source of energy if blood glucose levels decrease. Energy can be stored by the body in different forms. One form of stored energy is fat and glycogen is another. Fatty acids are more energy rich but glucose is the preferred energy source for the brain and glucose also can provide energy for cells in the absence of oxygen, for instance during anaerobic exercise. Glycogen is therefore useful for providing a readily available source of glucose for the body. In a healthy body, the pancreas will respond to higher levels of blood glucose , such as in response to eating, by releasing insulin which will lower blood glucose levels by prompting the liver and muscles to take up glucose from the blood and store it as glycogen. People with diabetes either do not make enough of their own insulin and/or their insulin does not work effectively enough. As a result, the pancreas may not be able to respond effectively enough to rises in blood glucose. In these situations, when the body feels extra glucose is needed in the blood, the pancreas will release the hormone glucagon which triggers the conversion of glycogen into glucose for release into the bloodstream. Glycogen plays an important role in keeping our muscles fuelled for exercise. When we exercise, our muscles will take advantage of their stored glycogen. Glucose in our blood and glycogen stored in the liver can also be used to keep our muscles fuelled. Once we complete our exercise session, our muscles will replenish their glycogen stores. The tim Continue reading >>

Glycogen Vs. Glucose

Glycogen Vs. Glucose

Lexa W. Lee is a New Orleans-based writer with more than 20 years of experience. She has contributed to "Central Nervous System News" and the "Journal of Naturopathic Medicine," as well as several online publications. Lee holds a Bachelor of Science in biology from Reed College, a naturopathic medical degree from the National College of Naturopathic Medicine and served as a postdoctoral researcher in immunology. A bowl of colored pasta.Photo Credit: AlexPro9500/iStock/Getty Images Glucose and glycogen are both carbohydrates, but glucose is classified as a monosaccharide and sugar. As a single unit, it is a much smaller molecule. According to Virtual Chembook at Elmhurst College, glycogen is classified as a complex carbohydrate and starch, and it's made up of several glucose molecules. Glucose can be rapidly metabolized to produce energy. It dissolves readily in water and can be readily transported throughout your body. It can be carried in your bloodstream as well as in the sap of plants. Glucose serves as a primary energy source for plants as well as animals. Joining different numbers of glucose units forms different types of carbohydrates, according to the Department of Chemistry at Imperial College in the U.K. Disaccharides like sucrose and lactose consist of two linked glucose units, while polysaccarides consist of many more. In animals, glycogen is a large storage molecule for extra glucose, just as starch is the storage form in plants. Your liver and muscles synthesize glycogen and act as your main storehouses. Your stores can be broken down again to glucose for energy if necessary, and they can also provide structural support in various tissues in your body. One glycogen molecule can consist of long chains of 1,700 to 600,000 glucose units. About 0.5 percent of Continue reading >>

Glycogen

Glycogen

Glycogen Glycogen is the principal storage form of glucose in animal cells. In humans, the most glycogen is found in the liver (10% of the liver mass), whereas muscles only contain a relatively low amount of glycogen (1% of the muscle mass). In addition, small amounts of glycogen are found in certain glial cells in the brain. Sometimes called "animal starch" for its resemblance with starch found in plants, it is stored in liver and muscle cells and can be converted to glucose if needed. In the liver this conversion is regulated by the hormone glucagon. Under certain conditions, between meals for instance, liver glycogen is an important source of blood glucose. Muscle cell glycogen appears to be only for local use. Glycogen is the primary glucose (energy) storage mechanism. It is stored in the form of granules in the cytosol which is where glycolysis takes place. These granules contain both glycogen and the necessary enzymes for its conversion into glucose. Glycogen is a highly branched glucose polymer. It is formed of small chains of 8 to 12 glucose molecules linked together with &alpha (1®4) bonds. These small chains are in turn linked together with &alpha (1®6) bonds. A single molecule of glycogen can be made of up to 120,000 molecules of glucose. It is generated from glucose by the enzyme glycogen synthase. This process is called glycogenesis. The addition of a glucose molecule to glycogen takes two high energy bonds: one from ATP and one from UTP. Its breakdown into glucose, called glycogenolysis, is mediated by the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase. It's highly branched. Glycogen is a quick storage vehicle for the body to keep large amounts of glucose when it is not needed by the body. It is classed as a polysaccharide. Although much like amylopectin, glycogen contai Continue reading >>

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