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Are People With Diabetes More Prone To Aggression?

Are People With Diabetes More Prone To Aggression?

Relationship Between Blood Glucose Level and Self-Control Blood sugar can make people do crazy things. According to a recent scientific study on the link between low blood glucose level and relationship clashes (Bushman et al, 2014), being hungry makes an individual generally cranky and act more hostile to others. In the study, couples who are hungry tend to have a much higher tendency to exhibit aggression towards each other and become more impulsive in their reactions. This phenomenon is often referred to “hangry” (meaning feeling angry when you are hungry). If this irritable state can happen to any healthy person who experiences a change in their blood glucose level, imagine the ordeals individuals with diabetes frequently go through on a daily basis. However, do not jump to the conclusion that diabetes leads to aggression. In fact, scientists find a more direct correlation between blood glucose level and self-control. I recommend reading the following articles: In a way, you can visualize self-control as a muscle that requires a lot of energy to sustain so that it does not become ineffective quickly. This energy source comes from the glucose in the blood. So what kind of activities can wear out this “muscle”? Any daily activities that require self-discipline such as forcing yourself to get out of bed early to exercise, resisting from having a soda drink or another cookie with your meal, stopping yourself from smoking, dealing with stressful situations at work and at home, and abstaining yourself from road rage. As you can see, self-control plays a crucial part in restraining inappropriate and aggressive behaviors. So when people are low in glucose, the self-control mechanism cannot function properly to prevent these outbursts of hostile actions. In a researc Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia) (cont.)

High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia) (cont.)

A A A A high blood sugar level itself is a symptom of diabetes. However, an individual experiencing hyperglycemia may have no symptoms at all. Common symptoms can include: If hyperglycemia persists for several hours and leads to dehydration, other symptoms may develop, such as: Left untreated, hyperglycemia can lead to a condition called ketoacidosis, also known as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or diabetic coma. This occurs because the body has insufficient insulin to process glucose into fuel, so the body breaks down fats to use for energy. When the body breaks down fat, ketones are produced as by-products. Some ketones are eliminated via the urine, but not all. Until the patient is rehydrated, and adequate insulin action is restored, ketones remain in the blood. Ketones in the blood cause nausea, headache, fatigue, or vomiting. Symptoms include: A A A High Blood Sugar (Hyperglycemia) (cont.) If hyperglycemia persists for at least two or three days, or if ketones appear in the urine, call a doctor. Generally, people with diabetes should test their blood sugar levels at least four times a day: before meals and at bedtime (or following the schedule advised by the prescribed individual diabetes care plan). The urine should be checked for ketones any time the blood sugar level is over 250 mg/dL. When blood sugar stays high despite following a diabetic diet and plan of care, call the nurse, diabetes health educator, or physician for adjustments in the diet. If blood sugars are high because of illness, check for ketones and contact a health professional. Vomiting Confusion Sleepiness Shortness of breath Dehydration Blood sugar levels that stay above 160 mg/dL for longer than a week Glucose readings higher than 300 mg/dL The presence of ketones in the urine Ketoacidosis or diab Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia & Hypoglycemia

Hyperglycemia & Hypoglycemia

Hyperglycemia & Hypoglycemia Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is when there is more sugar in the blood than normal. It means the body may not be properly managing sugar in the body. Hyperglycemia is often the first condition doctors look for when testing for diabetes. If a person’s level of Hyperglycemia is above normal and becomes worse over time, they are likely to develop Type II diabetes. Often people who have hyperglycemia but are not yet diabetic, are said to be “pre-diabetic.” Hyperglycemia can be a serious problem if you don’t treat it, so it’s important to treat as soon as you detect it. If you fail to treat hyperglycemia, a condition called ketoacidosis (diabetic coma) could occur. Ketoacidosis develops when your body doesn’t have enough insulin. Without insulin, your body can’t use glucose for fuel, so your body breaks down fats to use for energy. When your body breaks down fats, waste products called ketones are produced. Your body cannot tolerate large amounts of ketones and will try to get rid of them through the urine. Unfortunately, the body cannot release all the ketones and they build up in your blood, which can lead to ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs immediate treatment. Symptoms include: Shortness of breath Breath that smells fruity Nausea and vomiting Very dry mouth Talk to your doctor about how to handle this condition. Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Glucose) Hypoglycemia is a clinical syndrome that results from low blood sugar. The term literally means “low sugar blood” It can produce a variety of symptoms and effects but the principal problems arise from an inadequate supply of glucose to the brain, resulting in impairment of function (neuroglycopenia). The symptoms can vary from person to perso Continue reading >>

Nondiabetic Hyperglycemia

Nondiabetic Hyperglycemia

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW: What is nondiabetic hyperglycemia? Nondiabetic hyperglycemia means your blood glucose (sugar) level is high even though you do not have diabetes. Hyperglycemia may happen suddenly during a major illness or injury. Instead, hyperglycemia may happen over a longer period of time and be caused by a chronic disease. Why is it important to manage hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia can increase your risk for infections, prevent healing, and it make it hard to manage your condition. It is important to treat hyperglycemia to prevent these problems. Hyperglycemia that is not treated can damage your nerves, blood vessels, tissues, and organs. Damage to arteries may increase your risk for heart attack and stroke. Nerve damage may also lead to other heart, stomach, and nerve problems. What increases my risk for nondiabetic hyperglycemia? A medical condition such as Cushing syndrome or polycystic ovarian syndrome Surgery or trauma, such as a burn or injury Infections, such as pneumonia or a urinary tract infection Certain medicines, such as steroids or diuretics Nutrition given through a feeding tube or IV A family history of diabetes or gestational diabetes Obesity or a lack of physical activity What are the signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia? You may not have any signs or symptoms, or you may have any of the following: More thirst than usual Frequent urination Blurred vision Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain How is nondiabetic hyperglycemia diagnosed and treated? Your healthcare provider will measure your blood sugar level with a blood test. You may be given insulin or other medicines to decrease your blood sugar level. How can I help prevent hyperglycemia? Exercise can help lower your blood sugar when it is high. It also can keep your blood sugar levels steady o Continue reading >>

Causes Of High Blood Glucose And Low Blood Glucose

Causes Of High Blood Glucose And Low Blood Glucose

Low or high blood sugar in a child with diabetes can cause loss of responsiveness. All of the cells in our body depend upon sugar in our blood as the main source of energy. This sugar comes from the foods that we eat. Certain organs in our body also make and store sugar. When the body is working properly, it automatically regulates the amount of sugar in the blood. When there is too much sugar in the blood, the body makes insulin, which lowers blood sugar. When blood sugar levels are too low, the body cuts back on the amount of insulin that it is making and lets the blood sugar levels rise. When blood sugar levels in the body are lower than normal, a child has hypoglycemia. Signs of hypo-glycemia in a healthy child are usually mild, such as irritability. In a child with diabetes, hypoglycemia can lead to loss of responsiveness if not treated quickly. A diabetic child can get hypoglycemia if he doesn’t eat enough or doesn’t eat at the right time. He can get hypoglycemia if he takes too much insulin. Blood sugar levels may drop because of exercise, being overheated, or illness. A diabetic child may have too much sugar in the body. This is called hyperglycemia. It is the opposite of hypoglycemia. This condition may be caused by too little insulin, illness, or stress. It may be caused by overeating, inactivity, or a combination of all of these factors. If you are not sure if the child has hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, give sugar. See if the symptoms improve. Always call EMS if symptoms are severe or if the child becomes unresponsive. Signs of Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia Signs of Hypoglycemia​ ​Signs of Hyperglycemia ​Irritability Paleness Drowsiness Confusion Trembling Excessive Sweating Poor coordination Slurred speech Staggering Eventual loss of responsivene Continue reading >>

Jaime Moo-young, Md

Jaime Moo-young, Md

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Pathogenesis · Insufficient insulin for a given carbohydrate load decreased cellular metabolism of glucose · Increased gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysisHyperglycemia · Increased breakdown of free fatty acids as alternative energy source ketone and ketoacid accumulation · Hyperglycemiaserum hyperosmolality osmotic diuresis dehydration and electrolyte derangements (dehydration is most lethal!) · Seen almost exclusively in Type I diabetes; rarely in Type II Definition: Triad of 1. Hyperglycemia (usually between 500 – 800 mg/dL or 27.8-44.4 mmol/L) 2. Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis (pH usually <7.30) 3. Ketonemia: -hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate most significant ** Urine ketones do not make the diagnosis, but they can support it** Triggers (the “I’sâ€): Don’t forget to ask about these! · Insulin deficiency: insulin non-compliance, insufficient insulin dosing, new-onset Type I diabetes · Iatrognic: glucocorticoids, atypical antipsychotics, high-dose thiazide diuretics · Infection: UTI, pneumonia, TB · Inflammation: pancreatitis, cholecystitis · Ischemia/infarction: MI, stroke, gut ischemia · Intoxication: Alcohol, cocaine, other drugs Presentation · Symptoms · Polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss · Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain · Fatigue, malaise · Associated trigger sx (fever/chills, chest pain, etc) · Signs · Volume depletion: skin turgor, dry axillae, dry mucus membranes, HR, BP · Altered mental status: stupor, coma · Kussmaul respirations: rapid, shallow breathing = hyperventilation to counteract metabolic acidosis · Fruity, acetone odor on breath Lab workup and findings · Hyperglycemia: > 250 mg/dL in serum, + glucose on urinalysis · Acidemia (pH <7. Continue reading >>

Diabetes: High Blood Sugar

Diabetes: High Blood Sugar

www.CardioSmart.org Hyperglycemia means your blood sugar is too high. It can happen if you miss your diabetes medicine, do not eat healthy foods, or do not exercise. Illness, stress, and hormones can also cause your blood sugar to rise. In some people, it occurs for no apparent reason. If you have type 2 diabetes, it may take days for your blood sugar to rise too high. With type 1 diabetes, it may happen faster. By checking your blood sugar, youmay be able to prevent this and avoid an emergency. Signs of high blood sugar You may havemild high blood sugar if you: • Feel very thirsty and urinate more. • Have warm, dry skin. You may havemoderate high blood sugar if you: • Breathe fast and deeply. • Have a fruity breath odor. • Have belly pain, poor appetite, or vomiting. • Are dizzy or weak. • Urinate less. • Have blurred vision that slowly gets worse. • Feel drowsy and have trouble waking up. You may have severe high blood sugar if you: • Have a rapid heart rate and a weak pulse. • Have rapid, deep breathing with a strong, fruity breath odor. • Feel very sleepy and weak. • Fainted or passed out. How to prevent high blood sugar • Post a list of symptoms where you can see it often. Make sure others know the symptoms and what to do in case of an emergency. • Check your blood sugar often, especially if you are sick or are not doing your normal routine. • Teach others at work and at home how to check your blood sugar. • Have a medical alert bracelet or other medical identification with you at all times. • Develop a plan. Talk with your doctor about howmuch insulin to take, depending on your blood sugar level. • Take your medicines as prescribed. Do not skip your di Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar: Causes, Warning Signs And Treatment

High Blood Sugar: Causes, Warning Signs And Treatment

High blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, occurs when the body has too much food or glucose, or too little insulin. Potential reasons a person with type 1 diabetes (T1D) might have high blood sugar include: Not enough insulin taken Eating more than usual Eating earlier than usual Eating food with higher glucose content without injecting extra insulin Injecting insulin at a site on the body where the absorption rate is slower Missing or skipping an insulin dose A clog in insulin pump tubing Less exercise than normal Emotional or physical stress Illness or injury Other hormones Medications (such as steroids) Pain Hyperglycemia Symptoms Thirst (dehydration) Frequent urination, including potential waking up in the middle of the night to urinate; and unusually wet diapers in an infant or toddler. Blurry vision Stomach pain Increased hunger Nausea Drowsiness, lethargy, exhaustion Confusion Sweating Fruity, sweet or wine-like odor on breath Vomiting Inability to concentrate Weight loss (a longer-term symptom) that eventually leads to coma Treatments The following recommendations are general treatments for high blood sugar. Specific actions, such as giving additional insulin, should be determined by the adult with T1D, physician or parents (for a child). If blood test results are slightly above normal: Continue regular activity Drink water or sugar-free drinks Monitor blood-sugar levels by checking regularly Chart blood-glucose test results Consider injecting additional insulin as instructed by physician or parent If blood test results are moderately high: Don’t engage in strenuous exercise Drink water or sugar-free drinks Inject additional insulin if instructed by physician or parents Monitor blood-sugar levels by checking regularly Chart blood-glucose test results Try to discover Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Hyperglycemia

Diabetes And Hyperglycemia

Tweet Hyperglycemia occurs when people with diabetes have too much sugar in their bloodstream. Hyperglycemia should not be confused with hypoglycemia, which is when blood sugar levels go too low. You should aim to avoid spending long periods of time with high blood glucose levels. What is hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia, the term for expressing high blood sugar, has been defined by the World Health Organisation as: Blood glucose levels greater than 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dl) when fasting Blood glucose levels greater than 11.0 mmol/L (200 mg/dl) 2 hours after meals Although blood sugar levels exceeding 7 mmol/L for extended periods of time can start to cause damage to internal organs, symptoms may not develop until blood glucose levels exceed 11 mmol/L. What causes hyperglycemia? The underlying cause of hyperglycemia will usually be from loss of insulin producing cells in the pancreas or if the body develops resistance to insulin. More immediate reasons for hyperglycemia include: Missing a dose of diabetic medication, tablets or insulin Eating more carbohydrates than your body and/or medication can manage Being mentally or emotionally stressed (injury, surgery or anxiety) Contracting an infection What are the symptoms of hyperglycemia? The main 3 symptoms of high blood sugar levels are increased urination, increased thirst and increased hunger. High blood sugar levels can also contribute to the following symptoms: Regular/above-average urination Weakness or feeling tired Increased thirst Vision blurring Is hyperglycemia serious? Hyperglycemia can be serious if: Blood glucose levels stay high for extended periods of time - this can lead to the development of long term complications Blood glucose levels rise dangerously high - this can lead to short term complications In the shor Continue reading >>

Symptoms And Detection Of Ketoacidosis

Symptoms And Detection Of Ketoacidosis

Symptoms These symptoms are due to the ketone poisoning and should never be ignored. As soon as a person begins to vomit or has difficulty breathing, immediate treatment in an emergency room is required to prevent coma and possible death. Early Signs, Symptoms: Late Signs, Symptoms: very tired and sleepy weakness great thirst frequent urination dry skin and tongue leg cramps fruity odor to the breath* upset stomach* nausea* vomiting* shortness of breath sunken eyeballs very high blood sugars rapid pulse rapid breathing low blood pressure unresponsiveness, coma * these are more specific for ketoacidosis than hyperosmolar syndrome Everyone with diabetes needs to know how to recognize and treat ketoacidosis. Ketones travel from the blood into the urine and can be detected in the urine with ketone test strips available at any pharmacy. Ketone strips should always be kept on hand, but stored in a dry area and replaced as soon as they become outdated. Measurement of Ketones in the urine is very important for diabetics with infections or on insulin pump therapy due to the fact it gives more information than glucose tests alone. Check the urine for ketones whenever a blood sugar reading is 300 mg/dl or higher, if a fruity odor is detected in the breath, if abdominal pain is present, if nausea or vomiting is occurring, or if you are breathing rapidly and short of breath. If a moderate or large amount of ketones are detected on the test strip, ketoacidosis is present and immediate treatment is required. Symptoms for hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome are linked to dehydration rather than acidosis, so a fruity odor to the breath and stomach upset are less likely. How To Detect Ketones During any illness, especially when it is severe and any time the stomach becomes upset, ketone Continue reading >>

Pardon Our Interruption...

Pardon Our Interruption...

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Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar

Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar

Topic Overview High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) is most often seen in people who have diabetes that isn't well controlled. The symptoms of high blood sugar can be mild, moderate, or severe. Mild high blood sugar If your blood sugar levels are consistently higher than your target range (usually 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) to 350 mg/dL in adults and 200 mg/dL to 240 mg/dL in children), you may have mild symptoms of high blood sugar. You may urinate more than usual if you are drinking plenty of liquids. Some people who have diabetes may not notice any symptoms when their blood sugar level is in this range. The main symptoms of high blood sugar are: Increased thirst. Increased urination. Weight loss. Fatigue. Increased appetite. Young children are unable to recognize symptoms of high blood sugar. Parents need to do a home blood sugar test on their child whenever they suspect high blood sugar. If you don't drink enough liquids to replace the fluids lost from high blood sugar levels, you can become dehydrated. Young children can become dehydrated very quickly. Symptoms of dehydration include: A dry mouth and increased thirst. Warm, dry skin. Moderate to severe high blood sugar If your blood sugar levels are consistently high (usually above 350 mg/dL in adults and above 240 mg/dL in children), you may have moderate to severe symptoms of high blood sugar. These symptoms include: Blurred vision. Extreme thirst. Lightheadedness. Flushed, hot, dry skin. Restlessness, drowsiness, or difficulty waking up. If your body produces little or no insulin (people with type 1 diabetes and some people with type 2 diabetes), you also may have: Rapid, deep breathing. A fast heart rate and a weak pulse. A strong, fruity breath odor. Loss of appetite, belly pain, and/or vomiting. If your Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

As fat is broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is sometimes the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who have not yet been diagnosed. It can also occur in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing doses of insulin shots, or surgery can lead to DKA in people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but it is less common. It is usually triggered by uncontrolled blood sugar, missing doses of medicines, or a severe illness. Continue reading >>

Difference Between Dka And Hhnk

Difference Between Dka And Hhnk

DKA vs HHNK The body normally functions to control the intake of glucose into the cells. In normal cases, insulin is supplied endogenously in order for the body to get the much needed glucose into the cell and out from the bloodstream, but the normal physiology of the body can be disrupted every once in a while. Because of the diet that people have and their lifestyle, it is common nowadays to see cases of diabetes. Type II Diabetes is the type of diabetes that develops insulin resistance to the cells. There are a number of symptoms that people experience whenever they have a dysfunctional system that pertains to the control of the blood sugar. In type II diabetes, one of the most common signs is uncontrolled weight loss and whenever the person’s blood is taken, there are instances of hyperglycemia. Normally, you would want to get your blood glucose level within 80-120 mg/dl. But because of the fact that resistance is present during type II diabetes – unlike Type I diabetes where production itself is limited – it is expected that the glucose is found in the bloodstream rather than in the cells. Two of the worst complications of diabetes are DKA and HHNK. There are striking disparities between these two diseases when it comes to pathophysiology and other aspects. DKA is called diabetic ketoacidosis and is one of the deadliest complications that one can experience in diabetes. On the other hand, HHNK, which literally means hyperosmolar hyperglycemic non-ketoacidosis or simply non-ketoacidotic coma. The similarity between HHNK and DKA is the fact that both are potenitally life threatening and should be managed as soon as possible. DKA is caused by the shortage of insulin. It happens both in type I and type II diabetes. Whenever the body feels that there is a shortage Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia - Symptoms, Causes And Treatments

Hyperglycemia - Symptoms, Causes And Treatments

Hyperglycemia is a term referring to high blood glucose levels - the condition that often leads to a diagnosis of diabetes. High blood glucose levels are the defining feature of diabetes, but once the disease is diagnosed, hyperglycemia is a signal of poor control over the condition. Hyperglycemia is defined by certain high levels of blood glucose:1 Fasting levels greater than 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) Two-hours postprandial (after a meal) levels greater than 11.0 mmol/L (200 mg/dL). Chronic hyperglycemia usually leads to the development of diabetic complications.2 Symptoms of hyperglycemia The most common symptoms of diabetes itself are related to hyperglycemia - the classic symptoms of frequent urination and thirst.2,3 Typical signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia that has been confirmed by blood glucose measurement include:1,3,4 Thirst and hunger Dry mouth Frequent urination, particularly at night Tiredness Recurrent infections, such as thrush Weight loss Vision blurring. Causes of hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia often leads to the diagnosis of diabetes. For people already diagnosed and treated for diabetes, however, poor control over blood sugar levels leads to the condition. Causes of this include:1,3,4 Eating more or exercising less than usual Insufficient amount of insulin treatment (more commonly in cases of type 1 diabetes) Insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes Illness such as the flu Psychological and emotional stress The "dawn phenomenon" or "dawn effect" - an early morning hormone surge. The video below from Diabetes UK explains the dawn phenomenon and offers practical tips. Treatment and prevention of hyperglycemia Prevention of hyperglycemia for people with a diabetes diagnosis is a matter of good self-monitoring and management of blood glucose levels, including ad Continue reading >>

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