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Fatty Acids Cannot Be Used To Make Glucose Because Quizlet

Nutrition Chapter 7 Flashcards | Quizlet

Nutrition Chapter 7 Flashcards | Quizlet

adenosine triphosphate, common high-energy compound composed of adenine, ribose, and 3 phosphate groups, released during breakdown of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids, provides energy for all cell activities pairs of chemical reactions in which some of the energy released from the breakdown of one compound is used to create a bond in the formation of another compound body converts 50% of food into energy and 50% into heat usually required in reactions, organic not proteins, associate with enzymes to assist, without coenzyme an enzyme cannnot funcction the absorbed products are used for energy, catabolic the absorbed products are used for energy, catabolic the absorbed products are used primarily to make proteins, contributes approximately 10-15% of energy use per day, catabolic 3-carbon structure, can be used to make glucose 2-carbon structure with a molecule of CoA attached, cannot be used to make glucose but can be used to make fat tricarboxylic acid cycle breaks down acetyl CoA to CO2 and H, occurs in the mitochondria, circular path, makes oxaloacetate which is the limiting step (cannot be made from fat) -when oxaloacetate is insufficient the TCA cycle results in energy crisis glucose splitting, 6 C glucose = 2 3 carbon pyruvate molecules, H atoms carried to electron transport chain by a coenzyme made from niacin, provides short bursts of energy, pyruvate can be converted back to glucose final pathway in energy metabolism that transports electrons from H to O2 and captures the energy released in the bonds or ATP, synthesizes ATP, composed of a series of proteins known as electron carriers, water is released option 1: (anaerobic) pyruvate to lactate produces ATP quickly or a short period of time with less total energy yield, pyruvate accepts hydrogens converting Continue reading >>

Chapter 4 Flashcards | Quizlet

Chapter 4 Flashcards | Quizlet

which of the following statements regarding glucose is false glucose is the most common disaccharide in our diet which of the following is a major dietary source of soluble fiber most starch digestion and breakdowns of disaccharides occur sin which section of the GI tract why does someone who has lactose intolerance have gastrointestinal problems such as abdominal distention, gas, cramping, and diarrhea the undigested lactose in the intestine draws water and bacteria the rise in blood glucose levels after eating stimulates the pancreas to secrete the hormone ___ causing blood glucose levels to ___ the main function of carbohydrates in the body is to how an ingested food potentially affects blood glucose levels which of the following best describes the effect of a fiber-rich meal on the rise in blood glucose that occurs after a meal the rise in blood glucose will be delayed anaerobic metabolic pathway that splits glucose into two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules compared to anaerobic metabolism of carbohydrate, aerobic metabolism of carbohydrates produces ___ ATP molecules for each glucose molecule when there is not sufficient carbohydrate to completely metabolize fatty acids, these molecules form fatty acids cannot be used to make glucose because the reactions that break them down produce two-carbon molecules normal blood glucose level is expected to be less than ___ milligrams/100 milliliters of blood after an 8 hour fast ___ is a condition in which the blood glucose levels are above normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes ___ is caused by an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing cells in the pancreas your friend jason has diabetes and developed hypoglycemia. of the following situations, which is the most likely reason he developed hypoglycemia he took Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 7 Flashcards | Quizlet

Nutrition Chapter 7 Flashcards | Quizlet

includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and expends the energy from food the process by which green plants use the sun's energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. compounds that cells can use for energy. The major fuels include glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids; metabolic byproducts include ketone bodies, lactate, glycerol, and alcohol reactions in which small molecules are put together to build larger ones and require energy (include the making of glycogen, triglycerides, and protein) reactions in which large molecules are broken down to smaller ones and release energy (include the breakdown of glycogen, triglycerides, and protein) high-energy compound composed of a purine(adenine) a sugar (ribose) and three phosphate groups. the body's capacity to do work and found in various forms in the body pairs of chemical reactions in which some of the energy released from the breakdown of one compound is used to create a bond in the formation of another compound (create ATP) or (expend ATP) complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes' activity (enzyme assitants) examples- B vitamin(niacin, folate, thiamin) have the ability to accept and donate H ions proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process, protein catalysts When the body needs energy quickly (running a quarter mile as fast as possible) pyruvate is converted to lactate. the breakdown of glucose-to-pyruvate-to-lactate proceeds without oxygen When energy expenditure proceeds at a lower pace (when you jog around the track for an hour) pyruvate breaks down to acetyl CoA in an aerobic pathway. (produce energy more slowly, total energy yield is greater) 3 carbon compound produced from pyruvate during anaerobic metabolism series Continue reading >>

Nutrition 2 Exam Energy Metabolism

Nutrition 2 Exam Energy Metabolism

Our bodies take or convert chemical energy from food to chemical energy of ATP Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of the nutrients: glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids Each nutrient molecule is made up of atoms of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. The body uses mostly carbohydrates and fats for its energy needs. Amino acids are used primarily to build proteins, but can be used as an energy source if there is a lack of CHO and lipid available. The more C-H bonds in a nutrient, the more energy it can provide the body. 16C FA yields 129 ATP when completely oxidized Step 1: Glycolysis= the process of breaking down glucose and turning it into pyruvate. Step 2: Intermediate Step = Pyruvate Acetyl CoA Step 3: TCA Cycle = A way to take small molecules like Acetyl CoA and tear H's off of them Step 4: Electron transport chain = A way to take all of the H's from steps 1,2 & 3 and use them to make ATP Glucose metabolism begins with glycolysis, in which glucose is converted to a 3-carbon molecule, pyruvate. Glycolysis takes place in cytosol of the cell; can function under anaerobic or aerobic conditions H atoms with their electrons are released & carried to ETC by coenzymesGlycolysis yields 2 ATP After glycolysis, pyruvate has 2 options... Acetyl CoA (acetic acid with coenzyme)When energy needed more slowly (riding a bike) Lactate is a 3-carbon compound produced from pyruvate during anaerobic metabolism. Acetyl CoA can't be used to make glucose! Acetyl CoA is a two carbon molecule to which all energy yielding nutrients (glucose, amino acids, glycerol, fatty acids) converge when being metabolized for energy. When the body needs energy, it will send acetyl CoA through a set of chemical reactions called the TCA cycle (AKA Kreb's Cycle). In the last ste Continue reading >>

Chapter 4 Carbs Flashcards | Quizlet

Chapter 4 Carbs Flashcards | Quizlet

- can be refined through grinding, cooking, extruding, and drying to end up with cereal - includes the entire Colonel of the green including the term, the bran, and the endosperm - the bran and germ are discarded along with some fiber, vitamins, and minerals - to make up for some of these losses refined grains sold in the US are required to be enriched - thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, and iron that are lost when grains are milled or later added back to levels that are equal to or higher than originally present - since 1998 folic acid has been added to enriched grains - vitamins B & E are removed by Milling but are not added back - the amounts of many nutrients are much lower than the amount originally present in whole grain - thiamin, riboflavin, niacin , iron and folate have been added back in amounts equal to or that exceed the original level - over 13% of calories consumed in American diet - nutritionally and chemically identical to sugars that naturally occur in foods - when separated from their plant sources they no longer contain the fiber, vitamins, minerals and other substances found in the original plant - a proposed change is to add the amount of added sugars on the nutrition facts panel - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (same two to two proportion found in water) - glucose, fructose, galactose (atoms arranged differently) (monosaccharide) - contains six carbon, 12 hydrogen, and six oxygen atoms Most important carbohydrate fuel for the human body - glycogen, starches, and the fiber cellulose are made up of straight or branching chains of glucose - the storage form of glucose in humans and other animals - found in the liver and muscles but we don't consume it in our diet because the glycogen in the animal muscles is broken down soon after the animal is slaughtered - th Continue reading >>

Nutrition Ch. 7 Energy Metabolism

Nutrition Ch. 7 Energy Metabolism

- all the ways the body obtains and uses energy from food - releases carbon dioxide, water and produces energy Where does all of the energy that sustains human life come from? - process by which green plants use the sun's energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water - compounds that cells can use for energy - glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, ketone bodies, lactate, glycerol, and alcohol - liver cells are most versatile and metabolically active - reaction in which small molecules are put together to build larger ones (building body compounds) - includes making of glycogen, triglycerides, and protein - reaction in which large molecules are broken down into smaller ones - releases energy (captured in bonds of ATP) - breakdown of glycogen, triglycerides, and protein - high energy compound composed of purine (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and 3 phosphate groups (the negative charged make ATP vulnerable to hydrolysis) - pairs of chemical reactions in which some of the energy released from the breakdown of one compound is used to create a bond in the formation of another compound - ex: hydrolysis of ATP, body uses ATP to transfer the energy released during catabolic reactions to power anabolic reactions that require energy - enzymes: facilitators of metabolic reactions - coenzymes: organic, associate with enzymes but aren't proteins, w/o a coenzyme an enzyme can't function all of these results have C, N, O, and H; bonds break and release energy - amino acids and glycerol can be converted to pyruvate - fatty acids can be converted to acetyl CoA - 6 carbon glucose is converted to 6 carbon compound before splitting in half to form two 3 carbon compounds - the 3 carbon compounds continue on the pathway until they're converted to pyruvate - the net yield of one gluco Continue reading >>

Nutrition Test 3

Nutrition Test 3

Sort What is ketosis? The body's shift to ketosis allows us to survive starvation for longer periods of time (otherwise we would die in about 3 weeks). Why is this? Ketosis occurs the body adapts to fasting by combining acetyl CoA fragments derived from fatty acids to produce an alternate energy source, ketone bodies. Ketone bodies can efficiently provide fuel for brain cells. Ketone body production rises until, after about 10 days of fasting, it is meeting much of the nervous systems needs, but the body still continues to sacrifice protein. A ketone body that contains an acid group (COOH) is called a keto acid. Small amounts of keto acids are a normal part of the blood chemistry, but when their concentration rises, the pH of the blood drops. This is ketosis, a sign that the body's chemistry is going awry. When the body is in ketosis, elevated blood kentones are excreted in the urine, and a fruity odor on the breath develops. Ketosis induces a loss of appetite,. As starvation continues, this loss of appetite becomes an advantage to a person without access to food. When food becomes available again and the person eats, the body shifts out of ketosis and appetite returns. Continue reading >>

Energy Metabolism

Energy Metabolism

Sort Electron Transport Chain The electron transport chain is the final pathway in energy metabolism that transports electrons from hydrogen to oxygen and captures the energy released in the bonds of ATP (respiratory chain). The electron transport chain captures energy in the high-energy bonds of ATP. The electron transport chain consists of a series of proteins that serve as electron "carriers." These carriers are mounted in sequence on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The electron carriers pass the electrons down until they reach oxygen. Oxygen accepts the electrons and combines with hydrogen atoms to form water. Oxygen must be available for energy metabolism. As electrons are passed from carrier to carrier, hydrogen ions are pumped across the membrane to the outer compartment of the mitochondria. The rush of hydrogen ions back into the inner compartment powers the synthesis of ATP (energy is captured in the bonds of ATP). The ATP leaves the mitochondria and enters the cytoplasm, where it can be used for energy. Anaerobic When the body needs energy quickly, pyruvate is converted to lactate. The breakdown of glucose-to-pyruvate-to-lactate proceeds without oxygen-it is anaerobic. This anaerobic pathway yields energy quickly, but it cannot be sustained for long. Coenzymes carry the hydrogens from glucose breakdown to the electron transport chain. If the electron transport chain is unable to accept the hydrogens, as may occur when cells lack sufficient mitochondria or in the absence of oxygen, pyruvate can accept the hydrogens. By accepting the hydrogens, pyruvate becomes lactate, and the coenzymes are freed to return to glycolysis to pick up more hydrogens. In this way, glucose can continue provided energy anaerobically for a while. One possible fate of the lactat Continue reading >>

Nutrition-energy Metabolism Chapter 7

Nutrition-energy Metabolism Chapter 7

the sum total of all the chemical reactions that go on in living cells. includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and expends the energy from food. small molecules are put together to build larger ones. require energy. one large molecule is broken down to smaller ones and releases energy. Adenosine Triphosphate. contains 3 phosphate groups. when bonds of these phosphate groups split, they release energy. The body uses ATP to transfer energy released during catabolic reactions to power anabolic reactions. enzymes are proteins that facilitate a chemical reaction without being changed, much like catalysts. Coenzymes help activate the enzymes. However, they are not proteins. Pyruvate can be used to make glucose. Acetyl CoA cannot be used to make glucose. Amino acids and glycerol can be converted to pyruvate and therefore can make glucose. Fatty acids are converted to Acetyl CoA, and therefore cannot make glucose. However, it can readily make fat. Without glucose, the body will break down its lean body tissue to get the amino acids so that it can make glucose. Acetyl CoA enters this cycle and energy is harnessed through the electron transport chain. Glycolysis-glucose splitting and does not require oxygen (anaerobic). The yield of one glucose molecule is 2 pyruvate molecules. When the body needs energy quickly, pyruvate is converted to lactate. this also does not require oxygen. However, it cannot be sustained for long. when energy expenditure is slower, pyruvate breaks down to acetyl CoA. this produces energy more slowly and can sustained for longer. coenzymes carry the hydrogen ions from glucose to electron transport chains. this occurs if there is insufficient mitochondria in the cells or is oxygen is lacking. if cell needs energy and oxygen is available then Continue reading >>

Nutrition Final Flashcards | Quizlet

Nutrition Final Flashcards | Quizlet

Dehydration is an example of a deficiency disease that: occurs quickly after water is withheld from the diet. occurs slowly after water is withheld from the diet. occurs only when someone is very athletic. occurs quickly after water is withheld from the diet. You have two relatives both 55 years old and both have always eaten a diet of primarily fast food. One of these relatives has severe heart disease and the other has low cholesterol levels and no sign of heart disease. What is the best explanation for this? these relatives have the same genetic predisposition for heart disease these relatives do not share the same genetic predisposition for heart disease the fast food consumed is not bad for their heart health the fast food consumed is good for their heart health these relatives do not share the same genetic predisposition for heart disease Which of the following is an example of variety in the diet? Selecting foods from all the foods groups Selecting different foods within food groups Selecting foods from all the foods groups and different foods within food groups Selecting appropriate portion sizes of foods Selecting foods from all the foods groups and different foods within food groups T/F: Eating "bad" foods twice a week will lead to an "unhealthy diet". Using a smaller plate for dinner may help you practice: For a nutrition study to provide reliable information, it must: collect quantifiable data from the right experimental population. nutrient needs into daily nutrient requirements. food choices into daily nutrient requirements. The best definition of the purpose of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) is: to insure that all Americans consume a healthy diet. to provide food in the American market that satisfies nutrient needs of the population. to provide nut Continue reading >>

Nutrition Exam 2

Nutrition Exam 2

Sort Why does someone who has lactose intolerance have gastrointestinal problems, such as abdominal distension, gas, cramping, and diarrhea? A. The lactose is an irritant to the stomach. B. The lactose in the small intestine neutralizes enzyme action. C. The undigested lactose in the intestine draws water and bacteria. D. The presence of lactose in the small intestine causes the gall bladder to contract more forcefully. C. The undigested lactose in the intestine draws water and bacteria. The rise in blood glucose levels after eating stimulates the pancreas to secrete the hormone ___, causing blood glucose levels to ____. A. Glucagon, Drop B. Glucagon, Rise C. Insulin, Drop D. Insulin, Rise C. Insulin, Drop Compared to anaerobic metabolism of carbohydrate, aerobic metabolism of carbohydrates produces _______ ATP molecules for each glucose molecule. A. More B. The same amount of C. Fewer A. More When there is not sufficient carbohydrate to completely metabolize fatty acids, these molecules form: A. Amino Acids B. Carbon Dioxide C. Ketones D. Oligosaccharides C. Ketones Fatty acids cannot be used to make glucose because: A. They are metabolized only by anaerobic processes. B. They do not have enough energy in their molecular structure to generate glucose molecules. C. The reactions that break them down produce two-carbon molecules. D. The products of their metabolism combine too quickly to form other compounds that the body uses for energy. C. The reactions that break them down produce two-carbon molecules. Normal blood glucose level is expected to be less than ___ milligrams/100 milliliters of blood after an 8-hour fast. A. 100 B. 125 C. 140 D. 180 A. 100 The amount of carbohydrate required to meet energy needs, provide adequate glucose, and prevent ketosis is ______ gram Continue reading >>

Nutrition Exam 3

Nutrition Exam 3

1. Metabolism 1.Metabolism is the sum of these and all the other chemical reactions that go on in living cells; energy metabolism includes all the ways the body obtains and uses energy from food. The enzymes involved in Phase I reactions are primarily located in the endoplasmic reticulum of the liver cell, they are called microsomal enzymes. Phase II metabolism involves the introduction of a hydrophilic endogenous species, such as glucuronic acid or sulfate, to the drug molecule. Refer to evernote for more info. 2. Examples of anabolism and metabolism. 2.Anabolism refers to all the metabolic activity in the human body that builds biological molecules, and catabolism refers to all the metabolic processes that break down biological molecules. EXAMPLE'S Muscle tissue growth is an anabolic process, and digestion is a catabolic activity. Diagram in evernote. 4. Body's response to feasting and fasting: metabolism, storage, priority Study ch 7 notes. Diagram for feasting and fasting, excess of each macro and defecit of each, first day what happens, next day major source of glucose. Refer to evernote for diagram Feasting: metabolism favors fat formation, excess energy stored as fat. Excess Protein Recall from Chapter 6 that the body cannot store excess amino acids as such; it has to convert them to other compounds. Contrary to popular opinion, a person cannot grow muscle simply by overeating protein. Lean tissue such as muscle develops in response to a stimulus such as hormones or physical activity. When a person overeats protein, the body uses the surplus first by replacing normal daily losses and then by increasing protein oxidation. An increase in protein oxidation uses some excess protein, but it displaces fat in the fuel mix. If excess protein is still available, the amino Continue reading >>

Nutrition. Chap 7: Energy Metabolism.

Nutrition. Chap 7: Energy Metabolism.

Sort Proteins: makes nonessential AA that are in short supply. Removes excess AA & converts them to other AA, or deaminates them & converts them to glucose or fatty acids. Removes ammonia from blood & converts it to urea for excretion. Makes DNA/RNA. & many proteins. >> Other: Detoxifies alcohol, drugs, poison, & excretes them. Helps dismantle old RBC's & captures the iron for recycling. Stores most vitamins, & many minerals. Activates Vitamin D. AA: Before entering metabolic pathways, AA are deaminated (lose their nitrogen amino group). deamination produces ammonia (which provides nitrogen to make nonessential AA. Remaining ammonia is excreted by urea in liver/kid. AA pathway: can enter pathways as pyruvate/Acetyl CoA/others enter krebs as compounds other than Acetyl CoA. AA that make glucose either by pyruvate or krebs cycle are glucogenic. AA that are degraded to Acetyl CoA are Ketogenic. Thus, proteins unlike fats, are a good source of glucose when carbs aren't available. In the liver: because of capillary network the liver is first to get alcohol saturated blood. liver cells are the only other cells in the body that can make sufficient quantities of dehydrogenase, to oxidize alcohol at a decent rate. >> Alcohol affects every organ of the body, bu t the most dramatic evidence is disruptive behavior is in the liver. Normally the liver prefers fatty acids for fuel, & it packages excess out. But when alcohol is there it has to process it first. >> Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 7

Nutrition Chapter 7

Sort Feasting eating in excess of energy needs metabolism favors fat formation - dietary fat to body fat is most direct and efficient conversion (carbohydrate and protein have other roles to fulfill before) fuel mix - depends on diet; carbohydrate and protein intakes influence fuel mix; increases in carbohydrate and protein intakes DISPLACE fat in the diet (more carbohydrate/protein and less fat) increase fat eaten DOES NOT enhance fat breakdown - does not respond to dietary fat intake! Transition from Feasting to Fasting after a meal (2-3 hours), glucose, glycerol, fatty acids used as needed, stored - fasting state draws on these stores (glycogen and fat are released/broken down) energy needed all the time! (sleeping) basal metabolism - cell's work to maintain life processes; 2/3 energy a person expends per day fasting (choice) vs. starving (no choice) - body cannot distinguish difference between them, forced to draw on reserves of carbohydrate and fat Fasting carbohydrate, fat, protein all eventually used as energy begins with release of glucose from liver's glycogen stores, fatty acids from adipose cells breakdown and acetyl CoA produced - Krebs cycle to produce energy (ATP) decrease blood glucose levels serve as signal - promotes further fat breakdown; release of amino acids from muscles Fatty Acids as Fuel good for now, but glucose is needed brain, nervous system, and RBC - primary source brain/nerve cells consume 1/2 total glucose used/day (50%) 1/4 of energy body uses at rest spent by brain RBC completely dependent on glucose, brain/nerve cells prefer glucose for energy Protein to the Rescue amino acids yielding pyruvate (to make glucose); breakdown of body proteins; amino acids that canoot make glucose used for energy by other cells; expensive way to make glucos Continue reading >>

Human Nutrition Exam 3

Human Nutrition Exam 3

Which of the following statements about essential amino acids is FALSE? A.Without essential amino acids, we lose our ability to make proteins and other nitrogen-containing compounds we need. B.Nine of the 20 amino acids in the body are classified as essential. C.Our bodies can synthesize essential amino acids in sufficient amounts, so we do not need to consume them in our diet. D.Our bodies cannot synthesize essential amino acids in sufficient amounts, so we must consume them in our diet. Once the instructions have been transcribed to mRNA, the mRNA leaves the nucleus and binds to a ribosome in the cytoplasm. The ribosome moves along the mRNA reading the code to begin the process of translation. Which of the following statements correctly describes the function of tRNA during translation? A.During translation, tRNA collects and transports the amino acids to the ribosome. B.During translation, tRNA carries the mRNA to the ribosome. C.During translation, tRNA carries the gene's instructions to the ribosome. D.During translation, tRNA transfers the instructions to the DNA. The sequential order of the amino acids in a protein is called the __________ of the protein. Which of the following statements is TRUE? A.Protein denaturation affects the primary structure of proteins. B.Protein denaturation affects both the shape and function of proteins. C.Heat exposure, but not acid, will cause proteins to denature. D.Protein denaturation affects only the shape, but not the function of proteins. How does the body use the protein once it has been ingested? Consider the following statements and select the correct ones regarding protein use. A.The liver uses amino acids to create glucose. B.Amino acids are used to create new proteins. C.If you ingest more protein than your body needs, Continue reading >>

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