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Fatty Acids Can Be Converted To Glucose True Or False

Does Fat Convert To Glucose In The Body?

Does Fat Convert To Glucose In The Body?

Your body is an amazing machine that is able to extract energy from just about anything you eat. While glucose is your body's preferred energy source, you can't convert fat into glucose for energy; instead, fatty acids or ketones are used to supply your body with energy from fat. Video of the Day Fat is a concentrated source of energy, and it generally supplies about half the energy you burn daily. During digestion and metabolism, the fat in the food you eat is broken down into fatty acids and glycerol, which are emulsified and absorbed into your blood stream. While some tissues -- including your muscles -- can use fatty acids for energy, your brain can't convert fatty acids to fuel. If you eat more fat than your body needs, the extra is stored in fat cells for later use. Fat has more than twice as many calories per gram as carbs and protein, which makes it an efficient form of stored energy. It would take more than 20 pounds of glycogen -- a type of carbohydrate used for fuel -- to store the same amount of energy in just 10 pounds of fat. Your Body Makes Glucose From Carbs Almost all the glucose in your body originated from carbohydrates, which come from the fruit, vegetables, grains and milk in your diet. When you eat these carb-containing foods, your digestive system breaks them down into glucose, which is then used for energy by your cells. Any excess glucose is converted into glycogen, then stored in your muscles and liver for later use. Once you can't store any more glucose or glycogen, your body stores any leftover carbs as fat. Glucose is your brain's preferred source of energy. However, when glucose is in short supply, your brain can use ketones -- which are derived from fat -- for fuel. Since your brain accounts for approximately one-fifth of your daily calori Continue reading >>

Metabolism

Metabolism

Sort Catabolism Degradation from large complex molecules to smaller simple ones: 1) Carbohydrate Catabolism: a) Glycolysis b) Penthose Phosphate Passway c) Kerbs Cycle (Cytric Acid Cycle) d) Electron transport Chain e) Glycogenolysis 2) Lipid Catabolism a) β oxidation b) Ketone metabolism c) Cholestrol catabolism 3) Protein Catabolism 4) Nucleic Acid Catabolism Glycolysis: Definition and Enzymes Converts Glucose to Pyruvate (or Lactate in anaerobic conditions) Net energy yield: 2 ATP, 2 NADH Steps: 1) Glucose ---> Glucose-6p 2) Glucose-6p <---> Fructose-6p 3) Fructose-6p ---> Fruktose-1,6 bisphosphate --- 4) Fruktose-1,6 bisphosphate <--->Glyceraldehyde-3p + DHAP 4-a) Glyceraldehyde-3p <---> DHAP 5) Glyceraldehyde-3p <---> 1,3-Biphosphoglycerate 6) 1,3-Biphosphoglycerate <---> 3-Phosphoglycerate 7) 3-Phosphoglycerate <---> 2-Phosphoglycerate 8) 2-Phosphoglycerate ----> Phosphoenylpyruvate (PEP) 9) PEP ---> Pyruvate Enzymes: 1) Hexokonase (Glucokinase in liver), 2) Glucose 6-p isomerase (Phosphoglucose isomerase) 3) PFK, 4) Aldolase, 4-a) Triose-phosphate isomerase, 5) Glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6) Phosphoglycerate kinase, 7) Phosphoglycerate mutase, 8) Enolase, 9) Pyruvate Kinase Hexokinase, PFK and Pyruvate Kinase are irreversible and regulatory PFK is Rate Limiting Step ATP is used in steps 1 & 3 NADH produced in 5 ATP produced in 6 & 9 Glycolysis: regulators 1) Hexokinase inhibited by:G6P (In Liver: Glucokinase regulated by: Glucokinase regulatory protein: GKRP) 2) PFK-1 Stimulated by AMP & Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate⁰ and inhibited by ATP & Citrate PFK-2 stimulated by Insukine and inhibited by Glucagon 3) Pyruvate kinase activated by: fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and Insuline⁰, Inhibited by ATP, Acetyl-CoA, Glucagon⁰ and Alanine⁰ ⁰Liver specific G Continue reading >>

The Catabolism Of Fats And Proteins For Energy

The Catabolism Of Fats And Proteins For Energy

Before we get into anything, what does the word catabolism mean? When we went over catabolic and anabolic reactions, we said that catabolic reactions are the ones that break apart molecules. To remember what catabolic means, think of a CATastrophe where things are falling apart and breaking apart. You could also remember cats that tear apart your furniture. In order to make ATP for energy, the body breaks down mostly carbs, some fats and very small amounts of protein. Carbs are the go-to food, the favorite food that cells use to make ATP but now we’re going to see how our cells use fats and proteins for energy. What we’re going to find is that they are ALL going to be turned into sugars (acetyl) as this picture below shows. First let’s do a quick review of things you already know because it is assumed you learned cell respiration already and how glucose levels are regulated in your blood! Glucose can be stored as glycogen through a process known as glycogenesis. The hormone that promotes this process is insulin. Then when glycogen needs to be broken down, the hormone glucagon, promotes glycogenolysis (Glycogen-o-lysis) to break apart the glycogen and increase the blood sugar level. Glucose breaks down to form phosphoglycerate (PGAL) and then pyruvic acid. What do we call this process of splitting glucose into two pyruvic sugars? That’s glycolysis (glyco=glucose, and -lysis is to break down). When there’s not enough oxygen, pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid. When oxygen becomes available, lactic acid is converted back to pyruvic acid. Remember that this all occurs in the cytoplasm. The pyruvates are then, aerobically, broken apart in the mitochondria into Acetyl-CoA. The acetyl sugars are put into the Krebs citric acid cycle and they are totally broken Continue reading >>

Can Sugars Be Produced From Fatty Acids? A Test Case For Pathway Analysis Tools

Can Sugars Be Produced From Fatty Acids? A Test Case For Pathway Analysis Tools

Can sugars be produced from fatty acids? A test case for pathway analysis tools Department of Bioinformatics, 2Bio Systems Analysis Group, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena, Ernst-Abbe-Platz 2, 07743 Jena, Germany and 3School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Headington, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Search for other works by this author on: Department of Bioinformatics, 2Bio Systems Analysis Group, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena, Ernst-Abbe-Platz 2, 07743 Jena, Germany and 3School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Headington, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Search for other works by this author on: Department of Bioinformatics, 2Bio Systems Analysis Group, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena, Ernst-Abbe-Platz 2, 07743 Jena, Germany and 3School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Headington, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK Search for other works by this author on: Department of Bioinformatics, 2Bio Systems Analysis Group, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena, Ernst-Abbe-Platz 2, 07743 Jena, Germany and 3School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Headington, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK Search for other works by this author on: Bioinformatics, Volume 25, Issue 1, 1 January 2009, Pages 152158, Luis F. de Figueiredo, Stefan Schuster, Christoph Kaleta, David A. Fell; Can sugars be produced from fatty acids? A test case for pathway analysis tools, Bioinformatics, Volume 25, Issue 1, 1 January 2009, Pages 152158, Motivation: In recent years, several methods have been proposed for determining metabolic pathways in an automated way based on network topology. The aim of this work is to analyse these methods by tackling a concrete example relevant in biochemistry. It concerns the question wh Continue reading >>

Harvesting Energy

Harvesting Energy

Why do we humans eat food? What do we need it for, and get out of it? W O R K T O G E T H E R Cellular respiration is an: Endergonic process Exergonic process Exergonic OR endergonic process, depending on the organism. In which organelle does cellular respiration occur? Chloroplast Mitochondria Depends on whether it’s a plant or an animal. What is “food†(i.e. source of metabolic energy) for plants? Sunlight Sugar Water Oxygen Minerals cristae mitochondrion inner membrane outer membrane intermembrane space matrix Cellular respiration takes place in the mitochondria. net exergonic “downhill†reaction glucose protein amino acids CO2 + H2O + heat ADP + heat Review: ATP is produced and used in coupled reactions endergonic (ATP synthesis) exergonic (ATP breakdown) exergonic (glucose breakdown) endergonic (protein synthesis) Energy released by the exergonic breakdown of glucose is used for: The endergonic production of ATP. The exergonic production of ATP. The endergonic breakdown of ATP. The exergonic breakdown of ATP. 2 pyruvate electron transport chain (cytosol) (mitochondrion) glycolysis Krebs (citric acid) cycle 2 acetyl CoA 2 NADH Total 36 or 38 ATPs 2 ATP 6 NADH 2 FADH2 glucose 32 or 34 ATPs 2 ATP 2 NADH Overview Glycolysis splits sugar into two 3-carbon chains (pyruvate), producing 2 ATPs Cellular respiration breaks the sugar down further, producing 32-34 ATPs. NADH and FADH (derived from vitamins B3 and B2) act as electron carriers. 34 or 36 ATP in mitochondria– oxygen required in cytosol– no oxygen required glycolysis glucose fermentation pyruvate 2 ATP cellular respiration O2 if no O2 available ethanol + CO2 or lactic acid CO2 H2O fructose bisphosphate ATP ADP 1 Glucose activation in cytosol 2 Energy harvest NAD+ NADH ATP AD Continue reading >>

How Fat Cells Work

How Fat Cells Work

In the last section, we learned how fat in the body is broken down and rebuilt into chylomicrons, which enter the bloodstream by way of the lymphatic system. Chylomicrons do not last long in the bloodstream -- only about eight minutes -- because enzymes called lipoprotein lipases break the fats into fatty acids. Lipoprotein lipases are found in the walls of blood vessels in fat tissue, muscle tissue and heart muscle. Insulin When you eat a candy bar or a meal, the presence of glucose, amino acids or fatty acids in the intestine stimulates the pancreas to secrete a hormone called insulin. Insulin acts on many cells in your body, especially those in the liver, muscle and fat tissue. Insulin tells the cells to do the following: The activity of lipoprotein lipases depends upon the levels of insulin in the body. If insulin is high, then the lipases are highly active; if insulin is low, the lipases are inactive. The fatty acids are then absorbed from the blood into fat cells, muscle cells and liver cells. In these cells, under stimulation by insulin, fatty acids are made into fat molecules and stored as fat droplets. It is also possible for fat cells to take up glucose and amino acids, which have been absorbed into the bloodstream after a meal, and convert those into fat molecules. The conversion of carbohydrates or protein into fat is 10 times less efficient than simply storing fat in a fat cell, but the body can do it. If you have 100 extra calories in fat (about 11 grams) floating in your bloodstream, fat cells can store it using only 2.5 calories of energy. On the other hand, if you have 100 extra calories in glucose (about 25 grams) floating in your bloodstream, it takes 23 calories of energy to convert the glucose into fat and then store it. Given a choice, a fat cell w Continue reading >>

Nutrition Review Exam2

Nutrition Review Exam2

1. Nutrition 101Exam 2 Review Session TAs: Helen Corless and Delma Betancourt 2. Chapter 6Protein: Amino Acids 3. Which of the following atoms is not a component of carbohydrate or fat?a) Hydrogenb) Nitrogenc) Oxygend) Carbon 4. Which of the following atoms is not a component of carbohydrate or fat?a) Hydrogenb) Nitrogenc) Oxygend) Carbon 5. Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are all composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in various arrangementsBut…protein is unique in that it also contains nitrogen 6. Which of the following differentiates amino acids from each other?a) Number of carbon-carbon double bondsb) The side groupc) The amino groupd) Hydrogenation 7. Which of the following differentiates amino acids from each other?a) Number of carbon-carbon double bondsb) The side groupc) The amino groupd) Hydrogenation 8. There are 20 different amino acids, eachwith its own unique side group 9. An amino acid that the body can synthesize is called:a) Indispensableb) Essentialc) Conditionally essentiald) Non-essential 10. An amino acid that the body can synthesize is called:a) Indispensableb) Essentialc) Conditionally essentiald) Non-essential 11. Most amino acids are nonessential, meaning the body can synthesize them for itself (as long as building blocks are available)Essential amino acids must come from the diet, because the body cannot make these in sufficient quantities (indispensable)Conditionally essential: normally nonessential but must be supplied by diet under special circumstances (e.g. PKU -> tyrosine) 12. Proteins form when _______ bonds join amino acids in a ________ reaction.a) Carbon; hydrolysisb) Carbon; anabolicc) Peptide; condensationd) Peptide; catabolic 13. Proteins form when _______ bonds join amino acids in a ________ reaction.a) Carbon; hydrolysisb) Continue reading >>

Connections Between Cellular Respiration And Other Pathways

Connections Between Cellular Respiration And Other Pathways

So far, we’ve spent a lot of time describing the pathways used to break down glucose. When you sit down for lunch, you might have a turkey sandwich, a veggie burger, or a salad, but you’re probably not going to dig in to a bowl of pure glucose. How, then, are the other components of food – such as proteins, lipids, and non-glucose carbohydrates – broken down to generate ATP? As it turns out, the cellular respiration pathways we’ve already seen are central to the extraction of energy from all these different molecules. Amino acids, lipids, and other carbohydrates can be converted to various intermediates of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, allowing them to slip into the cellular respiration pathway through a multitude of side doors. Once these molecules enter the pathway, it makes no difference where they came from: they’ll simply go through the remaining steps, yielding NADH, FADH​, and ATP. Simplified image of cellular respiration pathways, showing the different stages at which various types of molecules can enter. Glycolysis: Sugars, glycerol from fats, and some types of amino acids can enter cellular respiration during glycolysis. Pyruvate oxidation: Some types of amino acids can enter as pyruvate. Citric acid cycle: Fatty acids from fats and certain types of amino acids can enter as acetyl CoA, and other types of amino acids can enter as citric acid cycle intermediates. In addition, not every molecule that enters cellular respiration will complete the entire pathway. Just as various types of molecules can feed into cellular respiration through different intermediates, so intermediates of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle may be removed at various stages and used to make other molecules. For instance, many intermediates of glycolysis and the cit Continue reading >>

Dynamic Adaptation Of Nutrient Utilization In Humans

Dynamic Adaptation Of Nutrient Utilization In Humans

Most cells use glucose for ATP synthesis, but there are other fuel molecules equally important for maintaining the body's equilibrium or homeostasis. Indeed, although the oxidation pathways of fatty acids, amino acids, and glucose begin differently, these mechanisms ultimately converge onto a common pathway, the TCA cycle, occurring within the mitochondria (Figure 1). As mentioned earlier, the ATP yield obtained from lipid oxidation is over twice the amount obtained from carbohydrates and amino acids. So why don't all cells simply use lipids as fuel? In fact, many different cells do oxidize fatty acids for ATP production (Figure 2). Between meals, cardiac muscle cells meet 90% of their ATP demands by oxidizing fatty acids. Although these proportions may fall to about 60% depending on the nutritional status and the intensity of contractions, fatty acids may be considered the major fuel consumed by cardiac muscle. Skeletal muscle cells also oxidize lipids. Indeed, fatty acids are the main source of energy in skeletal muscle during rest and mild-intensity exercise. As exercise intensity increases, glucose oxidation surpasses fatty acid oxidation. Other secondary factors that influence the substrate of choice for muscle include exercise duration, gender, and training status. Another tissue that utilizes fatty acids in high amount is adipose tissue. Since adipose tissue is the storehouse of body fat, one might conclude that, during fasting, the source of fatty acids for adipose tissue cells is their own stock. Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue cells also utilize glucose in significant proportions, but only at the absorptive stage - that is, right after a regular meal. Other organs that use primarily fatty acid oxidation are the kidney and the liver. The cortex cells of the Continue reading >>

In Silico Evidence For Gluconeogenesis From Fatty Acids In Humans

In Silico Evidence For Gluconeogenesis From Fatty Acids In Humans

In Silico Evidence for Gluconeogenesis from Fatty Acids in Humans 2Systems Biology/Bioinformatics Group, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology Hans Knll Institute, Jena, Germany 3Department of Human Nutrition, Institute of Nutrition, University of Jena, Jena, Germany 4Department of Clinical Nutrition, German Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam-Rehbrcke, Nuthetal, Germany 1Department of Bioinformatics, School of Biology and Pharmaceutics, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Jena, Germany 2Systems Biology/Bioinformatics Group, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology Hans Knll Institute, Jena, Germany 3Department of Human Nutrition, Institute of Nutrition, University of Jena, Jena, Germany 4Department of Clinical Nutrition, German Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam-Rehbrcke, Nuthetal, Germany Stanford University, United States of America Conceived and designed the experiments: CK RG MR SS. Analyzed the data: CK LFdF SW. Wrote the paper: CK LFdF SS. Received 2011 Jan 14; Accepted 2011 May 24. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The question whether fatty acids can be converted into glucose in humans has a long standing tradition in biochemistry, and the expected answer is No. Using recent advances in Systems Biology in the form of large-scale metabolic reconstructions, we reassessed this question by performing a global investigation of a genome-scale human metabolic network, which had been reconstructed on the basis of experimental results. By elem Continue reading >>

Metabolic Functions Of The Liver

Metabolic Functions Of The Liver

Hepatocytes are metabolic overachievers in the body. They play critical roles in synthesizing molecules that are utilized elsewhere to support homeostasis, in converting molecules of one type to another, and in regulating energy balances. If you have taken a course in biochemistry, you probably spent most of that class studying metabolic pathways of the liver. At the risk of damning by faint praise, the major metabolic functions of the liver can be summarized into several major categories: Carbohydrate Metabolism It is critical for all animals to maintain concentrations of glucose in blood within a narrow, normal range. Maintainance of normal blood glucose levels over both short (hours) and long (days to weeks) periods of time is one particularly important function of the liver. Hepatocytes house many different metabolic pathways and employ dozens of enzymes that are alternatively turned on or off depending on whether blood levels of glucose are rising or falling out of the normal range. Two important examples of these abilities are: Excess glucose entering the blood after a meal is rapidly taken up by the liver and sequestered as the large polymer, glycogen (a process called glycogenesis). Later, when blood concentrations of glucose begin to decline, the liver activates other pathways which lead to depolymerization of glycogen (glycogenolysis) and export of glucose back into the blood for transport to all other tissues. When hepatic glycogen reserves become exhaused, as occurs when an animal has not eaten for several hours, do the hepatocytes give up? No! They recognize the problem and activate additional groups of enzymes that begin synthesizing glucose out of such things as amino acids and non-hexose carbohydrates (gluconeogenesis). The ability of the liver to synthe Continue reading >>

We Really Can Make Glucose From Fatty Acids After All! O Textbook, How Thy Biochemistry Hast Deceived Me!

We Really Can Make Glucose From Fatty Acids After All! O Textbook, How Thy Biochemistry Hast Deceived Me!

Biochemistry textbooks generally tell us that we can’t turn fatty acids into glucose. For example, on page 634 of the 2006 and 2008 editions of Biochemistry by Berg, Tymoczko, and Stryer, we find the following: Animals Cannot Convert Fatty Acids to Glucose It is important to note that animals are unable to effect the net synthesis of glucose from fatty acids. Specficially, acetyl CoA cannot be converted into pyruvate or oxaloacetate in animals. In fact this is so important that it should be written in italics and have its own bold heading! But it’s not quite right. Making glucose from fatty acids is low-paying work. It’s not the type of alchemy that would allow us to build imperial palaces out of sugar cubes or offer hourly sweet sacrifices upon the altar of the glorious god of glucose (God forbid!). But it can be done, and it’ll help pay the bills when times are tight. All Aboard the Acetyl CoA! When we’re running primarily on fatty acids, our livers break the bulk of these fatty acids down into two-carbon units called acetate. When acetate hangs out all by its lonesome like it does in a bottle of vinegar, it’s called acetic acid and it gives vinegar its characteristic smell. Our livers aren’t bottles of vinegar, however, and they do things a bit differently. They have a little shuttle called coenzyme A, or “CoA” for short, that carries acetate wherever it needs to go. When the acetate passenger is loaded onto the CoA shuttle, we refer to the whole shebang as acetyl CoA. As acetyl CoA moves its caboose along the biochemical railway, it eventually reaches a crossroads where it has to decide whether to enter the Land of Ketogenesis or traverse the TCA cycle. The Land of Ketogenesis is a quite magical place to which we’ll return in a few moments, but n Continue reading >>

Connections Of Carbohydrate, Protein, And Lipid Metabolic Pathways

Connections Of Carbohydrate, Protein, And Lipid Metabolic Pathways

Connecting Other Sugars to Glucose Metabolism Sugars, such as galactose, fructose, and glycogen, are catabolized into new products in order to enter the glycolytic pathway. Learning Objectives Identify the types of sugars involved in glucose metabolism Key Takeaways When blood sugar levels drop, glycogen is broken down into glucose -1-phosphate, which is then converted to glucose-6-phosphate and enters glycolysis for ATP production. In the liver, galactose is converted to glucose-6-phosphate in order to enter the glycolytic pathway. Fructose is converted into glycogen in the liver and then follows the same pathway as glycogen to enter glycolysis. Sucrose is broken down into glucose and fructose; glucose enters the pathway directly while fructose is converted to glycogen. disaccharide: A sugar, such as sucrose, maltose, or lactose, consisting of two monosaccharides combined together. glycogen: A polysaccharide that is the main form of carbohydrate storage in animals; converted to glucose as needed. monosaccharide: A simple sugar such as glucose, fructose, or deoxyribose that has a single ring. You have learned about the catabolism of glucose, which provides energy to living cells. But living things consume more than glucose for food. How does a turkey sandwich end up as ATP in your cells? This happens because all of the catabolic pathways for carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids eventually connect into glycolysis and the citric acid cycle pathways. Metabolic pathways should be thought of as porous; that is, substances enter from other pathways, and intermediates leave for other pathways. These pathways are not closed systems. Many of the substrates, intermediates, and products in a particular pathway are reactants in other pathways. Like sugars and amino acids, the catabo Continue reading >>

Gluconeogenesis: Endogenous Glucose Synthesis

Gluconeogenesis: Endogenous Glucose Synthesis

Reactions of Gluconeogenesis: Gluconeogenesis from two moles of pyruvate to two moles of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate consumes six moles of ATP. This makes the process of gluconeogenesis very costly from an energy standpoint considering that glucose oxidation to two moles of pyruvate yields two moles of ATP. The major hepatic substrates for gluconeogenesis (glycerol, lactate, alanine, and pyruvate) are enclosed in red boxes for highlighting. The reactions that take place in the mitochondria are pyruvate to OAA and OAA to malate. Pyruvate from the cytosol is transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane by the pyruvate transporter. Transport of pyruvate across the plasma membrane is catalyzed by the SLC16A1 protein (also called the monocarboxylic acid transporter 1, MCT1) and transport across the outer mitochondrial membrane involves a voltage-dependent porin transporter. Transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane requires a heterotetrameric transport complex (mitochondrial pyruvate carrier) consisting of the MPC1 gene and MPC2 gene encoded proteins. Following reduction of OAA to malate the malate is transported to the cytosol by the malate transporter (SLC25A11). In the cytosol the malate is oxidized to OAA and the OOA then feeds into the gluconeogenic pathway via conversion to PEP via PEPCK. The PEPCK reaction is another site for consumption of an ATP equivalent (GTP is utilized in the PEPCK reaction). The reversal of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) reaction requires a supply of NADH. When lactate is the gluconeogenic substrate the NADH is supplied by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) reaction (indicated by the dashes lines), and it is supplied by the malate dehydrogenase reaction when pyruvate and alanine are the substrates. Secondly, one mo Continue reading >>

Ch 25 Flashcards | Quizlet

Ch 25 Flashcards | Quizlet

a. is the conversion of one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. b. is the conversion of two molecules of glucose into one molecule of pyruvic acid. c. concludes with formation of acetyl coenzyme A. d. generates a usable total of 4 ATP molecules. e. requires oxygen for efficient conversion of glucose into pyruvic acid. a. is the conversion of one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. a. is formed through oxidation of pyruvic acid. b. formation requires pyruvate dehydrogenase. ATP is produced through chemiosmosis in the cytosol of the cell, and may occur under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Which of the following places the events of glucose catabolism in the correct order? a. glycolysis, formation of acetyl coA, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain reactions b. glycolysis, Krebs cycle, formation of acetyl coA, electron transport chain reactions c. glycolysis, anaerobic respiration, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain reactions d. glycolysis, Krebs cycle, anaerobic respiration, electron transport chain reactions e. formation of acetyl coA, glycolysis, electron transport chain reactions a. glycolysis, formation of acetyl coA, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain reactions Glycolysis requires only phosphorylation and does not involve dephosphorylation. If adequate O2 is present in the mitochondria, pyruvic acid will be converted to ______; if conditions are anaerobic, pyruvic acid will be converted to ______. The first molecule formed in the Krebs cycle is Which of the following statements about the process of deamination is FALSE? b. required for oxidation of amino acids in the Krebs cycle d. all of these choices are possible fates of an amino acid. e. none of these choices is possible fates of an amino acid. d. all of these cho Continue reading >>

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