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Fatty Acids And Amino Acids Produce Far Less Atp Than One Glucose Molecule.

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You Gotta Check This Website Out! http://healingideas.org/ Link to the Study - https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/comp... Recommended Supplements - Jarrow Formulas L-Carnitine, Supports Brain, Memory, Energy, Cardiovascular Health, 500 mg, 50 Caps http://amzn.to/2DzC13P L-Carnitine is an amino acid found in high concentrations in heart and liver tissues where; inside the cells (mitochondria); L-Carnitine helps transform fats into energy. L-Carnitine also facilitates the metabolism of carbohydrates and enhances ATP (i.e.; energy) production. L-Carnitine works synergistically with Co-Q10; an antioxidant and energy cofactor that is found in the inner membrane of the mitochondria.Keep out of the reach of children. Carnitine Fat Metabolism, Mitochondria, Muscles, Heart, Energy, Liver, Brain, Blood Cells, Membranes, Lungs, Pancreas, Gastrointestinal Carnitine is a popular amino acid with fitness enthusiasts and helps maintain lean body mass However, carnitine is actually more closely related to the family of B vitamins than amino acids Carnitine is also an alcohol. Thus, carnitine is an unusual amino acid and has different functions than most other amino acids, which are most usually employed by the body in the construction of protein. Carnitine is an essential factor in fatty acid metabolism in mammals. It's most important known metabolic function is to transport long-chain fatty acid into the mitochondria of muscle cells, including those in the heart, for oxidation. This is how the heart gets most of its energy. L-carnitine is also a constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. A lack of carnitine can lead to liver, heart, and muscle problems Fatty acids are utilized as an energy substrate in all tissues except some parts of the brain. L-Carnitine normalizes the redox state of the brain (perhaps by increasing the availability of beta-hydroxybutyrate and/or acetyl-L-carnitine to the brain) L-Carnitine acts as a reservoir of long-chain fatty acids for incorporation into red blood cell membrane phospholipids during repair after oxidative insults, It is also used in the synthesis of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine, the major component of surfactant, in lung alveolar cells. L-Carnitine can be used therapeutically to stimulate gastric and pancreatic secretions and in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias. These nutrients are all required for carnitine synthesis Magnesium, vitamin C, iron, vitamins B3 and B6, and alpha-ketoglutarate - along with the cofactors responsible for creating SAMe (methionine, folic acid, vitamin B12, and betaine) Carnitine supplementation has improved some patients who have angina secondary to coronary artery disease. Carnitine supplements may be useful in many forms of toxic or metabolic liver disease and in cases of heart muscle disease. Hearts undergoing severe arrhythmia quickly deplete their stores of carnitine. Athletes, particularly in Europe, have used carnitine supplements for improved endurance. Carnitine may improve muscle building by improving fat utilization and may even be useful in treating obesity. Carnitine may be of value in treating pregnant women, hypothyroid individuals, and male infertility due to low motility of sperm. Even the Physician's Desk Reference gives indication for carnitine supplements as "improving the tolerance of ischemic heart disease, myocardial insufficiencies, and type IV hyperlipoproteinemia. Carnitine deficiency is noted in abnormal liver function, renal dialysis patients, and severe to moderate muscular weakness with associated anorexia Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) were found to have low free carnitine, total carnitine, and acylcarnitine compared to controls L-Carnitine is a peripheral antagonist of thyroid hormone action in some tissues. It inhibits thyroid hormone entry into cell nuclei. In a controlled clinical trial, L-carnitine was shown to reverse or prevent some symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Conditions associated with a carnitine deficiency include cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and heart failure. Deficienies may result in accumulation of fat within skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and liver; a disruption of muscle fibers; and an accumulation of large aggregates of mitochondria within skeletal and smooth muscle. Deficiency can result in cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, encephalopathy, hepatomegaly, impaired growth and development in infants, and neuromuscular disorders. Primary carnitine deficiency has symptoms such as muscle fatigue, cramps, and myoglobinemia following exercise. Additional symptoms of chronic carnitine deficiency can include hypoglycemia, progressive myasthenia, hypotonia, or lethargy. Secondary carnitine deficiency is not as rare and is most commonly associated with dialysis in chronic renal failure, although it can also be induced by intestinal resection, severe infection, and liver disease.

Work And Energy In Muscles

Silly question? Let us take a look at data from the 1964 summer Olympic games. The participants were extremely motivated individuals. We can assume that they "gave all they had", running as fast as possible while still managing to come to the finish line. What lies behind the undisputable observation that those competing in short distance races ran faster than competitors in longer races? Why must we reduce speed if we want to run long distances over extended time intervals? Even the most motivated athletes are bound by this simple rule. We can see this in the following graph. Running speed is plotted against the duration of the race. Competitors running more than 30-40 seconds reduced their velocity markedly and a continual and gradual decrease occurred after about 2 minutes. Marathon runners ran a little more than half of the speed of sprinters. The explanation for this phenomena is that while the only direct fuel for muscles is ATP, we do not "use up" ATP while working. Even extremely hard work does not lower ATP concentrations by more than about 20 %. Several differing energy sources are used by working muscles to maintain ATP levels. Phosphocreatine, muscle glycogen, blood glu Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Franksta1118

    Triacylglycerol vs. Glucose

    Can somebody provide an explanation of why Triacylglycerols provide more ATP per carbon when fully oxidized to ATP than does Glucose. I'm thinking along the lines of B-Oxidation and such but I'm not too sure how the numbers work out. Thanks a lot!

  2. BloodySurgeon

    In order for a n-carbon fatty acid to be completely oxidized, (n/2)-1 turns of B-oxidation cycles must be completed, which produces (n/2)-1 FADH2, (n/2)-1 NADH, and n/2 acetyl-CoA. Each acetyle-CoA then goes through the citric acid cycle and produces the same amount of ATP as half a glucose. So as long as a fatty acid is 4 carbons or longer, it will produce more ATP than glucose.
    Also remember a triglyceride has three fatty acid chains and have chains usually around 16 carbons long in humans. So if you do the math, there are usually around 9x more ATP in triglycerides.

  3. BloodySurgeon

    This of course is unless information for the mcat... all you need to know is that triglycerides have more energy, but ATP are more usable energy sources by breaking the high energy phosphate bonds.

  4. -> Continue reading
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Basal cell carcinoma symptoms are related to basal cell cancer. It is types of skin cancer. This is a form of skin cancer. It starts off evolved in the basal cells, a sort of cell within the skin that makes new skin cells as older ones die off. Basal cell carcinoma symptoms often show as a bit obvious bump on the skin, even as it can get different types. Basal cell carcinoma occurs most people regularly on components of the pores and skin which might be uncovered to the sun, like as your neck and head. The primary causes of basal cell carcinoma are ultraviolet (UV) ray from the tanning bed or daylight. Even as ultraviolet rays knock our pores and skin, over the month, they're able to damage the DNA in our pores and skin cells. The DNA holds the code for the method the one's cells increase. Basal Cell Carcinoma Symptoms: Basal cell carcinoma typically will increase on solar-uncovered locations of your body, especially your neck and head. This skin most cancers show less frequently on the legs and trunk. Basal cell carcinoma hardly ever takes region on additives of your body commonly covered from the solar along with girls breasts or genitals. Approximately eighty-five percent of BCC arise at the face, head (scalp blanketed), and neck; others seem on the trunk or extremities. Rarely, they will arise on the palms. Different feature capabilities of BCC tumors embody the subsequent: A red bump, pearly white or skin colored: It is apparent, meaning you could see a bit at a few levels on the floor. Tiny blood vessels are frequently visible. In people with darker pores and skin tones, the scratch will be darker however nevertheless instead obvious. A brown, blue or black lesion: It is a lesion with darkish spots with a touch stepped forward, obvious border. A scaly, flat, reddish patch: With an accelerated facet is greater acquainted at the chest or again. Over time, those patches can beautify pretty big. A white, waxy, scar-like lesion: It's miles the least not unusual. This lesion is easy to push aside, but it is able to be a sign of the entire invasive and disfiguring most cancers. Basal Cell Carcinoma Symptoms: When to see a doctor - Add an appointment collectively with your medical doctor if you watch changes interior the advent of your pores and skin, along with a brand new increase, a redecorate in an earlier increase or an ordinary sore as basal cell carcinoma symptoms. Waxy papules by inner depression. Pearl exterior. Corrosion or ulceration: frequently inner and pigmented. Bleeding: particularly when shocked. Oozing or covered places: In big BCCs. Rolled (increased) margin. Transparency. Telangiectases over the outside. Slow rising: 0.5 cm. in one-two years. Blue-black or brown places. Source: 1. http://newswebbd.com/basal-cell-carci... 2. http://www.webmd.com/melanoma-skin-ca... Watch More: 1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YQ4WE... 2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzlBw... #################################### This Youtube channel associated with a website. You can visit this website and can know more detail about your asking topic. Website: http://newswebbd.com ************************************ There is the all social profile link of this Youtube channel. You can visit and stay with us. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/newswebbd/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/newswebbd24 Google Plus: https://plus.google.com/+MotasimBillah Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/newswebbd/ Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/user/NewsWebBD

Cell Metabolism And Cancer Cell Metabolism

Home | Cancer Systems Biology | Targeting mutant p53 cancers | Cancer Cell Metabolism | Network Analysis | Human dynamics | Resources As with any living "organism", cancer cells require metabolism to sustain their existence. This include the support of several functions, including cell maintenance, proliferation, motility and the excretion of extracellular factors. Common to all this activities is the demand for energy, mainly in the form of ATP. Cells utilize two major pathways for energy generation, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). Glycolysis converts glucose into pyruvate generating two molecules of ATP for each molecule of glucose. In human cells pyruvate can be converted to lactate, which is then excreted to the extracellular media. This pathway does not require oxygen and it is the default when cells are deprived from oxygen (hypoxia). OxPhos takes place in the mitochondria and can metabolize different substrates (e.g., pyruvate, fatty acids, amino acids) to generate ATP. For example, OxPhos generates 32 molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose. In contrast to glycolysis, OxPhos requires oxygen and can only occur its presence (normoxia). Given that OxPhos ha Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Franksta1118

    Triacylglycerol vs. Glucose

    Can somebody provide an explanation of why Triacylglycerols provide more ATP per carbon when fully oxidized to ATP than does Glucose. I'm thinking along the lines of B-Oxidation and such but I'm not too sure how the numbers work out. Thanks a lot!

  2. BloodySurgeon

    In order for a n-carbon fatty acid to be completely oxidized, (n/2)-1 turns of B-oxidation cycles must be completed, which produces (n/2)-1 FADH2, (n/2)-1 NADH, and n/2 acetyl-CoA. Each acetyle-CoA then goes through the citric acid cycle and produces the same amount of ATP as half a glucose. So as long as a fatty acid is 4 carbons or longer, it will produce more ATP than glucose.
    Also remember a triglyceride has three fatty acid chains and have chains usually around 16 carbons long in humans. So if you do the math, there are usually around 9x more ATP in triglycerides.

  3. BloodySurgeon

    This of course is unless information for the mcat... all you need to know is that triglycerides have more energy, but ATP are more usable energy sources by breaking the high energy phosphate bonds.

  4. -> Continue reading
read more
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In this video I discuss what are amino acids, what are amino acids made of, and what do amino acids do in the body. I also cover what are peptide bonds, polypeptide chains, how amino acids form proteins, some functions of amino acids, and what are amino acids used to build. Transcript We are going to start by looking at the molecular structure of a typical amino acid, dont worry, I am going to make it easy to understand. The basic structure of amino acids is that they consist of a carboxyl group, a lone hydrogen atom, an amino group, and a side chain, which is often referred to as an R-group. The formation of the side chain is what makes amino acids different from one another. As you can see in this diagram, these 4 are all connected to a carbon atom, which is referred to as the alpha carbon. Not every amino acid follows this exact structure, but, most do. On the screen I have 3 different amino acids, lysine, tryptophan, and leucine. You can see that each has a carboxyl group, an alpha carbon, a amino group, and an R-group that is different from each other. There are 23 total amino acids that are proteinogenic. Proteinogenic amino acids are precursors to proteins, which means they are compounds that participate in a chemical reaction to produce another compound. Of these 23 amino acids, 20 of them are called standard amino acids, and the other 3 are non-standard amino acids. These are listed on the screen. In this video we are going to focus on the standard amino acids, as they are what make up proteins. These amino acids can be classified many different ways, we are going to classify them in a basic nutritional way. Essential and nonessential. Essential amino acids cannot be made by the body, so, they must come from foods we eat. Nonessential amino acids are amino acids that our bodies can produce even if we dont get them from the food we eat. There is a subgroup of nonessential amino acids that are considered to be conditional amino acids. The list of conditional amino acids is not definitive. For instance, in times of illness or stress, there are certain amino acids the body cant produce sufficiently, and children's bodys havent developed the ability to produce certain amino acids yet. There are 9 essential and 11 nonessential amino acids, ive listed them on the screen. So, how do amino acids form proteins? Proteins are built from the 20 standard amino acids. Well, the first thing that happens is that 2 amino acids come together to form a peptide bond. A peptide bond is when the carboxyl group of one amino acid bonds with the amino group of another amino acid, as you can see here. If you notice 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom have been removed from the peptide bonding process. So, the peptide bonding results in the release of a water moleculeh20. But, we are not finished. More amino acids can link in, and form what is called a polypeptide chain. Some proteins are single polypeptide chains, and other proteins have polypeptide chains linked together. Not all protein contains all 20 of the standard amino acids. Not all protein contains all 20 of the standard amino acids. Proteins are often labeled as complete or incomplete protein. A Complete protein is a protein source that contains a sufficient quantity of all 9 of the essential amino acids that we discussed earlier. An incomplete protein does not contain a sufficient quantity of all 9 of the essential amino acids. Complete protein foods includeanimal foods such as red meat, poultry, pork and fish. Eggs and dairy products such as cows milk, yogurt, and cheese. Plant foods such as soy products, black beans, kidney beans, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, pistachios, just to name a few. You can also combine incomplete protein foods to create a complete protein meal. Amino acids also make up most enzymes. These Enzymes are proteins, so they are made by linking amino acids together in a specific and unique order. This chain of amino acids then forms a unique shape that allows the enzyme created to serve a single specific purpose. Enzymes function as catalysts, which means that they speed up the rate at which metabolic processed and reactions occur. Amino acids can also be metabolized for energy. Some hormones like epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, are amino acid derived. Some neurotransmitters like serotonin are derived from amino acids. The amino acid arginine is a precursor of nitric oxide, which helps regulate blood pressure, improves sleep quality and increases endurance and strength. Glutathione, which is a powerful antioxidant is formed from amino acids. Other sources... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acid http://www.fitday.com/fitness-article... http://www.ivyroses.com/HumanBiology/...

Amino Acids Rather Than Glucose Account For The Majority Of Cell Mass In Proliferating Mammalian Cells

Go to: Abstract Cells must duplicate their mass in order to proliferate. Glucose and glutamine are the major nutrients consumed by proliferating mammalian cells, but the extent to which these and other nutrients contribute to cell mass is unknown. We quantified the fraction of cell mass derived from different nutrients and find that the majority of carbon mass in cells is derived from other amino acids, which are consumed at much lower rates than glucose and glutamine. While glucose carbon has diverse fates, glutamine contributes most to protein, and this suggests that glutamine’s ability to replenish TCA cycle intermediates (anaplerosis) is primarily used for amino acid biosynthesis. These findings demonstrate that rates of nutrient consumption are indirectly associated with mass accumulation and suggest that high rates of glucose and glutamine consumption support rapid cell proliferation beyond providing carbon for biosynthesis. Go to: Rapidly proliferating cells have different metabolic needs from non-proliferating cells. During each cell cycle, proliferating cells must synthesize all of the components needed to duplicate cell mass (Lunt and Vander Heiden, 2011). One metabolic Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Franksta1118

    Triacylglycerol vs. Glucose

    Can somebody provide an explanation of why Triacylglycerols provide more ATP per carbon when fully oxidized to ATP than does Glucose. I'm thinking along the lines of B-Oxidation and such but I'm not too sure how the numbers work out. Thanks a lot!

  2. BloodySurgeon

    In order for a n-carbon fatty acid to be completely oxidized, (n/2)-1 turns of B-oxidation cycles must be completed, which produces (n/2)-1 FADH2, (n/2)-1 NADH, and n/2 acetyl-CoA. Each acetyle-CoA then goes through the citric acid cycle and produces the same amount of ATP as half a glucose. So as long as a fatty acid is 4 carbons or longer, it will produce more ATP than glucose.
    Also remember a triglyceride has three fatty acid chains and have chains usually around 16 carbons long in humans. So if you do the math, there are usually around 9x more ATP in triglycerides.

  3. BloodySurgeon

    This of course is unless information for the mcat... all you need to know is that triglycerides have more energy, but ATP are more usable energy sources by breaking the high energy phosphate bonds.

  4. -> Continue reading
read more

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