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Explain Respiratory Acidosis And Alkalosis

Respiratory Alkalosis

Respiratory Alkalosis

What is respiratory alkalosis? Respiratory alkalosis occurs when the levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blood are not balanced. Your body needs oxygen to function properly. When you inhale, you introduce oxygen into the lungs. When you exhale, you release carbon dioxide, which is a waste product. Normally, the respiratory system keeps these two gases in balance. Respiratory alkalosis occurs when you breathe too fast or too deep and carbon dioxide levels drop too low. This causes the pH of the blood to rise and become too alkaline. When the blood becomes too acidic, respiratory acidosis occurs. Hyperventilation is typically the underlying cause of respiratory alkalosis. Hyperventilation is also known as overbreathing. Someone who is hyperventilating breathes very deeply or rapidly. Causes of hyperventilation Panic attacks and anxiety are the most common causes of hyperventilation. However, they’re not the only possible causes. Others include: pain drug use fever infection If you’re experiencing hyperventilation (especially for the first time), don’t assume you know the cause. Make an appointment with your doctor. Overbreathing is a sign that respiratory alkalosis is likely to develop. However, low carbon dioxide levels in the blood also have a number of physical effects, including: dizziness bloating feeling lightheaded numbness or muscle spasms in the hands and feet discomfort in the chest area confusion dry mouth tingling in the arms feeling short of breath The treatment for respiratory alkalosis depends on the underlying cause. Panic and anxiety-related causes Treating the condition is a matter of raising carbon dioxide levels in the blood. The following strategies and tips are useful for respiratory alkalosis caused by overbreathing due to panic and anx Continue reading >>

6.2 Respiratory Alkalosis - Causes

6.2 Respiratory Alkalosis - Causes

Hyperventilation is the mechanism in ALL cases Hyperventilation (ie increased alveolar ventilation) is the mechanism responsible for the lowered arterial pCO2 in ALL cases of respiratory alkalosis. This low arterial pCO2 will be sensed by the central and peripheral chemoreceptors and the hyperventilation will be inhibited unless the patients ventilation is controlled. 1. Central Causes (direct action via respiratory centre) Other 'supra-tentorial' causes (pain, fear, stress, voluntary) Various drugs (eg analeptics, propanidid, salicylate intoxication) Various endogenous compounds (eg progesterone during pregnancy, cytokines during sepsis, toxins in patients with chronic liver disease) 2. Hypoxaemia (act via peripheral chemoreceptors) Respiratory stimulation via peripheral chemoreceptors 3. Pulmonary Causes (act via intrapulmonary receptors) 4. Iatrogenic (act directly on ventilation) Can a decreased CO2 production cause respiratory alkalosis? Hyperventilation is the mechanism in all of the situations in the above list & indeed in all cases. Theoretically, a decreased carbon dioxide production could result in respiratory alkalosis if alveolar ventilation remained fixed. But this would not occur in a normal person because any drop in arterial pCO2 would reflexly cause a decreased ventilation (via chemoreceptor inhibitory input into the respiratory centre). About the only situation where maybe a decrease in CO2 production could be the mechanism of respiratory alkalosis would be in an intubated patient on fixed ventilation during Anaesthesia or in Intensive Care Unit and where the CO2 production was low due to hypothermia and decreased metabolic rate. However, even in such a circumstance, this mechanism is usually referred to as 'excessive controlled ventilation' (which it Continue reading >>

Respiratory Alkalosis

Respiratory Alkalosis

Author: Ryland P Byrd, Jr, MD; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP more... Respiratory alkalosis is a disturbance in acid and base balance due to alveolar hyperventilation. Alveolar hyperventilation leads to a decreased partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2). In turn, the decrease in PaCO2 increases the ratio of bicarbonate concentration to PaCO2 and, thereby, increases the pH level, thus the descriptive term of respiratory alkalosis. The decrease in PaCO2 (hypocapnia) develops when a strong respiratory stimulus causes the respiratory system to remove more carbon dioxide than is produced metabolically in the tissues. Respiratory alkalosis can be acute or chronic. In acute respiratory alkalosis, the PaCO2 level is below the lower limit of normal and the serum pH is alkalemic. In chronic respiratory alkalosis, the PaCO2 level is below the lower limit of normal, but the pH level is relatively normal or near normal. Respiratory alkalosis is the most common acid-base abnormality observed in patients who are critically ill. It is associated with numerous illnesses and is a common finding in patients on mechanical ventilation. Many cardiac and pulmonary disorders can manifest with respiratory alkalosis as an early or intermediate finding. When respiratory alkalosis is present, the cause may be a minor, nonlife-threatening disorder. However, more serious disease processes should also be considered in the differential diagnosis. Breathing or alveolar ventilation is the bodys way of providing adequate amounts of oxygen for metabolism while removing carbon dioxide produced in the tissues. By sensing the bodys partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) and PaCO2, the respiratory system adjusts pulmonary ventilation so that oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide elim Continue reading >>

Metabolic Vs. Respiratory Acidosis

Metabolic Vs. Respiratory Acidosis

Watch short & fun videos Start Your Free Trial Today Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Custom Courses are courses that you create from Study.com lessons. Use them just like other courses to track progress, access quizzes and exams, and share content. Organize and share selected lessons with your class. Make planning easier by creating your own custom course. Create a new course from any lesson page or your dashboard. Click "Add to" located below the video player and follow the prompts to name your course and save your lesson. Click on the "Custom Courses" tab, then click "Create course". Next, go to any lesson page and begin adding lessons. Edit your Custom Course directly from your dashboard. Name your Custom Course and add an optional description or learning objective. Create chapters to group lesson within your course. Remove and reorder chapters and lessons at any time. Share your Custom Course or assign lessons and chapters. Share or assign lessons and chapters by clicking the "Teacher" tab on the lesson or chapter page you want to assign. Students' quiz scores and video views will be trackable in your "Teacher" tab. You can share your Custom Course by copying and pasting the course URL. Only Study.com members will be able to access the entire course. We are going to learn about the two different types of acidosis and how they develop. This lesson will explain the differences and similarities that exist between the symptoms and treatments. What comes to mind when you think about acid? You might think about foods that contain acid, such as citrus fruit, or you may think about the battery in your car that contains acid. What probably didn't come to mind is your blood. Our blood is nowhere near as acidic as battery acid or citrus fruit, but the Continue reading >>

Acidosis And Alkolosis

Acidosis And Alkolosis

The normal pH value for the body fluids is between pH 7.35 and 7.45. When the pH value of body fluids is below 7.35, the condition is called acidosis, and when the pH is above 7.45, it is called alkalosis. Metabolism produces acidic products that lower the pH of the body fluids. For example, carbon dioxide is a by-product of metabolism, and carbon dioxide combines with water to form carbonic acid. Also, lactic acid is a product of anaerobic metabolism, protein metabolism produces phosphoric and sulfuric acids, and lipid metabolism produces fatty acids. These acidic substances must continuously be eliminated from the body to maintain pH homeostasis. Rapid elimination of acidic products of metabolism results in alkalosis, and the failure to eliminate acidic products of metabolism results in acidosis. The major effect of acidosis is depression of the central nervous system. When the pH of the blood falls below 7.35, the central nervous system malfunctions, and the individual becomes disoriented and possibly comatose as the condition worsens. A major effect of alkalosis is hyperexcitability of the nervous system. Peripheral nerves are affected first, resulting in spontaneous nervous stimulation of muscles. Spasms and tetanic contractions and possibly extreme nervousness or convulsions result. Severe alkalosis can cause death as a result of tetany of the respiratory muscles. Although buffers in the body fluids help resist changes in the pH of body fluids, the respiratory system and the kidneys regulate the pH of the body fluids. Malfunctions of either the respiratory system or the kidneys can result in acidosis or alkalosis. Acidosis and alkalosis are categorized by the cause of the condition. Respiratory acidosis or respiratory alkalosis results from abnormalities of the r Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis/alkalosis

Respiratory Acidosis/alkalosis

In an attempt ot compensate, the kidneys retain bicarbonate and excrete excess H+ ions into the urine Initially the hyperventilation and respiratory stimulation caause abnormal rapid respirations(tachypnea); in an attempt to compensate, the kidneys excrete excess circulation bicarbonate into the urine. The total concentration of buffer base is lower than normal, with a relative increase in hydrogen ion concentration; thus a greater number of hydrogen ions is circulating in the blood than can be absorbed by the buffer system. A deficit of carbonic acid and a decrease in hydrogen ion concentration that results from the accumulation of base or from a loss of acid without a comparable loss of base in the body fluids. 1.Monitor for signs of respiratory distress. 2.Provide emotional support and reassurance to the client. 3.Encourage appropriate breathing patterns. 4.Assist with breathing techniques and breathing aids as prescribed. a.Encourage voluntary holding of the breath if appropriate b.Provide use of a rebreathing mask as prescribed c.Provide carbon dioxide breaths as prescribed (rebreathing into a paper bag) 5.Provide cautious care with ventilator clients so that they are not forced to take breaths too deeply or rapidly. 6.Monitor electrolyte values, particularly potassium and calcium levels. 8.Prepare to administer calcium gluconate for tetany as prescribed. 1.Monitor for signs of respiratory distress. Continue reading >>

Respiratory Alkalosis

Respiratory Alkalosis

Respiratory alkalosis is a medical condition in which increased respiration elevates the blood pH beyond the normal range (7.35–7.45) with a concurrent reduction in arterial levels of carbon dioxide.[1][3] This condition is one of the four basic categories of disruption of acid–base homeostasis.[medical citation needed] Signs and symptoms[edit] Signs and symptoms of respiratory alkalosis are as follows:[4] Palpitation Tetany Convulsion Sweating Causes[edit] Respiratory alkalosis may be produced as a result of the following causes: Stress[1] Pulmonary disorder[2] Thermal insult[5] High altitude areas[6] Salicylate poisoning (aspirin overdose) [6] Fever[1] Hyperventilation (due to heart disorder or other, including improper mechanical ventilation)[1][7] Vocal cord paralysis (compensation for loss of vocal volume results in over-breathing/breathlessness).[8] Liver disease[6] Mechanism[edit] Carbonic-acid The mechanism of respiratory alkalosis generally occurs when some stimulus makes a person hyperventilate. The increased breathing produces increased alveolar respiration, expelling CO2 from the circulation. This alters the dynamic chemical equilibrium of carbon dioxide in the circulatory system. Circulating hydrogen ions and bicarbonate are shifted through the carbonic acid (H2CO3) intermediate to make more CO2 via the enzyme carbonic anhydrase according to the following reaction: This causes decreased circulating hydrogen ion concentration, and increased pH (alkalosis).[9][10] Diagnosis[edit] The diagnosis of respiratory alkalosis is done via test that measure the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels (in the blood), chest x-ray and a pulmonary function test of the individual.[1] The Davenport diagram allows clinicians or investigators to outline blood bicarbonate concentr Continue reading >>

Respiratory Alkalosis

Respiratory Alkalosis

Respiratory alkalosis is a consequence of the rate of excretion of carbon dioxide exceeding the rate of production, leading to a decrease in PCO2. Larry R. Engelking, in Textbook of Veterinary Physiological Chemistry (Third Edition) , 2015 Steady state blood CO2 levels remain relatively constant in compensated respiratory acidosis and alkalosis (i.e., CO2 in=CO2 out). Uncompensated respiratory alkalosis is associated with an increased blood pH, and a modestly decreased HCO3 concentration. Renal compensation for respiratory alkalosis involves a decrease in HCO3 reabsorption. The blood pH may be within the normal range in some mixed acid-base disorders. A mixed acid-base disturbance is indicated when the Pco2 and blood HCO3 concentration are moving in opposite directions. Mixed acid-base distrubances can be additive, or subtractive. The bicarbonate buffer equation is shifted to the left in metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. Respiratory alkalosis can be due to either direct or reflex hypoxemic stimulation of the respiratory center, to pulmonary disease, or to excessive mechanical ventilation. Robert G. Carroll PhD, in Elsevier's Integrated Physiology , 2007 Respiratory alkalosis results from excessive ventilation (hyperventilation). In respiratory alkalosis, Pco2 falls, leading to an increase in pH (alkalosis). If the alkalosis persists for more than 12 hours, the alkalosis may be partially compensated by decreased renal H+ excretion. During respiratory alkalosis, HCO3 may fall acutely owing to equilibration with depleted CO2. There is a 2 mEq/L decrease in HCO3 per 10 mm Hg decrease Pco2 that is chemical and not part of the renal compensation. Common causes of respiratory alkalosis include hyperventilation from voluntary effort (anxiety) or stimulation of cent Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

What is respiratory acidosis? Respiratory acidosis is a condition that occurs when the lungs can’t remove enough of the carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the body. Excess CO2 causes the pH of blood and other bodily fluids to decrease, making them too acidic. Normally, the body is able to balance the ions that control acidity. This balance is measured on a pH scale from 0 to 14. Acidosis occurs when the pH of the blood falls below 7.35 (normal blood pH is between 7.35 and 7.45). Respiratory acidosis is typically caused by an underlying disease or condition. This is also called respiratory failure or ventilatory failure. Normally, the lungs take in oxygen and exhale CO2. Oxygen passes from the lungs into the blood. CO2 passes from the blood into the lungs. However, sometimes the lungs can’t remove enough CO2. This may be due to a decrease in respiratory rate or decrease in air movement due to an underlying condition such as: There are two forms of respiratory acidosis: acute and chronic. Acute respiratory acidosis occurs quickly. It’s a medical emergency. Left untreated, symptoms will get progressively worse. It can become life-threatening. Chronic respiratory acidosis develops over time. It doesn’t cause symptoms. Instead, the body adapts to the increased acidity. For example, the kidneys produce more bicarbonate to help maintain balance. Chronic respiratory acidosis may not cause symptoms. Developing another illness may cause chronic respiratory acidosis to worsen and become acute respiratory acidosis. Initial signs of acute respiratory acidosis include: headache anxiety blurred vision restlessness confusion Without treatment, other symptoms may occur. These include: sleepiness or fatigue lethargy delirium or confusion shortness of breath coma The chronic form of Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

LABORATORY TESTS The following lab tests can be used to interpret and explain acidosis and alkalosis conditions. All are measured on blood samples. 1. pH: This measures hydrogen ions - Normal pH = 7.35-7.45 2. pCO2= Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide: Although this is a pressure measurement, it relates to the concentration of GASEOUS CO2 in the blood. A high pCO2 may indicate acidosis. A low pCO2 may indicate alkalosis. 3. HCO3- = Bicarbonate: This measures the concentration of HCO3- ion only. High values may indicate alkalosis since bicarbonate is a base. Low values may indicate acidosis. 4. CO2 = Carbon Dioxide Content: This is a measure of ALL CO2 liberated on adding acid to blood plasma. This measure both carbon dioxide dissolved and bicarbonate ions and is an older test. Do not confuse with pCO2 Typically, dissolved carbon dioxide = l.2-2.0 mmoles/L and HCO3- = 22-28 mmoles/L Therefore, although it is listed as CO2 content, the lab test really reflects HCO3- concentration. Respiratory Acidosis .ABNORMAL pH IN THE BODY: ACIDOSIS AND ALKALOSIS: INTRODUCTION: Normal blood pH is maintained between 7.35 and 7.45 by the regulatory systems. The lungs regulate the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood and the kidneys regulate the bicarbonate. When the pH decreases to below 7.35 an acidosis condition is present. Acidosis means that the hydrogen ions are increased and that pH and bicarbonate ions are decreased. A greater number of hydrogen ions are present in the blood than can be absorbed by the buffer systems. Alkalosis results when the pH is above 7.45. This condition results when the buffer base (bicarbonate ions) is greater than normal and the concentration of hydrogen ions are decreased. Both acidosis and alkalosis can be of two different types: respiratory and metabol Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

(Video) Overview of Acid-Base Maps and Compensatory Mechanisms By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending Physician, Brookwood Baptist Health and Saint Vincents Ascension Health, Birmingham Respiratory acidosis is primary increase in carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pco2) with or without compensatory increase in bicarbonate (HCO3); pH is usually low but may be near normal. Cause is a decrease in respiratory rate and/or volume (hypoventilation), typically due to CNS, pulmonary, or iatrogenic conditions. Respiratory acidosis can be acute or chronic; the chronic form is asymptomatic, but the acute, or worsening, form causes headache, confusion, and drowsiness. Signs include tremor, myoclonic jerks, and asterixis. Diagnosis is clinical and with ABG and serum electrolyte measurements. The cause is treated; oxygen (O2) and mechanical ventilation are often required. Respiratory acidosis is carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation (hypercapnia) due to a decrease in respiratory rate and/or respiratory volume (hypoventilation). Causes of hypoventilation (discussed under Ventilatory Failure ) include Conditions that impair CNS respiratory drive Conditions that impair neuromuscular transmission and other conditions that cause muscular weakness Obstructive, restrictive, and parenchymal pulmonary disorders Hypoxia typically accompanies hypoventilation. Distinction is based on the degree of metabolic compensation; carbon dioxide is initially buffered inefficiently, but over 3 to 5 days the kidneys increase bicarbonate reabsorption significantly. Symptoms and signs depend on the rate and degree of Pco2 increase. CO2 rapidly diffuses across the blood-brain barrier. Symptoms and signs are a result of high CO2 concentrations and low pH in the CNS and any accompanying hypoxemia. Acute (or acutely wor Continue reading >>

Respiratory Alkalosis

Respiratory Alkalosis

(Video) Overview of Acid-Base Maps and Compensatory Mechanisms By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending Physician, Brookwood Baptist Health and Saint Vincents Ascension Health, Birmingham Respiratory alkalosis is a primary decrease in carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pco2) with or without compensatory decrease in bicarbonate (HCO3); pH may be high or near normal. Cause is an increase in respiratory rate or volume (hyperventilation) or both. Respiratory alkalosis can be acute or chronic. The chronic form is asymptomatic, but the acute form causes light-headedness, confusion, paresthesias, cramps, and syncope. Signs include hyperpnea or tachypnea and carpopedal spasms. Diagnosis is clinical and with ABG and serum electrolyte measurements. Treatment is directed at the cause. (See also Acid-Base Regulation , Acid-Base Disorders , and Hyperventilation Syndrome .) Respiratory alkalosis is a primary decrease in Pco2 (hypocapnia) due to an increase in respiratory rate and/or volume (hyperventilation). Ventilation increase occurs most often as a physiologic response to hypoxia (eg, at high altitude), metabolic acidosis , and increased metabolic demands (eg, fever) and, as such, is present in many serious conditions. In addition, pain and anxiety and some CNS disorders (eg, stroke, seizure [post-ictal]) can increase respirations without a physiologic need. Distinction is based on the degree of metabolic compensation. Excess HCO3 is buffered by extracellular hydrogen ion (H+) within minutes, but more significant compensation occurs over 2 to 3 days as the kidneys decrease H+ excretion. Pseudorespiratory alkalosis is low arterial Pco2 and high pH in mechanically ventilated patients with severe metabolic acidosis due to poor systemic perfusion (eg, cardiogenic shock, during CPR). Pseu Continue reading >>

The Quick And Dirty Guide To Acid Base Balance | Medictests.com

The Quick And Dirty Guide To Acid Base Balance | Medictests.com

Your patient has a ph of 6.9 Is he acidic or alkalotic? Your patient has a ph of 7.4 Is he acidic or alkalotic? Your patient has a ph of 7.7 Is he acidic or alkalotic? Your patient has a ph of 7.25 Is he acidic or alkalotic? Your patient has a ph of 7.43 Is he acidic or alkalotic? Your patient has a ph of 8.0 Is he acidic or alkalotic? 1. acidic 2. normal 3. Alkaline 4. Acidic 5. Normal 6. Alkaline You take in oxygen by inhaling, your body turns oxygen into carbon dioxide, you exhale and remove the carbon dioxide from your body. Carbon dioxide is "respiratory acid."When you're not breathing adequately, you are not getting rid of this "respiratory acid" and it builds up in the tissues. The extra CO2 molecules combine with water in your body to form carbonic acid and makes your pH go up. This is bad. We can measure the amount of respiratory acid in the arterial blood using blood gases. They measure the amount of each gas in your blood. We measure the pH, the amount of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and the amount of oxygen in the blood (PaO2). PaCO2 is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. We can measure it to see how much respiratory acid (CO2) there is in the blood. We use arterial blood gas tests to check it. How much respiratory acid (CO2) should there be? The normal value is 35-45 mmHg (mmHg just means millimeters of mercury, its a measurement of pressure.) The (a) in PaCO2 just stands for arterial. If you measured venous blood gasses, the levels are different and PvCO2 is used. If CO2 is HIGH, it means there is a buildup of respiratory acids because he's not breathing enough CO2 away. If your pH is acidic, and your CO2 is HIGH, its considered respiratory acidosis. If CO2 is LOW, it means there are not enough respiratory acids because he's probably hyperventilating too mu Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory acidosis is a medical emergency in which decreased ventilation (hypoventilation) increases the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and decreases the blood's pH (a condition generally called acidosis). Carbon dioxide is produced continuously as the body's cells respire, and this CO2 will accumulate rapidly if the lungs do not adequately expel it through alveolar ventilation. Alveolar hypoventilation thus leads to an increased PaCO2 (a condition called hypercapnia). The increase in PaCO2 in turn decreases the HCO3−/PaCO2 ratio and decreases pH. Terminology[edit] Acidosis refers to disorders that lower cell/tissue pH to < 7.35. Acidemia refers to an arterial pH < 7.36.[1] Types of respiratory acidosis[edit] Respiratory acidosis can be acute or chronic. In acute respiratory acidosis, the PaCO2 is elevated above the upper limit of the reference range (over 6.3 kPa or 45 mm Hg) with an accompanying acidemia (pH <7.36). In chronic respiratory acidosis, the PaCO2 is elevated above the upper limit of the reference range, with a normal blood pH (7.35 to 7.45) or near-normal pH secondary to renal compensation and an elevated serum bicarbonate (HCO3− >30 mm Hg). Causes[edit] Acute[edit] Acute respiratory acidosis occurs when an abrupt failure of ventilation occurs. This failure in ventilation may be caused by depression of the central respiratory center by cerebral disease or drugs, inability to ventilate adequately due to neuromuscular disease (e.g., myasthenia gravis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Guillain–Barré syndrome, muscular dystrophy), or airway obstruction related to asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation. Chronic[edit] Chronic respiratory acidosis may be secondary to many disorders, including COPD. Hypoventilation Continue reading >>

Disorders Of Acid-base Balance

Disorders Of Acid-base Balance

Module 10: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance By the end of this section, you will be able to: Identify the three blood variables considered when making a diagnosis of acidosis or alkalosis Identify the source of compensation for blood pH problems of a respiratory origin Identify the source of compensation for blood pH problems of a metabolic/renal origin Normal arterial blood pH is restricted to a very narrow range of 7.35 to 7.45. A person who has a blood pH below 7.35 is considered to be in acidosis (actually, physiological acidosis, because blood is not truly acidic until its pH drops below 7), and a continuous blood pH below 7.0 can be fatal. Acidosis has several symptoms, including headache and confusion, and the individual can become lethargic and easily fatigued. A person who has a blood pH above 7.45 is considered to be in alkalosis, and a pH above 7.8 is fatal. Some symptoms of alkalosis include cognitive impairment (which can progress to unconsciousness), tingling or numbness in the extremities, muscle twitching and spasm, and nausea and vomiting. Both acidosis and alkalosis can be caused by either metabolic or respiratory disorders. As discussed earlier in this chapter, the concentration of carbonic acid in the blood is dependent on the level of CO2 in the body and the amount of CO2 gas exhaled through the lungs. Thus, the respiratory contribution to acid-base balance is usually discussed in terms of CO2 (rather than of carbonic acid). Remember that a molecule of carbonic acid is lost for every molecule of CO2 exhaled, and a molecule of carbonic acid is formed for every molecule of CO2 retained. Figure 1. Symptoms of acidosis affect several organ systems. Both acidosis and alkalosis can be diagnosed using a blood test. Metabolic Acidosis: Primary Bic Continue reading >>

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