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Exogenous Ketones Research

The Pros And Cons Of Exogenous Ketones

The Pros And Cons Of Exogenous Ketones

Ketones are a hot topic in the fitness and nutrition world right now. They’re a bi-product of fat that’s an alternative fuel source to sugars that’s used by your body when you consume a low carb, high fat diet. Research has shown there’s a number of great benefits of being in ketosis. But, because people (myself and probably you, included), like to get more from doing less, scientists have developed a way to supplement with exogenous ketones. The idea is that you can get the same benefits of eating a low carb, high fat diet without changing your diet. But, is it actually possible to get the same benefits by supplementing with ketones while continuing to eat carbs? In this article, I’ll explore the pros and cons of exogenous ketones to help you find the best approach for your lifestyle. What are Ketones? Ketones or ketone bodies are what’s generated when your body breaks down fat to use as fuel because your carbohydrate intake is low. There are three different types of ketones produced when the body’s in ketosis. These are: READ MORE … Acetoacetate (AcAc) – The first ketone that’s created as your body breaks down fatty acids. Will convert into BHB or acetone. Beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) – BHB technically isn’t a ketone but is used by your body like one. Acetone – Simple side product that breaks down quickly. If it’s not needed for energy, it’ll be removed from the body by waste water or the breath. What are Exogeneous Ketones? Exogeneous just means something that originates from OUTSIDE of the body. So, exogeneous ketones are simply ketones that are ingested, instead of being produced by your body. When it comes to exogeneous ketone supplements, there are two main types: Ketone esters – These are a raw BHB ketone that’s not bound to a Continue reading >>

(diet Review) Pruvit Keto/os Exogenous Ketones: Ketosis Or Not?

(diet Review) Pruvit Keto/os Exogenous Ketones: Ketosis Or Not?

I’ve gotten a crazy number of requests do this Pruvit Keto/OS review. Keto/OS is a new exogenous ketone supplement that people are using to lose weight, among other things. I found very little in terms of research on exogenous ketones in humans. Exogenous ketones have been studied a bit in rats, and no one has studied them in terms of weight loss in people or in rodents. The product Keto/OS has no research behind it either, so I decided to bite the bullet and put myself on it for a week to see what would happen. I hate using small studies as proof for anything, but in this case, I had no choice. It was totally an n=1. I also hate drinking disgusting things, but again, in this case I had no choice. Sigh. Before I talk about how that all went, let’s chat about ketones and how they work in your body. What are ketones? Ketones are the byproduct of fat metabolism. When you deprive your body of it’s favorite source of energy – glucose – it starts burning your fat for fuel. That’s the premise of the ketogenic diet: burn fat, use the ketones that result as energy. Staying on the ketogenic diet is tough for most people, but it can be done, and for most healthy people, it’s probably not harmful. Check with your doctor or dietitian before starting any diet. Read my ketogenic diet review here. The issue with ketosis for weight loss is that when you break ketosis, the weight will probably come back on. If you’re a person who lives to eat and not eats to live, it might not be the best weight-loss option for you. Because a ketogenic diet is so difficult for most people to maintain, Pruvit is marketing Keto/OS by saying that you can eat a normal diet, drink Keto/OS, still go into ketosis, and lose weight when your body burns fat for energy from being in ‘ketosis’ fr Continue reading >>

Exogenous Ketones For Fat Burn

Exogenous Ketones For Fat Burn

OVERVIEW Exogenous ketones are the newest scientific breakthrough in the world of health and wellness, making the job of achieving ketosis, the state in which the body is burning fat/ketones as fuel rather than glucose, much easier. They come in powder form and are ingested exogenously (a fancy word for outside the body). Exogenous ketones are comprised of beta-hydroxybutyrate salts, which flood your bloodstream with ketones and put the body in ketosis within 30-60 minutes. This means that you can reap all the amazing health benefits of being in ketosis in a simple and effective way (just mix the exogenous ketones with water & drink!). Research is now linking exogenous ketones to a multitude of benefits, including more efficient weight loss, athletic performance enhancement, cancer prevention, cognitive improvement, neuroprotection and anti-inflammatory properties. (See research links below.) In addition, exogenous ketones are an extremely useful tool to easily transition to the ketogenic diet. When taken daily, they can reduce carb/sugar cravings, turn on your fat burners, give you more energy, and keep "low-carb flu" at bay. So bottom line, exogenous ketones are perfect for anyone looking to improve their health and wellbeing. WHY USE THEM Reason #1 - Fat Burning Exogenous ketones for fat burn. Taking exogenous ketones will get you into ketosis quickly. Once your body is done using the exogenous ketones you ingested as fuel, then it will start looking for other places to get ketones from. And lucky for you, ketones are made from the fat stored in your body! So as your body produces more of these ketones as fuel, you end up burning fat. Reason #2 - Energy Our bodies use ketones via our mitochondria to generate energy. They are an alternative fuel source to glucose and Continue reading >>

My Big, Fat, N=1 Exogenous Ketones Supplementation Experiment (while Eating A Keto Diet)

My Big, Fat, N=1 Exogenous Ketones Supplementation Experiment (while Eating A Keto Diet)

My Big, Fat, n=1 Exogenous Ketones Supplementation Experiment (while Eating a Keto Diet) Here we go. I’ve been slightly apprehensive about sharing this latest experiment with you, because up until recently I was where I’m sure many of you are right now in my belief that exogenous ketones were a mother flippin’ ripoff. After all, all good keto kids know that ketone bodies are the RESULT of putting our bodies successfully in ketosis, so why in the hell would we want to pay to put ketones from outside ourselves into our system? Well, I got my reasons, which I’ll share with you in a bit. First, my purpose: to do an n=1 experiment in order to see if using exogenous ketones can help me lose weight while on a ketogenic diet — that is, a diet that already puts my body in ketosis. ***HUGE DISCLAIMER: I used my own hard-earned money to pay for the exogenous ketones. I was not approached by any company, and I am not doing this experiment on behalf of anybody but myself.*** Now for some background info on me: I’ve been following a keto diet for 20 months now I am approximately 75lbs overweight Aside from an initial fluid loss of 10lb, I have never lost any weight on keto Over these last 20 months I have experimented with altering my macros, intermittent fasting (IF), extended fasting, egg fasting, and meat fasting, and nothing to date has had any measurable, lasting impact on my weight I have PCOS I have low cortisol levels due to chronic Lyme disease that was finally treated in December 2016 and January 2017 I still do consider keto to be a success for me! I used it along with the protocol in the book The Mood Cure to finally get off antidepressants and anti-anxiety medication that I was previously unsuccessful in transitioning off of for 10 years (Note: Don’t ever a Continue reading >>

How To Use Exogenous Ketones

How To Use Exogenous Ketones

Exogenous Ketones were introduced in 2014, about the same time as I was recovering from having my daughter, and therefore very concerned about weight loss. But let’s back up for a bit, because if you’re here reading about Exogenous Ketones, and how to drink ketones for weight loss, let’s start at the beginning so you have a firm foundation to build if you do decided to take a ketone supplement for weight loss. First of all, Exogenous Ketones (we’ll get to exactly what those are in just a sec…hang in there) were introduced as the Ketogenic Diet started gaining popularity among the health and fitness community, as well as with the scientific community. Why? Well, it’s all about health. For so long, doctors and researchers have preached the benefits of a low-fat diet to prevent and correct all sort of things like heart disease, high cholesterol, obesity, etc. But….they may have been wrong. I am not a doctor, and do not have a medical degree, but I’ve done my homework, and I’ve lived (and am currently living) a ketogenic lifestyle. So I’ve done this, I’ve read loads and loads about it, and I’ve even been able to help many of my friends use the things I’ve learned to lead healthier lives. But, as with anything concerning your health, please make sure you have a discussion with your doctor before making a drastic change. Related: I lost 23 pounds in 60 days of Keto. Here’s how. Ok, legal stuff over, here’s what a Ketogenic Diet is: A Ketogenic Diet, also know as the Keto Diet, is a very high fat, very low carb, moderate protein diet that is very popular because it can cause you to lose body fat very fast, and study after study after study has linked Keto with benefits against cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, epilepsy, and more. Eating Ketogenical Continue reading >>

Exogenous Ketones: The Truth You Need To Know!

Exogenous Ketones: The Truth You Need To Know!

Can Exogenous Ketones really give you the benefits of the actual ketogenic diet? Or is it just another marketing scam done correctly? Let’s dig in and find out! What are Exogenous Ketones and how do they work? What are Ketones? It only makes sense to start with what ketones are before we discuss about Exogenous Ketones. Ketones are a byproduct produced by your liver to be used as fuel when there’s a lack of glucose in your body. They’re always present in your blood and there are 3 types of Ketone bodies [1]: Acetoacetate (AcAc) 3 beta-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) Acetone These are called Endogenous ketones because they’re naturally produced by your body internally. 3 Times Your Body Produces more ketones: Fasting Long period of exercise Diabetes (pathological cause) Endogenous Ketones vs Exogenous Ketones: Exogenous ketones, on the other hand, are the same ketone bodies injected into your body in the form of Ketone supplements and drinks (Salts and Esters). Claim: Exogenous Ketones are being marketed as an instant way to put your body into Ketosis with or without the need to follow a Ketogenic diet. It’s important to remember that Ketogenic diet has been clinically proven to have many health benefits including weight loss. However, we’re discussing the external ketones that you can take in the form of supplements and drinks. What does Clinical research say about Exogenous Ketones? Research evidence: No evidence for the claim that Exogenous Ketone supplements can put you in instant ketosis. No human studies whatsoever. Some brands that talk about the benefits of their supplements seem to focus on the benefits of ketogenic diet rather than any evidence for the supplement. Here’s a study I found: Exogenous Ketones on Rats by Dr. Dominic D’Agostino In this study, t Continue reading >>

Ketones 101: Exploring The Benefits Of Exogenous Ketone Use

Ketones 101: Exploring The Benefits Of Exogenous Ketone Use

Walk into any supplement store and you’ll see the shelves adorned with what seems like an endless number of products making too-good-to-be-true claims: Lose weight in 24 hours! Lose two inches in two weeks! Between excessive praise and pushy salespeople, it can be difficult to know which supplements are reasonably worth trying—and why. So, when exogenous ketone supplements started showing up on the market, we were honestly a bit skeptical: Are these new supplements worth incorporating into our regimens, and are their apparent benefits backed up by actual scientific research? Today’s post is dedicated to explaining how we came to conclude that yes, exogenous supplements are worth including into your daily routine, and we’re about to tell you why. What are Exogenous Ketones? Simply put, the term “exogenous” refers to things that come from outside the body. Supplements are therefore considered exogenous because you ingest them rather than producing the contents of that supplement inside the body. The opposite of exogenous is “endogenous,” which refers to things that you do produce within your body. To define what “ketones” are, we need to briefly talk about how our metabolism works. Whenever you eat carbohydrates, they’re broken down into glucose (or sugar), which provides your body with the energy it needs to function; however, when you utilize a low-carb diet and don’t have enough glucose, your body adapts by looking for other sources of energy in the body. Eventually, it will turn to your fat cells. Whenever fats are broken down for energy, ketone bodies are produced as a result. Glucose is no longer your body’s primary fuel source, ketones are. (It’s important to note that ketones are always present in the blood, but their levels increase du Continue reading >>

Exogenous Ketones: To Ketone Or Not To Ketone

Exogenous Ketones: To Ketone Or Not To Ketone

My thoughts on Exogenous Ketones After being contacted (following the Youtube Q&A) by several folks – both members of Ketogains and Internet strangers, I felt compelled to write as fair and even-handed a write-up on exogenous ketone supplementation as I feel can be mustered. I condition my response by saying this – I want to deal only in evidence and hypotheses grounded in biochemistry. I admit up front that this will probably become something of a treatise on what constitutes a well-formulated ketogenic diet. I don’t have the time (or the energy) to put together a document that covers all facets of the use of exogenous ketones in sufficient depth, so what I want to do is to address the folks that I see asking me about them most often – those who have excess body fat, and are looking to lose weight. They have been told about the potential benefits to fat loss via exogenous ketones, and they want to know if the hype is real. Those of you who know me (or read my previous post here) know that I like to respond with “it depends.” So…when the question is raised, “Should I supplement with exogenous ketones?” what do you think my answer will be? Probably not! (HA, I tricked you!)…but let’s explore why. As I’m sure this is going to be hotly debated enough (as the topic is raging in numerous ketogenic groups) there isn’t any value in dealing with speculation that doesn’t have a basis in science, nor in anecdotes. The challenge in dealing with exogenous ketone supplementation is two-fold: One side of the debate has a product to sell. Anytime someone’s livelihood is tied to your purchase of their product, bias and subjective interpretation of the evidence should be considered. The evidence (either for or against) their supplemental use by average schl Continue reading >>

On The Metabolism Of Exogenous Ketones In Humans

On The Metabolism Of Exogenous Ketones In Humans

On the Metabolism of Exogenous Ketones in Humans Highlights Ketone Ester (KE) drinks elevated blood βHB to a greater extent (>50%) than Ketone Salt (KS) drinks, while KS drinks increased blood levels of L-βHB, which was metabolized more slowly. Both drinks had similar effects on FFA, TG, glucose and electrolyte concentrations, although only KE significantly decreased blood pH below normal range. Consumption of a meal prior to KE intake decreased total blood βHB, but did not affect blood acetoacetate or breath acetone levels. Decreased gut βHB uptake is probably the cause of lower blood βHB following meal consumption. Either three KE drinks or nasogastric feeding effectively maintained ketosis over 1mM for 9h. Background Nutritional or endogenous ketosis is a metabolic state resulting from prolonged fasting, exercise or when consuming a ketogenic diet (KD) low in carbohydrates, adequate protein and high fat. In contrast, when acute ketosis is achieved by consumption of ketone supplements, it is referred to as exogenous ketosis. In both cases, blood levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) is elevated above 0.5 mmol/L. Despite the increasing scientific support for the health benefits of KD, compliance to such a strict diet can be challenging. Therefore, there is interest in developing and understanding the potential of exogenous ketones, formulated with βHB in the form of salts or esters. Ketone esters (KE) may avoid the problems associated with increased mineral consumption in ketone salt (KS) drinks, but KE are not yet commercially available due to unmaskable bitter taste, limited human studies and manufacturing cost. In a recent publication by Stubbs and collaborators,1 published in Frontiers in Physiology, the authors investigated the effects of KE (R-3-hydroxybutyl- Continue reading >>

Exogenous Ketones: Explained

Exogenous Ketones: Explained

WHAT ARE THEY? You may have read our previous article about a Ketogenic Diet explaining what ketosis is and how ketones are produced naturally inside the body. Well, this article focusses on Exogenous Ketones, ketones which are produced outside the body. Endogenous – Originates from a source internal to the body Exogenous – Originates from a source external to the body Ketones, aka ketone bodies, are a result of the body burning fat instead of glucose as its major fuel source. The body goes into a state of natural ketosis when carbohydrates are limited to no more than 20g per day. Exogenous ketones are lab-made supplements which provide an instant supply of ketones to the body (peaks at ~1-2 hours), without the prior depletion of carbohydrate reserves (Cox 2014, Pinckaers 2017). THE BASIC SCIENCE Ketones are a result of increased glycogen breakdown, gluconeogenesis (generation of glucose), lipolysis (the breakdown of fats), fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis (Comstock 1990). When exogenous ketones are ingested, they undergo many biological processes with the end result of Acetyl-CoA molecules. Acetyl-CoA then enters the Krebs Cycle and generates a source of energy known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), as can be seen in the image below. Acetoacetate (AcAc) and Beta-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) are formed endogenously by the liver in response to low blood glucose and insulin levels (Cox 2014). BHB is the ketone used in most commercial supplements. There are two types of ketone supplements: Ketone Esters: Synthetically made compounds which link an alcohol to a ketone and is metabolised in the liver. These are unpleasant in taste and mostly used in research environments. Ketone Salts: Naturally derived compounds which mix ~1g sodium (most common), calcium or potassium with Continue reading >>

Are Exogenous Ketones Right For You?

Are Exogenous Ketones Right For You?

I’ve spent a lot of time lately analysing three thousand ketone vs. glucose data points trying to determine the optimal ketone and blood sugar levels for weight loss, diabetes management, athletic performance and longevity. In this article, I share my insights and learnings on the benefits, side effects and risks of endogenous and endogenous ketosis. But first, I think it’s important to understand the difference between exogenous and endogenous ketosis: Endogenous ketosis occurs when we go without food for a significant period. Our insulin levels drop, and we transition to burning body fat and ketones in our blood rise. Exogenous ketosis occurs when we drink exogenous ketones or consume a ketogenic diet. Ketones are important. As blood glucose decreases, the ketones in your blood increase to keep our energy levels stable. The chart below shows three thousand blood glucose vs ketone values measured at the same time from a range of people following a low carbohydrate or ketogenic diet. While there is generally a linear relationship between glucose and ketones, each person has a unique relationship between their blood glucose and ketone values that provide a unique insight into a particular person’s metabolic health. Hyperinsulinemia has been called as the “unifying theory of chronic disease” [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. It’s beneficial to understand where you stand on the spectrum of metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. The chart below shows the typical relationship between blood glucose and blood ketone for a range of different degrees of insulin resistance/sensitivity. If your blood glucose levels are consistently high it’s likely you are not metabolising carbohydrate well. When you go without food, endogenous ketones are slow to kick in because your insulin Continue reading >>

Should I Be Taking Exogenous Ketones? (say What?!)

Should I Be Taking Exogenous Ketones? (say What?!)

Should I Be Taking Exogenous Ketones? Exogenous ketones were introduced in 2014… About the same time I really started diving into the health benefits of more fat in the diet. But let me back up here, you may not even be familiar with the word “exogenous” so let’s start there: Exogenous vs Endogenous Exogenous = Originates […] Continue reading Should I Be Taking Exogenous Ketones? Exogenous ketones were introduced in 2014… About the same time I really started diving into the health benefits of more fat in the diet. But let me back up here, you may not even be familiar with the word “exogenous” so let’s start there: Exogenous vs Endogenous Exogenous = Originates from a source external from the body Endogenous = Originates from a source internal to the body Exogenous ketone bodies are just ketone bodies that are ingested through a nutritional supplement. Ketone bodies produced in the liver are more properly referred to as endogenous ketone bodies. What does the science say? Although I don’t think eating a diet ample in healthy fat is a fad, I do know that when science proves something is beneficial for us, there is a company working relentlessly to manufacture a product related to that discovery that will fly off the shelves. Remember when resveratrol, found in red wine, was proven to be good for us? Supplement companies went crazy marketing pills and drinks with even just the tiniest hint of resveratrol in it promising anti-aging and weight loss. What about garcinia cambogia? Remember that? It was marketed as a product that stopped the body’s ability to make fat and reduce appetite. Very small studies were shown that garcinia cambogia slightly raised levels of serotonin in the brain…that was all. There was no proof that it inhibited fat production Continue reading >>

Exogenous Ketone Supplements Reduce Anxiety-related Behavior In Sprague-dawley And Wistar Albino Glaxo/rijswijk Rats

Exogenous Ketone Supplements Reduce Anxiety-related Behavior In Sprague-dawley And Wistar Albino Glaxo/rijswijk Rats

1Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, Hyperbaric Biomedical Research Laboratory, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA 2Department of Zoology, University of West Hungary, Szombathely, Hungary 3Proteomics Laboratory, Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest, Hungary Nutritional ketosis has been proven effective for seizure disorders and other neurological disorders. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of ketone supplementation on anxiety-related behavior in Sprague-Dawley (SPD) and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. We tested exogenous ketone supplements added to food and fed chronically for 83 days in SPD rats and administered sub-chronically for 7 days in both rat models by daily intragastric gavage bolus followed by assessment of anxiety measures on elevated plus maze (EPM). The groups included standard diet (SD) or SD + ketone supplementation. Low-dose ketone ester (LKE; 1,3-butanediol-acetoacetate diester, ~10 g/kg/day, LKE), high dose ketone ester (HKE; ~25 g/kg/day, HKE), beta-hydroxybutyrate-mineral salt (βHB-S; ~25 g/kg/day, KS) and βHB-S + medium chain triglyceride (MCT; ~25 g/kg/day, KSMCT) were used as ketone supplementation for chronic administration. To extend our results, exogenous ketone supplements were also tested sub-chronically on SPD rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 5 g/kg/day) and on WAG/Rij rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 2.5 g/kg/day). At the end of treatments behavioral data collection was conducted manually by a blinded observer and with a video-tracking system, after which blood βHB and glucose levels were measured. Ketone supplementation reduced anxiety on EPM as measured by less entries to closed arms (sub-chronic KE and KS: SPD rats and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats), more time spent in open ar Continue reading >>

My Experience With Exogenous Ketones

My Experience With Exogenous Ketones

Last year I wrote a couple of posts on the nuances and complexities of ketosis, with an emphasis on nutritional ketosis (but some discussion of other states of ketosis—starvation ketosis and diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA). To understand this post, you’ll want to at least be familiar with the ideas in those posts, which can be found here and here. In the second of these posts I discuss the Delta G implications of the body using ketones (specifically, beta-hydroxybutyrate, or BHB, and acetoacetate, or AcAc) for ATP generation, instead of glucose and free fatty acid (FFA). At the time I wrote that post I was particularly (read: personally) interested in the Delta G arbitrage. Stated simply, per unit of carbon, utilization of BHB offers more ATP for the same amount of oxygen consumption (as corollary, generation of the same amount of ATP requires less oxygen consumption, when compared to glucose or FFA). I also concluded that post by discussing the possibility of testing this (theoretical) idea in a real person, with the help of exogenous (i.e., synthetic) ketones. I have seen this effect in (unpublished) data in world class athletes not on a ketogenic diet who have supplemented with exogenous ketones (more on that, below). Case after case showed a small, but significant increase in sub-threshold performance (as an example, efforts longer than about 4 minutes all-out). So I decided to find out for myself if ketones could, indeed, offer up the same amount of usable energy with less oxygen consumption. Some housekeeping issues before getting into it. This is a self-experiment, not real “data”—“N of 1” stuff is suggestive, but it prevents the use of nifty little things likes error bars and p-values. Please don’t over interpret these results. My reason for shari Continue reading >>

Effects Of Exogenous Ketone Supplementation On Blood Ketone, Glucose, Triglyceride, And Lipoprotein Levels In Sprague–dawley Rats

Effects Of Exogenous Ketone Supplementation On Blood Ketone, Glucose, Triglyceride, And Lipoprotein Levels In Sprague–dawley Rats

Abstract Nutritional ketosis induced by the ketogenic diet (KD) has therapeutic applications for many disease states. We hypothesized that oral administration of exogenous ketone supplements could produce sustained nutritional ketosis (>0.5 mM) without carbohydrate restriction. We tested the effects of 28-day administration of five ketone supplements on blood glucose, ketones, and lipids in male Sprague–Dawley rats. The supplements included: 1,3-butanediol (BD), a sodium/potassium β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) mineral salt (BMS), medium chain triglyceride oil (MCT), BMS + MCT 1:1 mixture, and 1,3 butanediol acetoacetate diester (KE). Rats received a daily 5–10 g/kg dose of their respective ketone supplement via intragastric gavage during treatment. Weekly whole blood samples were taken for analysis of glucose and βHB at baseline and, 0.5, 1, 4, 8, and 12 h post-gavage, or until βHB returned to baseline. At 28 days, triglycerides, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were measured. Exogenous ketone supplementation caused a rapid and sustained elevation of βHB, reduction of glucose, and little change to lipid biomarkers compared to control animals. This study demonstrates the efficacy and tolerability of oral exogenous ketone supplementation in inducing nutritional ketosis independent of dietary restriction. Background Emerging evidence supports the therapeutic potential of the ketogenic diet (KD) for a variety of disease states, leading investigators to research methods of harnessing the benefits of nutritional ketosis without the dietary restrictions. The KD has been used as an effective non-pharmacological therapy for pediatric intractable seizures since the 1920s [1–3]. In addition to epilepsy, the ketogenic diet has elicited significant therapeut Continue reading >>

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