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Exogenous Ketones Research

Snr #195: Brendan Egan, Phd – Exogenous Ketone Supplementation

Snr #195: Brendan Egan, Phd – Exogenous Ketone Supplementation

Episode 195: Dr. Brendan Egan of Dublin City University discusses the current research on exogenous ketone supplementation for athletic performance and recovery. Guest Bio Brendan Egan, PhD Brendan holds a position as Senior Lecturer in Sport and Exercise Physiology in the School of Health and Human Performance at Dublin City University. His current research investigates the molecular regulation of skeletal muscle function and adaptation across the life course, with special interest in the synergy between nutrition and exercise interventions to optimise performance in athletes and elderly. He received his BSc Sport and Exercise Science from the University of Limerick in 2003, MSc Sport and Exercise Nutrition from Loughborough University in 2004, and PhD from Dublin City University in 2008, before completing two years of post-doctoral training with Prof. Juleen Zierath’s Integrative Physiology group at the Karolinska Institute, Sweden. His doctoral studies focussed on skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise, and in particular the continuity between acute molecular responses to individual bouts of exercise and adaptations induced by exercise training, whereas his post-doctoral training utilised animal models and in vitro cell systems to investigate the transcriptional regulation of skeletal muscle development and mechanisms of insulin resistance. He joined the faculty in the School of Public Health, Physiotherapy, and Sport Science at University College Dublin in 2011, where he spent five years, and retains a position as Visiting Associate Professor. On the sporting front, he has played inter-county Gaelic football with Sligo since 2003, and consults as a performance nutritionist to elite team sport athletes In This Episode We Discuss: Ketone body definitions Endogenous Continue reading >>

Avoid This Ketogenic Rip-off

Avoid This Ketogenic Rip-off

The Truth About Exogenous Ketones Ketones are all the rage among low carbers. And like most things in nutrition and performance, we've found a way to get them in supplement form so we don't have to do any actual work. What are ketones? They're a byproduct of ketosis caused by the process of converting fat to fuel. Your body makes them when it's in a calorie or carb restricted state. What do they do? The body and brain can use them as fuel without the presence of glucose in the blood. And now, you can take ketone supplements (salts and esters), known as exogenous ketones, without actually restricting anything. According to those promoting this nasty-tasting supplement, that means you can have a brain and body fuelled by ketones, along with all of the supposed health benefits that come with running on fat. Well, don't fall for it. Exogenous Ketones = Endogenous Fat Storage? The problem with ketone supplementation (EXOgenous) is that it's not even close to the same thing as being in ketosis (ENDOgenous ketone production). And just like the butter-blended-into-coffee trend, it's a farce. Ketones may be depressing dieters' hunger and giving them a hit of energy and cognitive enhancement, but it's INHIBITING their ability to burn fat, providing zero nourishment, and doing nothing for their metabolic health. There's an assortment of evidence suggesting that it's probably making things worse. Think of exogenous ketones kind of like alcohol. When they're consumed, everything is stored and nothing else is burned. So any lipolysis (fat burning) that would be taking place is halted; any glucose and fatty acids in your blood that were circulating are stored; and the ingested ketones are burned until there aren't any left. More importantly, this clearance of alternative fuels (glucos Continue reading >>

Ketone Supplement Fundamentals

Ketone Supplement Fundamentals

It can be difficult to reach a state of ketosis (blood ketones >0.5 mM). Adherence to a ketogenic diet is challenging in today’s carb-centered society. Carbohydrate and protein intake must be monitored to keep the body in a 'ketogenic' state. Sometimes side effects mean that people decide not to continue with the diet. The alternative to achieve 'ketosis' is to fast, which triggers a 'ketogenic' state. However, prolonged fasting is not practical or appealing to many people. Ketones could directly cause some of the health benefits of the ketogenic diet and fasting. There are many changes within the body triggered by fasting or a ketogenic diet, but ketones are an important fuel and signal1. Therefore, researchers have explored different tools for 'ketosis' without dietary changes. Ketones themselves are not usually found in high concentrations in food. However, there are now several different ketone supplements that can be consumed like food that raise blood ketone levels. Taking ketone supplements means the body can be in 'ketosis' without being ‘ketogenic,’ and may deliver some of the benefits of 'ketosis.' Here it is important to note that exogenous ketones don’t trigger natural ketone production, they don’t put you in a ‘ketogenic’ state. They do put you into ‘ketosis’ which simply means that your blood ketone levels are elevated. Endogenous vs Exogenous Ketones Exogenous ketone bodies are ketones that are consumed through a nutritional supplement. They can result in ketosis without changing the diet. Ketones produced by the liver during a ‘ketogenic’ state (when fasting or following a ketogenic diet) are called endogenous ketones. Exogenous = ‘Exo’ = external. ‘Genous’ = origin. Originates from a source external from the body. Endogenou Continue reading >>

My Experience With Exogenous Ketones: Tale And Truth

My Experience With Exogenous Ketones: Tale And Truth

97 Comments I woke up the morning of the ceremony with butterflies in my stomach. I’d done the necessary prep. I’d abstained from carbs the past week and food the past 24 hours. I’d performed four consecutive full-body circuit workouts to deplete muscle glycogen, and undergone a liver biopsy to confirm full depletion of liver glycogen. I wasn’t taking any chances. Although I had extensive experience generating endogenous ketones and subsisting on my own body fat, exogenous ketones were another matter entirely. You don’t want to mess around with a holy sacrament without doing due diligence. Holy sacrament? Yes. According to ethnographic accounts from early Arctic explorers who encountered the sacred compound, the exogenous ketone was developed by traditional peoples of the wintry north. No one’s quite sure where it arose first—Siberia, Greenland, Alaska, Lapland. What they do know is that these societies revered the type 1 diabetic, a rare find in the pre-contact Arctic. Using an admittedly grisly and cruel process, these groups would starve the tribe’s diabetic to induce ketoacidosis, harvest the ketone-rich urine, and reduce it slowly to a ketone-rich tar over a wood fire. Tribe shamans would dissolve the tar in pine needle tea and distribute it to members exclusively before hunting trips, warfare, and any other activity requiring optimal physical and mental function to boost energy and improve performance. As Mark Twain famously quipped, “The strongest coffee I ever had was a Laplander’s piss.” So when I showed up to the small building on the edge of town on a rainy evening, I was anxious. What was I in for? The solemn countenances worn by my two guides for the day—Dr. Peter Attia, wearing dark robes and swinging a thurible loaded with burning Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Supplements Reviews Fast & Safe Keto Products For Weight Loss

Ketogenic Supplements Reviews Fast & Safe Keto Products For Weight Loss

Ketogenic supplements are taking the world by storm and the right product can steady the balance of fats that your body needs to get your body into that state of ketosis. Those of you who have tried this form of weight loss before are probably more than aware of how hard it can be to first get your body to adapt to such a dramatic change in your daily intake of food, let alone without the help of a single exogenous ketone supplement. And the situation isn’t made any easier if you use a poor quality ketosis supplement because the wrong product may actually do you more harm than good. Bad quality ketosis supplements, have proven to lead to side-effects such as constipation and increased levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in men and women may also experience amenorrhea or other disruptions to the menstrual cycle. This is why it is really important to know what combination of compounds you are consuming, particularly while you are on this very strict diet, because the wrong balance can really mess with you in the long term. DO YOUR RESEARCH. I can't stress this point enough. This lifestyle change isn't for the faint hearted and you can't just wing it. It's a calculated exercise, which can lead to so many benefits. Check out the rest of this article so you can get up to speed, on how everything works and what powder or pill are actually out there and when you're finished go deeper and read our articles on the science behind this fascinating and our reviews on the best mix of exogenous ketone supplements out there in the market. Because without the knowledge and the right information, you'll never reach your goals and you may as well just keep eating that mash potato for dinner and club sandwich for lunch. Believe me, I stumbled onto this trend before it even blew up a Continue reading >>

Are Exogenous Ketones Right For You?

Are Exogenous Ketones Right For You?

I’ve spent a lot of time lately analysing three thousand ketone vs. glucose data points trying to determine the optimal ketone and blood sugar levels for weight loss, diabetes management, athletic performance and longevity. In this article, I share my insights and learnings on the benefits, side effects and risks of endogenous and endogenous ketosis. But first, I think it’s important to understand the difference between exogenous and endogenous ketosis: Endogenous ketosis occurs when we go without food for a significant period. Our insulin levels drop, and we transition to burning body fat and ketones in our blood rise. Exogenous ketosis occurs when we drink exogenous ketones or consume a ketogenic diet. Ketones are important. As blood glucose decreases, the ketones in your blood increase to keep our energy levels stable. The chart below shows three thousand blood glucose vs ketone values measured at the same time from a range of people following a low carbohydrate or ketogenic diet. While there is generally a linear relationship between glucose and ketones, each person has a unique relationship between their blood glucose and ketone values that provide a unique insight into a particular person’s metabolic health. Hyperinsulinemia has been called as the “unifying theory of chronic disease” [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. It’s beneficial to understand where you stand on the spectrum of metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. The chart below shows the typical relationship between blood glucose and blood ketone for a range of different degrees of insulin resistance/sensitivity. If your blood glucose levels are consistently high it’s likely you are not metabolising carbohydrate well. When you go without food, endogenous ketones are slow to kick in because your insulin Continue reading >>

My Big, Fat, N=1 Exogenous Ketones Supplementation Experiment (while Eating A Keto Diet)

My Big, Fat, N=1 Exogenous Ketones Supplementation Experiment (while Eating A Keto Diet)

My Big, Fat, n=1 Exogenous Ketones Supplementation Experiment (while Eating a Keto Diet) Here we go. I’ve been slightly apprehensive about sharing this latest experiment with you, because up until recently I was where I’m sure many of you are right now in my belief that exogenous ketones were a mother flippin’ ripoff. After all, all good keto kids know that ketone bodies are the RESULT of putting our bodies successfully in ketosis, so why in the hell would we want to pay to put ketones from outside ourselves into our system? Well, I got my reasons, which I’ll share with you in a bit. First, my purpose: to do an n=1 experiment in order to see if using exogenous ketones can help me lose weight while on a ketogenic diet — that is, a diet that already puts my body in ketosis. ***HUGE DISCLAIMER: I used my own hard-earned money to pay for the exogenous ketones. I was not approached by any company, and I am not doing this experiment on behalf of anybody but myself.*** Now for some background info on me: I’ve been following a keto diet for 20 months now I am approximately 75lbs overweight Aside from an initial fluid loss of 10lb, I have never lost any weight on keto Over these last 20 months I have experimented with altering my macros, intermittent fasting (IF), extended fasting, egg fasting, and meat fasting, and nothing to date has had any measurable, lasting impact on my weight I have PCOS I have low cortisol levels due to chronic Lyme disease that was finally treated in December 2016 and January 2017 I still do consider keto to be a success for me! I used it along with the protocol in the book The Mood Cure to finally get off antidepressants and anti-anxiety medication that I was previously unsuccessful in transitioning off of for 10 years (Note: Don’t ever a Continue reading >>

Exogenous Ketones For Fat Burn

Exogenous Ketones For Fat Burn

OVERVIEW Exogenous ketones are the newest scientific breakthrough in the world of health and wellness, making the job of achieving ketosis, the state in which the body is burning fat/ketones as fuel rather than glucose, much easier. They come in powder form and are ingested exogenously (a fancy word for outside the body). Exogenous ketones are comprised of beta-hydroxybutyrate salts, which flood your bloodstream with ketones and put the body in ketosis within 30-60 minutes. This means that you can reap all the amazing health benefits of being in ketosis in a simple and effective way (just mix the exogenous ketones with water & drink!). Research is now linking exogenous ketones to a multitude of benefits, including more efficient weight loss, athletic performance enhancement, cancer prevention, cognitive improvement, neuroprotection and anti-inflammatory properties. (See research links below.) In addition, exogenous ketones are an extremely useful tool to easily transition to the ketogenic diet. When taken daily, they can reduce carb/sugar cravings, turn on your fat burners, give you more energy, and keep "low-carb flu" at bay. So bottom line, exogenous ketones are perfect for anyone looking to improve their health and wellbeing. WHY USE THEM Reason #1 - Fat Burning Exogenous ketones for fat burn. Taking exogenous ketones will get you into ketosis quickly. Once your body is done using the exogenous ketones you ingested as fuel, then it will start looking for other places to get ketones from. And lucky for you, ketones are made from the fat stored in your body! So as your body produces more of these ketones as fuel, you end up burning fat. Reason #2 - Energy Our bodies use ketones via our mitochondria to generate energy. They are an alternative fuel source to glucose and Continue reading >>

Should I Be Taking Exogenous Ketones? (say What?!)

Should I Be Taking Exogenous Ketones? (say What?!)

Should I Be Taking Exogenous Ketones? Exogenous ketones were introduced in 2014… About the same time I really started diving into the health benefits of more fat in the diet. But let me back up here, you may not even be familiar with the word “exogenous” so let’s start there: Exogenous vs Endogenous Exogenous = Originates […] Continue reading Should I Be Taking Exogenous Ketones? Exogenous ketones were introduced in 2014… About the same time I really started diving into the health benefits of more fat in the diet. But let me back up here, you may not even be familiar with the word “exogenous” so let’s start there: Exogenous vs Endogenous Exogenous = Originates from a source external from the body Endogenous = Originates from a source internal to the body Exogenous ketone bodies are just ketone bodies that are ingested through a nutritional supplement. Ketone bodies produced in the liver are more properly referred to as endogenous ketone bodies. What does the science say? Although I don’t think eating a diet ample in healthy fat is a fad, I do know that when science proves something is beneficial for us, there is a company working relentlessly to manufacture a product related to that discovery that will fly off the shelves. Remember when resveratrol, found in red wine, was proven to be good for us? Supplement companies went crazy marketing pills and drinks with even just the tiniest hint of resveratrol in it promising anti-aging and weight loss. What about garcinia cambogia? Remember that? It was marketed as a product that stopped the body’s ability to make fat and reduce appetite. Very small studies were shown that garcinia cambogia slightly raised levels of serotonin in the brain…that was all. There was no proof that it inhibited fat production Continue reading >>

Exogenous Ketones: What They Are, Benefits Of Use And How They Work

Exogenous Ketones: What They Are, Benefits Of Use And How They Work

Exogenous ketones have become a popular nutritional supplement since their introduction in 2014. Like with any new supplement, though, there tends to be a lot of misinformation that you have to sift your way through to find the reliable data. So, this article does the hard work for you and gets right to what the true benefits and drawbacks of exogenous ketones are. We also cover what forms of ketones to consider, how they function in the body, and their role in future research. What Are Ketones? Our bodies use ketones via our mitochondria to generate energy. They are an alternative fuel source to glucose. Ketones are simple compounds because of their small molecular structure and weight. Specifically, they are organic (carbon-based) compounds that contain a central carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and two carbon-containing substituents, denoted by “R” (see chemical structure below). In humans, there are 3 different ketones produced by the mitochondria of the liver. These are also often referred to as ketone bodies. The three ketones are: Acetone Acetoacetic Acid Beta-Hydroxybutyric Acid (also known Beta Hydroxybuyrate or BHB). Other chemical names include 3-hydroxybutyric acid or 3-hydroxybutyrate. BHB is not technically a ketone since it contains a reactive OH-group in place of where a double-bonded oxygen normally would be as you can see in the diagram below. Yet, BHB still functions like a ketone in the body and converts into energy much like acetoacetate and acetone. This happens via the acetoacetate and acetyl-CoA pathway. Note that acetone conversion to acetyl-CoA is not efficient due to the need to convert acetone to acetoacetate via decarboxylation. However, BHB still functions like a ketone in the body and can be converted to energy (via acetoace Continue reading >>

On The Metabolism Of Exogenous Ketones In Humans

On The Metabolism Of Exogenous Ketones In Humans

1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom 2Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom 3NTT DOCOMO Inc., Yokosuka, Japan 4Innovative Physical Organic Solutions (IPOS), University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, United Kingdom Background and aims: Currently there is considerable interest in ketone metabolism owing to recently reported benefits of ketosis for human health. Traditionally, ketosis has been achieved by following a high-fat, low-carbohydrate “ketogenic” diet, but adherence to such diets can be difficult. An alternative way to increase blood D-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-βHB) concentrations is ketone drinks, but the metabolic effects of exogenous ketones are relatively unknown. Here, healthy human volunteers took part in three randomized metabolic studies of drinks containing a ketone ester (KE); (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate, or ketone salts (KS); sodium plus potassium βHB. Methods and Results: In the first study, 15 participants consumed KE or KS drinks that delivered ~12 or ~24 g of βHB. Both drinks elevated blood D-βHB concentrations (D-βHB Cmax: KE 2.8 mM, KS 1.0 mM, P < 0.001), which returned to baseline within 3–4 h. KS drinks were found to contain 50% of the L-βHB isoform, which remained elevated in blood for over 8 h, but was not detectable after 24 h. Urinary excretion of both D-βHB and L-βHB was <1.5% of the total βHB ingested and was in proportion to the blood AUC. D-βHB, but not L-βHB, was slowly converted to breath acetone. The KE drink decreased blood pH by 0.10 and the KS drink increased urinary pH from 5.7 to 8.5. In the second study, the effect of a meal before a KE drink on blood D-βHB concentrations was determined in 16 pa Continue reading >>

Is There A Dark Side Of Ketosis?

Is There A Dark Side Of Ketosis?

I can’t remember what appetizer she pointed to, but the woman sitting to the left of me said this so casually, and several folks at the table knew exactly what she meant, confirming what I’d long suspected: Ketogenic diets have officially gone mainstream – or recognizable at a party mainstream at least – in 2017. Let’s back up and demystify ketosis, which simply means you’re utilizing ketone bodies – more commonly called ketones – rather than glucose as your body’s primary fuel. Just like your car uses gasoline, your body needs fuel. That usually means glucose. But let’s say you’re on a very-low carbohydrate, higher-fat diet. Your body doesn’t get a lot of glucose, which primarily comes from carbohydrate and to a lesser degree protein. That means your liver’s backup glucose (glycogen) also becomes in short supply. Unlike your car, your body doesn’t just shut down. Thankfully, you have an alternative fuel source called ketones. Ketones are organic compounds your liver always makes. You’re cranking out ketones right now as you read this. During starvation or (more likely) when you restrict carbohydrate and increase fat intake, your body uses ketones as its primary fuel. In other words, when your body doesn’t receive or can’t make enough glucose, it shifts to this alternative fuel. Almost every organ can utilize ketones except for your red blood cells (which don’t have ketone-metabolizing mitochondria) and liver. Your liver, in fact, does the heavy lifting. This hardworking organ metabolizes fat into three ketone bodies: acetoacetate (ACA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and acetone.(1) BHB is the first substrate that kicks ketosis into action. Among its benefits, BHB reduces chronic inflammation and restores healthy inflammation levels. In Continue reading >>

Ketones 101: Exploring The Benefits Of Exogenous Ketone Use

Ketones 101: Exploring The Benefits Of Exogenous Ketone Use

Walk into any supplement store and you’ll see the shelves adorned with what seems like an endless number of products making too-good-to-be-true claims: Lose weight in 24 hours! Lose two inches in two weeks! Between excessive praise and pushy salespeople, it can be difficult to know which supplements are reasonably worth trying—and why. So, when exogenous ketone supplements started showing up on the market, we were honestly a bit skeptical: Are these new supplements worth incorporating into our regimens, and are their apparent benefits backed up by actual scientific research? Today’s post is dedicated to explaining how we came to conclude that yes, exogenous supplements are worth including into your daily routine, and we’re about to tell you why. What are Exogenous Ketones? Simply put, the term “exogenous” refers to things that come from outside the body. Supplements are therefore considered exogenous because you ingest them rather than producing the contents of that supplement inside the body. The opposite of exogenous is “endogenous,” which refers to things that you do produce within your body. To define what “ketones” are, we need to briefly talk about how our metabolism works. Whenever you eat carbohydrates, they’re broken down into glucose (or sugar), which provides your body with the energy it needs to function; however, when you utilize a low-carb diet and don’t have enough glucose, your body adapts by looking for other sources of energy in the body. Eventually, it will turn to your fat cells. Whenever fats are broken down for energy, ketone bodies are produced as a result. Glucose is no longer your body’s primary fuel source, ketones are. (It’s important to note that ketones are always present in the blood, but their levels increase du Continue reading >>

Ketone Supplement

Ketone Supplement

What are Ketone Supplements? Ketone supplements are products that can be taken that will increase ketone production. There are supplements such as coconut oil that contain Medium Chain Triglyceride (MCT) that convert to ketones (Beta-Hydroxybutyrate) in the body. Often times consuming Coconut / MCT oil can cause some GI discomfort until the body is efficient at processing the fats. A new technology has recently been made available to the public that allows us to drink ketones / Beta-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) that within 30 mins will increase ketone levels to a therapeutic level with little if any GI discomfort. These supplements are exogenous ketones, meaning we are putting ketones into our body instead of relying on our bodies to create its own ketones. Both of these ketone supplements have been found to be beneficial. I currently consume both and recommend them both highly. I’m extremely excited and passionate about the advancements in the exogenous ketone supplementation. Continue reading >>

How To Use Exogenous Ketones

How To Use Exogenous Ketones

Exogenous Ketones were introduced in 2014, about the same time as I was recovering from having my daughter, and therefore very concerned about weight loss. But let’s back up for a bit, because if you’re here reading about Exogenous Ketones, and how to drink ketones for weight loss, let’s start at the beginning so you have a firm foundation to build if you do decided to take a ketone supplement for weight loss. First of all, Exogenous Ketones (we’ll get to exactly what those are in just a sec…hang in there) were introduced as the Ketogenic Diet started gaining popularity among the health and fitness community, as well as with the scientific community. Why? Well, it’s all about health. For so long, doctors and researchers have preached the benefits of a low-fat diet to prevent and correct all sort of things like heart disease, high cholesterol, obesity, etc. But….they may have been wrong. I am not a doctor, and do not have a medical degree, but I’ve done my homework, and I’ve lived (and am currently living) a ketogenic lifestyle. So I’ve done this, I’ve read loads and loads about it, and I’ve even been able to help many of my friends use the things I’ve learned to lead healthier lives. But, as with anything concerning your health, please make sure you have a discussion with your doctor before making a drastic change. Related: I lost 23 pounds in 60 days of Keto. Here’s how. Ok, legal stuff over, here’s what a Ketogenic Diet is: A Ketogenic Diet, also know as the Keto Diet, is a very high fat, very low carb, moderate protein diet that is very popular because it can cause you to lose body fat very fast, and study after study after study has linked Keto with benefits against cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, epilepsy, and more. Eating Ketogenical Continue reading >>

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