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Examples Of Ketones

Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones

Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones

The human body primarily runs on glucose. When your body is low on glucose, or if you have diabetes and don’t have enough insulin to help your cells absorb the glucose, your body starts breaking down fats for energy. Ketones (chemically known as ketone bodies) are byproducts of the breakdown of fatty acids. The breakdown of fat for fuel and the creation of ketones is a normal process for everyone. In a person without diabetes, insulin, glucagon, and other hormones prevent ketone levels in the blood from getting too high. However, people with diabetes are at risk for ketone buildup in their blood. If left untreated, people with type 1 diabetes are at risk for developing a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). While rare, it’s possible for people with type 2 diabetes to experience DKA in certain circumstances as well. If you have diabetes, you need to be especially aware of the symptoms that having too many ketones in your body can cause. These include: If you don’t get treatment, the symptoms can progress to: a fruity breath odor stomach pain trouble breathing You should always seek immediate medical attention if your ketone levels are high. Testing your blood or urine to measure your ketone levels can all be done at home. At-home testing kits are available for both types of tests, although urine testing continues to be more common. Urine tests are available without a prescription at most drugstores, or you can buy them online. You should test your urine or blood for ketones when any of the following occurs: Your blood sugar is higher than 240 mg/dL. You feel sick or nauseated, regardless of your blood sugar reading. To perform a urine test, you urinate into a clean container and dip the test strip into the urine. For a child who isn’t potty-trained, a pa Continue reading >>

Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes And Ketones

Introduction We will focus more specifically on the organic compounds that incorporate carbonyl groups: aldehydes and ketones. Key Terms Aldehyde Formyl group Ketone Hydrogen bonding Hydration Hydrate Objectives Identify IUPAC names for simple aldehydes and ketones Describe the boiling point and solubility characteristics of aldehydes and ketones relative to those of alkanes and alcohols Characterize the process of nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group The carbonyl group is shown below in the context of synthesizing alcohols. This functional group is the key component of aldehydes and ketones, which we will discuss here. Nomenclature for Aldehydes and Ketones Aldehydes and ketones are structurally similar; the only difference is that for an aldehyde, the carbonyl group has at most one substituent alkyl group, whereas the carbonyl group in a ketone has two. Several examples of aldehydes and ketones are depicted below. Aldehydes are named by replacing the -e ending of an alkane with -al (similarly to the use of -ol in alcohols). The base molecule is the longest carbon chain ending with the carbonyl group. Furthermore, the carbon atom in the carbonyl group is assumed to be carbon 1, so a number is not needed in the IUPAC name to identify the location of the doubly bonded oxygen atom. If the chain contains two carbonyl groups, one at each end, the correct suffix is -dial (used in the same manner as -diol for compounds with two hydroxyl groups). An example aldehyde is shown below with its IUPAC name. One- and two-carbon aldehydes have common names (one of which you will likely be familiar with) in addition to their systematic names. Both names are acceptable. Sometimes, the carbonyl group plus one proton (called a formyl group) must be treated separately for nomenclatu Continue reading >>

R-5.6.2 Ketones, Thioketones, And Their Analogues

R-5.6.2 Ketones, Thioketones, And Their Analogues

Specific Classes of Compounds R-5.6.2.1 Ketones. The generic term "ketone" refers to compounds containing a carbonyl group, >C=O, joined to two carbon atoms. Ketones are named substitutively by adding a suffix such as "-one", and "-dione" to the name of a parent hydride with elision of the final "e" of the parent hydride, if any, before "o". When a group having priority for citation as principal characteristic group is present, a ketone is described by the prefix "oxo-". Functional class names for monoketones and vicinal diketones, etc., are formed by citing the prefix names for the two groups attached to the carbonyl group(s) in alphabetical order followed by the class name "ketone", "diketone", etc., as a separate word. Examples to R-5.6.2.1 Diketones derived from cyclic parent hydrides having the maximum number of noncumulative double bonds by conversion of two -CH= groups into >CO groups with rearrangement of double bonds to a quinonoid structure may be named alternatively by adding the suffix "-quinone" to the name of the aromatic parent hydride. Example to R-5.6.2.1 Acyl derivatives of benzene or naphthalene have been named by changing the "-ic acid" or "-oic acid" ending of a trivial name of the acid corresponding to the acyl group to "-ophenone" or "-onaphthone". Only the names acetophenone, propiophenone, and benzophenone are retained in these recommendations (see R-9.1, Table 27(a)). Acyl derivatives of cyclic parent hydrides are named by prefixing the substituent name derived from the cyclic parent hydride to the name of the acyclic ketone. Example to R-5.6.2.1 Some trivial names are retained (see R-9.1, Table 27(a)). R-5.6.2.2 Chalcogen analogues of ketones are named by using suffixes such as "-thione" and "-selone", and prefix names such as "thioxo-" and "s Continue reading >>

Reactions Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Reactions Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Reference: McMurry Ch 9 George et al Ch 2.6 Structure and bonding Contain a carbonyl group, C=O Aldehydes have at least one H attached to the carbonyl group, ketones have two carbon groups attached to the carbonyl group Carbon of the carbonyl group is sp2 hybridised The C=O bond is polar Aldehydes and ketones strongly absorb radiation around ~ 1700 cm-1 in the infrared region Nomenclature Aldehydes The longest chain containing the CHO group gives the stem; ending �al If substituents are present, start the numbering from the aldehyde group - C1 Ketones The longest chain containing the carbonyl group gives the stem; ending �one If substituents are present number from the end of the chain so the carbonyl group has the lowest possible number There are non-systematic names for the common aldehydes and ketones With the exception of oxidation of aldehydes, the reactions of aldehydes and ketones is dominated by nucleophilic addition. 1. Oxidation of aldehydes Aldehydes (but not ketones) may be oxidised to carboxylic acids with Cr2O72- / H+ Example: 2. Nucleophilic addition The double bond of the carbonyl group undergoes an addition reaction The polarity of the C=O bond results in the addition of a nucleophile (Nu-) to the carbon atom, breaking of the double bond and addition of H+ to the oxygen is always the second step and results in an alcohol Common nucleophiles include the Grignard reagent (RMgX), hydride ion (H- from LiAlH4 or NaBH4) In summary Examples: Grignard reaction Recap � generation of a Grignard reagent from an alkyl halide and magnesium in dry diethyl ether solvent Grignard reagents also react with carbon dioxide to generate carboxylic acids after addition of aqueous H+ Reduction Reduction of the non-polar C=C or C� C bonds in alkenes and alkynes respecti Continue reading >>

Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes And Ketones

Assoc. Prof. Lubomir Makedonski,PhD Medical University of Varna Aldehydes and ketones as carbonyl compounds Aldehydes and ketones are simple compounds which contain a carbonyl group - a carbon-oxygen double bond. They are simple in the sense that they don't have other reactive groups like -OH or -Cl attached directly to the carbon atom in the carbonyl group - as you might find, for example, in carboxylic acids containing -COOH. Examples of aldehydes In aldehydes, the carbonyl group has a hydrogen atom attached to it together with either · a second hydrogen atom · or, more commonly, a hydrocarbon group which might be an alkyl group or one containing a benzene ring. Notice that these all have exactly the same end to the molecule. All that differs is the complexity of the other group attached. The name counts the total number of carbon atoms in the longest chain - including the one in the carbonyl group. If you have side groups attached to the chain, notice that you always count from the carbon atom in the carbonyl group as being number 1 Names Aldehydes All aldehydes contain the group: The names of aldehydes end in al. Examples of ketones In ketones, the carbonyl group has two hydrocarbon groups attached. Again, these can be either alkyl groups or ones containing benzene rings. Again, we'll concentrated on those containing alkyl groups just to keep things simple. Notice that ketones never have a hydrogen atom attached to the carbonyl group. Propanone is normally written CH3COCH3. Notice the need for numbering in the longer ketones. In pentanone, the carbonyl group could be in the middle of the chain or next to the end - giving either pentan-3-one or pentan-2-one. Names Ketones Ketones contain a carbon-oxygen double bond just like aldehydes, but this time it's in the Continue reading >>

Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes and Ketones The connection between the structures of alkenes and alkanes was previously established, which noted that we can transform an alkene into an alkane by adding an H2 molecule across the C=C double bond. The driving force behind this reaction is the difference between the strengths of the bonds that must be broken and the bonds that form in the reaction. In the course of this hydrogenation reaction, a relatively strong HH bond (435 kJ/mol) and a moderately strong carbon-carbon bond (270 kJ/mol) are broken, but two strong CH bonds (439 kJ/mol) are formed. The reduction of an alkene to an alkane is therefore an exothermic reaction. What about the addition of an H2 molecule across a C=O double bond? Once again, a significant amount of energy has to be invested in this reaction to break the HH bond (435 kJ/mol) and the carbon-oxygen bond (375 kJ/mol). The overall reaction is still exothermic, however, because of the strength of the CH bond (439 kJ/mol) and the OH bond (498 kJ/mol) that are formed. The addition of hydrogen across a C=O double bond raises several important points. First, and perhaps foremost, it shows the connection between the chemistry of primary alcohols and aldehydes. But it also helps us understand the origin of the term aldehyde. If a reduction reaction in which H2 is added across a double bond is an example of a hydrogenation reaction, then an oxidation reaction in which an H2 molecule is removed to form a double bond might be called dehydrogenation. Thus, using the symbol [O] to represent an oxidizing agent, we see that the product of the oxidation of a primary alcohol is literally an "al-dehyd" or aldehyde. It is an alcohol that has been dehydrogenated. This reaction also illustrates the importance of differentiating between primar Continue reading >>

1. Nomenclature Of Aldehydes And Ketones

1. Nomenclature Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes and ketones are organic compounds which incorporate a carbonyl functional group, C=O. The carbon atom of this group has two remaining bonds that may be occupied by hydrogen or alkyl or aryl substituents. If at least one of these substituents is hydrogen, the compound is an aldehyde. If neither is hydrogen, the compound is a ketone. The IUPAC system of nomenclature assigns a characteristic suffix to these classes, al to aldehydes and one to ketones. For example, H2C=O is methanal, more commonly called formaldehyde. Since an aldehyde carbonyl group must always lie at the end of a carbon chain, it is by default position #1, and therefore defines the numbering direction. A ketone carbonyl function may be located anywhere within a chain or ring, and its position is given by a locator number. Chain numbering normally starts from the end nearest the carbonyl group. In cyclic ketones the carbonyl group is assigned position #1, and this number is not cited in the name, unless more than one carbonyl group is present. If you are uncertain about the IUPAC rules for nomenclature you should review them now. Examples of IUPAC names are provided (in blue) in the following diagram. Common names are in red, and derived names in black. In common names carbon atoms near the carbonyl group are often designated by Greek letters. The atom adjacent to the function is alpha, the next removed is beta and so on. Since ketones have two sets of neighboring atoms, one set is labeled α, β etc., and the other α', β' etc. Very simple ketones, such as propanone and phenylethanone (first two examples in the right column), do not require a locator number, since there is only one possible site for a ketone carbonyl function. Likewise, locator numbers are omitted for the simple dialdehyde at t Continue reading >>

Chapter 16: Aldehydes And Ketones (carbonyl Compounds)

Chapter 16: Aldehydes And Ketones (carbonyl Compounds)

The Carbonyl Double Bond Both the carbon and oxygen atoms are hybridized sp2, so the system is planar. The three oxygen sp2 AO’s are involved as follows: The two unshared electorn pairs of oxygen occupy two of these AO’s, and the third is involved in sigma bond formation to the carbonyl carbon. The three sp2 AO’s on the carbonyl carbon are involved as follows: One of them is involved in sigma bonding to one of the oxygen sp2 AO’s, and the other two are involved in bonding to the R substituents. The 2pz AO’s on oxygen and the carbonyl carbon are involved in pi overlap, forming a pi bond. The pi BMO, formed by positive overlap of the 2p orbitals, has a larger concentration of electron density on oxygen than carbon, because the electrons in this orbital are drawn to the more electronegative atom, where they are more highly stabilized. This result is reversed in the vacant antibonding MO. As a consequence of the distribution in the BMO, the pi bond (as is the case also with the sigma bond) is highly polar, with the negative end of the dipole on oxygen and the positive end on carbon. We will see that this polarity, which is absent in a carbon-carbon pi bond, has the effect of strongly stabilizing the C=O moiety. Resonance Treatment of the Carbonyl Pi Bond 1.Note that the ionic structure (the one on the right side) has one less covalent bond, but this latter is replaced with an ionic bond (electrostatic bond). 2.This structure is a relatively “good” one, therefore, and contributes extensively to the resonance hybrid, making this bond much more thermodynamically stable than the C=C pi bond, for which the corresponding ionic structure is much less favorable (negative charge is less stable on carbon than on oxygen). 3.The carbonyl carbon therefore has extensive car Continue reading >>

14.9: Aldehydes And Ketones: Structure And Names

14.9: Aldehydes And Ketones: Structure And Names

Identify the general structure for an aldehyde and a ketone. Use common names to name aldehydes and ketones. Use the IUPAC system to name aldehydes and ketones. The next functional group we consider, the carbonyl group, has a carbon-to-oxygen double bond. Carbonyl groups define two related families of organic compounds: the aldehydes and the ketones. The carbonyl group is ubiquitous in biological compounds. It is found in carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids, hormones, and vitamins—organic compounds critical to living systems. In a ketone, two carbon groups are attached to the carbonyl carbon atom. The following general formulas, in which R represents an alkyl group and Ar stands for an aryl group, represent ketones. In an aldehyde, at least one of the attached groups must be a hydrogen atom. The following compounds are aldehydes: In condensed formulas, we use CHO to identify an aldehyde rather than COH, which might be confused with an alcohol. This follows the general rule that in condensed structural formulas H comes after the atom it is attached to (usually C, N, or O). The carbon-to-oxygen double bond is not shown but understood to be present. Because they contain the same functional group, aldehydes and ketones share many common properties, but they still differ enough to warrant their classification into two families. Here are some simple IUPAC rules for naming aldehydes and ketones: The stem names of aldehydes and ketones are derived from those of the parent alkanes, defined by the longest continuous chain (LCC) of carbon atoms that contains the functional group. For an aldehyde, drop the -e from the alkane name and add the ending -al. Methanal is the IUPAC name for formaldehyde, and ethanal is the name for acetaldehyde. For a ketone, drop the -e from t Continue reading >>

Ketone

Ketone

Ketone, any of a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbonyl group in which the carbon atom is covalently bonded to an oxygen atom. The remaining two bonds are to other carbon atoms or hydrocarbon radicals (R): Ketone compounds have important physiological properties. They are found in several sugars and in compounds for medicinal use, including natural and synthetic steroid hormones. Molecules of the anti-inflammatory agent cortisone contain three ketone groups. Only a small number of ketones are manufactured on a large scale in industry. They can be synthesized by a wide variety of methods, and because of their ease of preparation, relative stability, and high reactivity, they are nearly ideal chemical intermediates. Many complex organic compounds are synthesized using ketones as building blocks. They are most widely used as solvents, especially in industries manufacturing explosives, lacquers, paints, and textiles. Ketones are also used in tanning, as preservatives, and in hydraulic fluids. The most important ketone is acetone (CH3COCH3), a liquid with a sweetish odour. Acetone is one of the few organic compounds that is infinitely soluble in water (i.e., soluble in all proportions); it also dissolves many organic compounds. For this reason—and because of its low boiling point (56 °C [132.8 °F]), which makes it easy to remove by evaporation when no longer wanted—it is one of the most important industrial solvents, being used in such products as paints, varnishes, resins, coatings, and nail-polish removers. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) name of a ketone is derived by selecting as the parent the longest chain of carbon atoms that contains the carbonyl group. The parent chain is numbered from the end that Continue reading >>

Organic Chemistry/ketones And Aldehydes

Organic Chemistry/ketones And Aldehydes

Aldehydes () and ketones () are both carbonyl compounds. They are organic compounds in which the carbonyl carbon is connected to C or H atoms on either side. An aldehyde has one or both vacancies of the carbonyl carbon satisfied by a H atom, while a ketone has both its vacancies satisfied by carbon. 3 Preparing Aldehydes and Ketones Ketones are named by replacing the -e in the alkane name with -one. The carbon chain is numbered so that the ketone carbon, called the carbonyl group, gets the lowest number. For example, would be named 2-butanone because the root structure is butane and the ketone group is on the number two carbon. Alternatively, functional class nomenclature of ketones is also recognized by IUPAC, which is done by naming the substituents attached to the carbonyl group in alphabetical order, ending with the word ketone. The above example of 2-butanone can also be named ethyl methyl ketone using this method. If two ketone groups are on the same structure, the ending -dione would be added to the alkane name, such as heptane-2,5-dione. Aldehydes replace the -e ending of an alkane with -al for an aldehyde. Since an aldehyde is always at the carbon that is numbered one, a number designation is not needed. For example, the aldehyde of pentane would simply be pentanal. The -CH=O group of aldehydes is known as a formyl group. When a formyl group is attached to a ring, the ring name is followed by the suffix "carbaldehyde". For example, a hexane ring with a formyl group is named cyclohexanecarbaldehyde. Aldehyde and ketone polarity is characterized by the high dipole moments of their carbonyl group, which makes them rather polar molecules. They are more polar than alkenes and ethers, though because they lack hydrogen, they cannot participate in hydrogen bonding like Continue reading >>

Ketone

Ketone

Not to be confused with ketone bodies. Ketone group Acetone In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) /ˈkiːtoʊn/ is an organic compound with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of carbon-containing substituents. Ketones and aldehydes are simple compounds that contain a carbonyl group (a carbon-oxygen double bond). They are considered "simple" because they do not have reactive groups like −OH or −Cl attached directly to the carbon atom in the carbonyl group, as in carboxylic acids containing −COOH.[1] Many ketones are known and many are of great importance in industry and in biology. Examples include many sugars (ketoses) and the industrial solvent acetone, which is the smallest ketone. Nomenclature and etymology[edit] The word ketone is derived from Aketon, an old German word for acetone.[2][3] According to the rules of IUPAC nomenclature, ketones are named by changing the suffix -ane of the parent alkane to -anone. The position of the carbonyl group is usually denoted by a number. For the most important ketones, however, traditional nonsystematic names are still generally used, for example acetone and benzophenone. These nonsystematic names are considered retained IUPAC names,[4] although some introductory chemistry textbooks use systematic names such as "2-propanone" or "propan-2-one" for the simplest ketone (CH3−CO−CH3) instead of "acetone". The common names of ketones are obtained by writing separately the names of the two alkyl groups attached to the carbonyl group, followed by "ketone" as a separate word. The names of the alkyl groups are written alphabetically. When the two alkyl groups are the same, the prefix di- is added before the name of alkyl group. The positions of other groups are indicated by Greek letters, the α-carbon being th Continue reading >>

What Is Ketone? - Definition, Structure, Formation & Formula

What Is Ketone? - Definition, Structure, Formation & Formula

Background of Ketone Did you know that our friend aldehyde has a very close relative named ketone? By definition, a ketone is an organic compound that contains a carbonyl functional group. So you may be wondering if aldehydes and ketones are relatives, what makes them different? Well, I am glad you asked because all you have to remember is this little guy: hydrogen. While aldehyde contains a hydrogen atom connected to its carbonyl group, ketone does not have a hydrogen atom attached. There are a few ways to know you are encountering a ketone. The first is by looking at the ending of the chemical word. If the suffix ending of the chemical name is '-one,' then you can be sure there is a ketone present in that compound. Want to know another way to tell if a ketone is lurking around the corner? By its physical property. Ketones have high boiling points and love water (high water solubility). Let's dig a little deeper with the physical property of a ketone. The oxygen in a ketone absolutely loves to take all the electrons it can get its hands on. But, by being an electron-hogger, oxygen's refusal to share creates a sticky situation where some atoms on the ketone have more or less charge than others. In chemistry, an electron-hogging atom is referred to as being electronegative. An electronegative atom is more attractive to other compounds. This attractiveness, called polarity, is what contributes to ketones' physical properties. Structure & Formula Ketones have a very distinct look to them; you can't miss it if you see them. As shown in Diagram 1, there are two R groups attached to the carbonyl group (C=O). Those R groups can be any type of compound that contains a carbon molecule. An example of how the R group determines ketone type is illustrated in this diagram here. The Continue reading >>

Wikipremed Mcat Course

Wikipremed Mcat Course

Oxidation of Aldehydes and Ketones Many of the stronger oxidizing agents such as KMnO4 will transform aldehydes into carboxylic acids. Tol- lens' reagent [Ag(NH3)2]+ is one such oxidant. A shiny mirror of metallic silver is deposited through oxidation of aldehydes by Tollens' reagent, so it is a frequently used test for aldehydes in qualitative analysis. Aldehydes are themselves oxidation products of alcohols. Be cognizant of the spectrum of oxidation states for organic carbon-oxygen functional groups, beginning with alcohols, which are more highly reduced than aldehydes or ketones. Aldehydes and ketones are in turn more reduced than carboxylic acids and carboxylic acid derivatives. A strong oxidizing agent like KMnO4 will oxidize a primary alcohol past the aldehyde and up to the carboxylic acid oxidation state, while other, weaker oxidizing agents, like PCC, can be used to form aldehydes from alcohols, not proceeding to oxidize the aldehyde further. In general, normal ketones are not oxidized except under extreme conditions. At high temperature, ketones are cleavage oxidized by a strong oxidizing agent like KMnO4. An exception is a benzylic carbonyl group, which KMnO4 oxidizes easily. Continue reading >>

Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes and Ketones are collectively called as Carbonyl Compounds. The basic structure of Aldehydes is represented below, in which R is any hydrocarbon chain or could be even hydrogen Hence the smallest possible aldehyde is Methanal (below). Whereas, the basic structure of Ketones is represented similarly as Aldehydes, but the Carbonyl Carbon(the carbon to which an Oxygen is double bonded), is surrounded by two hydrocarbon chains instead of one. Hence the smallest possible ketone is Propanone, or otherwise commonly known as Acetone(below). A basic Fehling's test and Tollen's test is conducted to differentiate Aldehyde and Ketone. There are basically two types of aldehydes - Aliphatic and Aromatic aldehydes. Aliphatic Aldehydes are nothing but straight chain aldehydes. Aromatic Aldehydes are consist of aromatic rings in their structure. Ethanal ( commonly known as Acetaldehyde ) Benzaldehyde In the above basic structure of Ketones, if , then the ketone is said to be symmetric. But if , then the ketone is said to be unsymmetric. A few examples of each is given below: Acetone 3-Pentanone 2-Pentanone Cyclic Ketones These class of ketones are compounds where, the carbonyl carbon is itself present in a cyclic chain. Examples: Cyclohexanone Aldehydes and ketones undergo Nucleophilic addition reactions. Mechanism: 1)Nucleophilic attack on the electrophilic carbon (c bonded to o). 2)Hybridization of the carbonyl changes from sp2 to sp3. 3)Formation of tetrahedahedral intermediate. 4)proton capture from the medium to form neutral product. Nucleophiles : Addition product 1) cyanide : cyanohydrin 2) NaHSO3 : Hydrogen sulphite addition prdt 3) Grignard reagent+H2O : alcohol 4) Alcohol(1 mole) : Hemiacetal 5) NH2-Z (Z=alkyl,aryl,NH2,OH...) Continue reading >>

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