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Examples Of Ketones

Ketones

Ketones

Suffix: -one Prefix: oxo Ketones are the first of a number of compounds containing the carbonyl group ( C=O ). This double bonded carbon - oxygen pair is found in; aldehydes, amides, acid anhydrides, acyl halides, carboxylic acids, esters, and ketones. The only difference between these compounds is the nature of the two groups attached to the carbonyl carbon atom. In the case of a ketone this will be two alkyl groups, therefore the carbonyl group will appear in the middle of a chain, or in a ring. When a keto group is the highest priority functional group present in the molecule, it is names as an alkanone (note, the -e is dropped), or an alkyl alkyl ketone. The numbering scheme used will be the one that gives the carbonyl carbon atom the lowest possible number. Other functional groups are located by this numbering scheme. When the keto group is the only functional group present the number locating it is place in front of the root name (i.e. 2-propanone). When other functional groups such as multiple bonds are present, the number locating the keto group is placed before the -one (i.e. 4-penten-2-one). There are a number of compounds which were named before IUPAC developed the standardized nomenclature rules. Many of these compounds are still referred to by these common names. The common names for the some of the more common compounds will be included (underlined in bold) and should be memorized. Examples naming simple ketones: * note: the 2 in 2-propanone is redundant as the carbonyl must be located at carbon 2 for it to be a ketone. ** note: the -a as added with the di- prefix of the dione. Examples naming more complex ketones: Ketones as Substituents: In more complex molecules with higher priority functional groups, the keto group is named as an oxo substituent. It is Continue reading >>

Blood Ketones

Blood Ketones

On This Site Tests: Urine Ketones (see Urinalysis - The Chemical Exam); Blood Gases; Glucose Tests Elsewhere On The Web Ask a Laboratory Scientist Your questions will be answered by a laboratory scientist as part of a voluntary service provided by one of our partners, the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS). Click on the Contact a Scientist button below to be re-directed to the ASCLS site to complete a request form. If your question relates to this web site and not to a specific lab test, please submit it via our Contact Us page instead. Thank you. Continue reading >>

Chapter 16: Aldehydes And Ketones (carbonyl Compounds)

Chapter 16: Aldehydes And Ketones (carbonyl Compounds)

The Carbonyl Double Bond Both the carbon and oxygen atoms are hybridized sp2, so the system is planar. The three oxygen sp2 AO’s are involved as follows: The two unshared electorn pairs of oxygen occupy two of these AO’s, and the third is involved in sigma bond formation to the carbonyl carbon. The three sp2 AO’s on the carbonyl carbon are involved as follows: One of them is involved in sigma bonding to one of the oxygen sp2 AO’s, and the other two are involved in bonding to the R substituents. The 2pz AO’s on oxygen and the carbonyl carbon are involved in pi overlap, forming a pi bond. The pi BMO, formed by positive overlap of the 2p orbitals, has a larger concentration of electron density on oxygen than carbon, because the electrons in this orbital are drawn to the more electronegative atom, where they are more highly stabilized. This result is reversed in the vacant antibonding MO. As a consequence of the distribution in the BMO, the pi bond (as is the case also with the sigma bond) is highly polar, with the negative end of the dipole on oxygen and the positive end on carbon. We will see that this polarity, which is absent in a carbon-carbon pi bond, has the effect of strongly stabilizing the C=O moiety. Resonance Treatment of the Carbonyl Pi Bond 1.Note that the ionic structure (the one on the right side) has one less covalent bond, but this latter is replaced with an ionic bond (electrostatic bond). 2.This structure is a relatively “good” one, therefore, and contributes extensively to the resonance hybrid, making this bond much more thermodynamically stable than the C=C pi bond, for which the corresponding ionic structure is much less favorable (negative charge is less stable on carbon than on oxygen). 3.The carbonyl carbon therefore has extensive car Continue reading >>

Nomenclature Of Aldehydes & Ketones

Nomenclature Of Aldehydes & Ketones

Aldehydes and ketones contain the carbonyl group. Aldehydes are considered the most important functional group. They are often called the formyl or methanoyl group. Aldehydes derive their name from the dehydration of alcohols. Aldehydes contain the carbonyl group bonded to at least one hydrogen atom. Ketones contain the carbonyl group bonded to two carbon atoms. Aldehydes and ketones are organic compounds which incorporate a carbonyl functional group, C=O. The carbon atom of this group has two remaining bonds that may be occupied by hydrogen, alkyl or aryl substituents. If at least one of these substituents is hydrogen, the compound is an aldehyde. If neither is hydrogen, the compound is a ketone. Naming Aldehydes The IUPAC system of nomenclature assigns a characteristic suffix -al to aldehydes. For example, H2C=O is methanal, more commonly called formaldehyde. Since an aldehyde carbonyl group must always lie at the end of a carbon chain, it is always is given the #1 location position in numbering and it is not necessary to include it in the name. There are several simple carbonyl containing compounds which have common names which are retained by IUPAC. Also, there is a common method for naming aldehydes and ketones. For aldehydes common parent chain names, similar to those used for carboxylic acids, are used and the suffix –aldehyde is added to the end. In common names of aldehydes, carbon atoms near the carbonyl group are often designated by Greek letters. The atom adjacent to the carbonyl function is alpha, the next removed is beta and so on. If the aldehyde moiety (-CHO) is attached to a ring the suffix –carbaldehyde is added to the name of the ring. The carbon attached to this moiety will get the #1 location number in naming the ring. Aldehydes take their name Continue reading >>

14.9: Aldehydes And Ketones: Structure And Names

14.9: Aldehydes And Ketones: Structure And Names

Identify the general structure for an aldehyde and a ketone. Use common names to name aldehydes and ketones. Use the IUPAC system to name aldehydes and ketones. The next functional group we consider, the carbonyl group, has a carbon-to-oxygen double bond. Carbonyl groups define two related families of organic compounds: the aldehydes and the ketones. The carbonyl group is ubiquitous in biological compounds. It is found in carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids, hormones, and vitamins—organic compounds critical to living systems. In a ketone, two carbon groups are attached to the carbonyl carbon atom. The following general formulas, in which R represents an alkyl group and Ar stands for an aryl group, represent ketones. In an aldehyde, at least one of the attached groups must be a hydrogen atom. The following compounds are aldehydes: In condensed formulas, we use CHO to identify an aldehyde rather than COH, which might be confused with an alcohol. This follows the general rule that in condensed structural formulas H comes after the atom it is attached to (usually C, N, or O). The carbon-to-oxygen double bond is not shown but understood to be present. Because they contain the same functional group, aldehydes and ketones share many common properties, but they still differ enough to warrant their classification into two families. Here are some simple IUPAC rules for naming aldehydes and ketones: The stem names of aldehydes and ketones are derived from those of the parent alkanes, defined by the longest continuous chain (LCC) of carbon atoms that contains the functional group. For an aldehyde, drop the -e from the alkane name and add the ending -al. Methanal is the IUPAC name for formaldehyde, and ethanal is the name for acetaldehyde. For a ketone, drop the -e from t Continue reading >>

Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes And Ketones

Assoc. Prof. Lubomir Makedonski,PhD Medical University of Varna Aldehydes and ketones as carbonyl compounds Aldehydes and ketones are simple compounds which contain a carbonyl group - a carbon-oxygen double bond. They are simple in the sense that they don't have other reactive groups like -OH or -Cl attached directly to the carbon atom in the carbonyl group - as you might find, for example, in carboxylic acids containing -COOH. Examples of aldehydes In aldehydes, the carbonyl group has a hydrogen atom attached to it together with either · a second hydrogen atom · or, more commonly, a hydrocarbon group which might be an alkyl group or one containing a benzene ring. Notice that these all have exactly the same end to the molecule. All that differs is the complexity of the other group attached. The name counts the total number of carbon atoms in the longest chain - including the one in the carbonyl group. If you have side groups attached to the chain, notice that you always count from the carbon atom in the carbonyl group as being number 1 Names Aldehydes All aldehydes contain the group: The names of aldehydes end in al. Examples of ketones In ketones, the carbonyl group has two hydrocarbon groups attached. Again, these can be either alkyl groups or ones containing benzene rings. Again, we'll concentrated on those containing alkyl groups just to keep things simple. Notice that ketones never have a hydrogen atom attached to the carbonyl group. Propanone is normally written CH3COCH3. Notice the need for numbering in the longer ketones. In pentanone, the carbonyl group could be in the middle of the chain or next to the end - giving either pentan-3-one or pentan-2-one. Names Ketones Ketones contain a carbon-oxygen double bond just like aldehydes, but this time it's in the Continue reading >>

Ketone

Ketone

Ketone, any of a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbonyl group in which the carbon atom is covalently bonded to an oxygen atom. The remaining two bonds are to other carbon atoms or hydrocarbon radicals (R): Ketone compounds have important physiological properties. They are found in several sugars and in compounds for medicinal use, including natural and synthetic steroid hormones. Molecules of the anti-inflammatory agent cortisone contain three ketone groups. Only a small number of ketones are manufactured on a large scale in industry. They can be synthesized by a wide variety of methods, and because of their ease of preparation, relative stability, and high reactivity, they are nearly ideal chemical intermediates. Many complex organic compounds are synthesized using ketones as building blocks. They are most widely used as solvents, especially in industries manufacturing explosives, lacquers, paints, and textiles. Ketones are also used in tanning, as preservatives, and in hydraulic fluids. The most important ketone is acetone (CH3COCH3), a liquid with a sweetish odour. Acetone is one of the few organic compounds that is infinitely soluble in water (i.e., soluble in all proportions); it also dissolves many organic compounds. For this reason—and because of its low boiling point (56 °C [132.8 °F]), which makes it easy to remove by evaporation when no longer wanted—it is one of the most important industrial solvents, being used in such products as paints, varnishes, resins, coatings, and nail-polish removers. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) name of a ketone is derived by selecting as the parent the longest chain of carbon atoms that contains the carbonyl group. The parent chain is numbered from the end that Continue reading >>

Ketones And Aldehydes

Ketones And Aldehydes

Your chemical reactions can be run safely and effectively with US-made clamps and other laboratory accessories from Safety Emporium. According to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) naming (nomenclature) rules, simple ketones are named by taking the name of the longest acyclic hydrocarbon chain in the molecule, dropping the terminal "e" (if present), and adding the suffix "one". In situations where there are other functional groups that take naming precedence, the ketone may be indicated by the use of "oxo". Certain other ketone-containing substructures have additional naming rules that are beyond the scope of our current discussion: Under IUPAC nomenclature aldehydes are named by taking the name of the longest acyclic hydrocarbon chain in the molecule, dropping the terminal "e" (if present), and adding the suffix "al", "aldehyde" or "carbaldehyde". In some cases the prefix "formyl" may be used. Two aldehydes are indicated by the suffix "dial". In addition, a number of trivial (traditional) names are still recognized. For detailed naming rules see Further Reading below. Aldehydes and ketones are widely used industrial chemicals both as solvents and as chemical intermediates (ingredients for other chemicals). Most can be classified as volatile organic compounds meaning that their vapors may be easily inhaled or ignited. Many ketones and aldehydes are also flammable as liquids and solids. Training materials, handbooks, posters and videos at Safety Emporium can help your employees protect themselves from hazards such as formaldehyde. Important note: formaldehyde is an industrially important aldehyde that is used on the billion ton scale. Glutaraldehyde is a "cold sterilent" used widely in the health care industry. Both are potent sensitizers. Expo Continue reading >>

What Is Ketone? - Definition, Structure, Formation & Formula

What Is Ketone? - Definition, Structure, Formation & Formula

Background of Ketone Did you know that our friend aldehyde has a very close relative named ketone? By definition, a ketone is an organic compound that contains a carbonyl functional group. So you may be wondering if aldehydes and ketones are relatives, what makes them different? Well, I am glad you asked because all you have to remember is this little guy: hydrogen. While aldehyde contains a hydrogen atom connected to its carbonyl group, ketone does not have a hydrogen atom attached. There are a few ways to know you are encountering a ketone. The first is by looking at the ending of the chemical word. If the suffix ending of the chemical name is '-one,' then you can be sure there is a ketone present in that compound. Want to know another way to tell if a ketone is lurking around the corner? By its physical property. Ketones have high boiling points and love water (high water solubility). Let's dig a little deeper with the physical property of a ketone. The oxygen in a ketone absolutely loves to take all the electrons it can get its hands on. But, by being an electron-hogger, oxygen's refusal to share creates a sticky situation where some atoms on the ketone have more or less charge than others. In chemistry, an electron-hogging atom is referred to as being electronegative. An electronegative atom is more attractive to other compounds. This attractiveness, called polarity, is what contributes to ketones' physical properties. Structure & Formula Ketones have a very distinct look to them; you can't miss it if you see them. As shown in Diagram 1, there are two R groups attached to the carbonyl group (C=O). Those R groups can be any type of compound that contains a carbon molecule. An example of how the R group determines ketone type is illustrated in this diagram here. The Continue reading >>

1 Structure And Nomenclature

1 Structure And Nomenclature

� C=O Bond has Larger dipole moment than C�O bond because the pi-electrons are more polarizable IUPAC nomenclature uses numbering system Aldehydes - Suffix -al, Ketones - Suffix -one priority: aldehyde> ketone> alcohol > alkene > alkyne > halide (higher priority with higher oxidation) � Example above, no number for simple aldehyde, C=O must always be 1 � Example above, number to give carbonyl smallest number � Example above, ketone takes priority over alcohol, when -OH is a substituent it is a "hydroxy" substituent � Example above, ketone lower priority than aldehyde, when ketone is a subsituent it is an "oxo" substituent � Example above, multiple suffixes for multiple functional groups 2 Synthesis of Aldehydes and Ketones : Review of "Old" Methods 3 New Syntheses of Aldehyes and Ketones : Acid Catalyzed Mechanisms 3.1 Using 1,3-Dithiane New reagent : 1,3-dithiane , can be deprotonated, but only using a very strong base Recall: Alkyl lithium reagents (seen before), are VERY strong Bronsted bases, example, butyl lithium (n-BuLi) � here the "n-" means straight chain butyl lithium, to distinguish from, for example, t-Bu-Li (tertiary butyl lithium) � alkyl lithium reagents in general (R-Li, e.g. MeLi, BuLi, PhLi) are very strong nucleophiles AND very strong Bronsted bases, they can deprotonate suitable carbon atoms, as shown below for dithiane � how does this last step with the H3O+ work?? � the reaction is HYDROLYSIS, breaking bonds (lysis), two C-S bonds in this case, with water (hydro) Recall But � protonation of oxygen allows bond breaking, makes a good leaving group � think about what bond break and what bonds are made in the following reaction..... � need to break two C-S bonds (protonate S to make good leaving group) make two C-O bonds (1 Continue reading >>

Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes and Ketones The connection between the structures of alkenes and alkanes was previously established, which noted that we can transform an alkene into an alkane by adding an H2 molecule across the C=C double bond. The driving force behind this reaction is the difference between the strengths of the bonds that must be broken and the bonds that form in the reaction. In the course of this hydrogenation reaction, a relatively strong HH bond (435 kJ/mol) and a moderately strong carbon-carbon bond (270 kJ/mol) are broken, but two strong CH bonds (439 kJ/mol) are formed. The reduction of an alkene to an alkane is therefore an exothermic reaction. What about the addition of an H2 molecule across a C=O double bond? Once again, a significant amount of energy has to be invested in this reaction to break the HH bond (435 kJ/mol) and the carbon-oxygen bond (375 kJ/mol). The overall reaction is still exothermic, however, because of the strength of the CH bond (439 kJ/mol) and the OH bond (498 kJ/mol) that are formed. The addition of hydrogen across a C=O double bond raises several important points. First, and perhaps foremost, it shows the connection between the chemistry of primary alcohols and aldehydes. But it also helps us understand the origin of the term aldehyde. If a reduction reaction in which H2 is added across a double bond is an example of a hydrogenation reaction, then an oxidation reaction in which an H2 molecule is removed to form a double bond might be called dehydrogenation. Thus, using the symbol [O] to represent an oxidizing agent, we see that the product of the oxidation of a primary alcohol is literally an "al-dehyd" or aldehyde. It is an alcohol that has been dehydrogenated. This reaction also illustrates the importance of differentiating between primar Continue reading >>

Naming Ketones

Naming Ketones

Ketones are organic chemical compounds that include a -carbonyl group (i.e. an oxygen atom attached to a carbon atom by a double covalent bond) such that the carbon atom to which the -carbonyl group is attached is itself attached to two other carbon atoms - as opposed to one other carbon atom and one hydrogen atom, which the case for aldehydes That is, ketones are a class or category of organic chemical compounds that include a carbon atom attached to both an oxygen atom (by a double covalent bond), and also to two other carbon atoms (by a single covalent bond in each case). Bearing in mind that carbon atoms form a total of 4 single covalent bonds - or equivalent in combinations of double or triple bonds, a carbon atom attached to both an oxygen atom (by a double covalent bond) and also to two other carbon atoms (by a single covalent bond in each case) cannot be the first- or last - (which are equivalent positions) carbon atom in the chain of carbon atoms that form the organic molecule of which it is a part. This position of the -carbonyl group (oxygen atom) attached to a carbon atom that is not the last carbon atom in a carbon-chain is important because it distinguishes ketones from a similar category of organic compounds, called aldehydes. In contrast to ketones, aldehydes include a -carbonyl group attached to the end-carbon in a carbon-chain. Ketone molecules can vary in size up to very long molecules most of which consist of carbon atoms attached to each other and also to hydrogen atoms. Continue reading >>

Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes And Ketones

Introduction We will focus more specifically on the organic compounds that incorporate carbonyl groups: aldehydes and ketones. Key Terms Aldehyde Formyl group Ketone Hydrogen bonding Hydration Hydrate Objectives Identify IUPAC names for simple aldehydes and ketones Describe the boiling point and solubility characteristics of aldehydes and ketones relative to those of alkanes and alcohols Characterize the process of nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group The carbonyl group is shown below in the context of synthesizing alcohols. This functional group is the key component of aldehydes and ketones, which we will discuss here. Nomenclature for Aldehydes and Ketones Aldehydes and ketones are structurally similar; the only difference is that for an aldehyde, the carbonyl group has at most one substituent alkyl group, whereas the carbonyl group in a ketone has two. Several examples of aldehydes and ketones are depicted below. Aldehydes are named by replacing the -e ending of an alkane with -al (similarly to the use of -ol in alcohols). The base molecule is the longest carbon chain ending with the carbonyl group. Furthermore, the carbon atom in the carbonyl group is assumed to be carbon 1, so a number is not needed in the IUPAC name to identify the location of the doubly bonded oxygen atom. If the chain contains two carbonyl groups, one at each end, the correct suffix is -dial (used in the same manner as -diol for compounds with two hydroxyl groups). An example aldehyde is shown below with its IUPAC name. One- and two-carbon aldehydes have common names (one of which you will likely be familiar with) in addition to their systematic names. Both names are acceptable. Sometimes, the carbonyl group plus one proton (called a formyl group) must be treated separately for nomenclatu Continue reading >>

Ketones In Daily Life Activities

Ketones In Daily Life Activities

Ketones are the major products from Chemical Industry. Looking into the uses and need of ketones there listed out many chemical, medicinal, and industrial purposes. Chemical properties Ketones are generally used as solvents and as catalysts in chemical industry. These are products often used in perfumes and paints in order to stabilize the ingredients to avoid degradation in time. The major ketones in this category include acetophenone, Butanone and acetone. Industries in which ketones are used Ketones are used for carpet adhesive solvents in adhesives manufacture industry, in electroplating industry as cold-cleaning solvents and vapour degreasing solvents, as laboratory chemicals, paint manufacture, Rubber Manufacture, Printing, and Pesticide Mfg (Insecticides). Biological properties Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body. But when carbohydrates are low, ketogenesis becomes the primary fuel process for most cells. These are the cases where ketones serve as natural by product of animal metabolism. This is how it happens: In normal cases for energy the body breaks down glucose for energy. When the case is like that the glucose level in the body is low, then the body is forced to break down proteins or fats for energy and produces ketone by-products which serves as the factors for energy metabolism. These ketone bodies are acetone, aceto-acetic acid, and beta-hydroxy-butyric acid. This is the same case what occurs in case of starvation, ketone bodies supply up to 40-50% of the energy requirements for most body tissues, and up to 60-70% of the energy for the brain. Continue reading >>

Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones

Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones

The human body primarily runs on glucose. When your body is low on glucose, or if you have diabetes and don’t have enough insulin to help your cells absorb the glucose, your body starts breaking down fats for energy. Ketones (chemically known as ketone bodies) are byproducts of the breakdown of fatty acids. The breakdown of fat for fuel and the creation of ketones is a normal process for everyone. In a person without diabetes, insulin, glucagon, and other hormones prevent ketone levels in the blood from getting too high. However, people with diabetes are at risk for ketone buildup in their blood. If left untreated, people with type 1 diabetes are at risk for developing a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). While rare, it’s possible for people with type 2 diabetes to experience DKA in certain circumstances as well. If you have diabetes, you need to be especially aware of the symptoms that having too many ketones in your body can cause. These include: If you don’t get treatment, the symptoms can progress to: a fruity breath odor stomach pain trouble breathing You should always seek immediate medical attention if your ketone levels are high. Testing your blood or urine to measure your ketone levels can all be done at home. At-home testing kits are available for both types of tests, although urine testing continues to be more common. Urine tests are available without a prescription at most drugstores, or you can buy them online. You should test your urine or blood for ketones when any of the following occurs: Your blood sugar is higher than 240 mg/dL. You feel sick or nauseated, regardless of your blood sugar reading. To perform a urine test, you urinate into a clean container and dip the test strip into the urine. For a child who isn’t potty-trained, a pa Continue reading >>

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