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Etiology Of Type 2 Diabetes

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Pathophysiology Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Insulin resistance, largely caused by obesity and physical inactivity, both precedes and predicts type 2 diabetes. The insulin resistance preceding type 2 diabetes is commonly referred to as the metabolic syndrome. The latter condition consists of a cluster of risk factors, which are thought to be either causes or consequences of insulin resistance. The development of type 2 diabetes, overt hyperglycaemia, also requires the presence of a relative defect in insulin secretion. This defect appears, at least in part, genetically determined. Insulin resistance can be defined as the inability of insulin to produce its usual biological actions at circulating concentrations that are effective in normal subjects. This chapter is focused on defining and characterizing defects in insulin action and in insulin and glucagon secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes, and the effects that these defects have on the body. The causes of insulin resistance in different tissues is also discussed. Hepatic insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome can be linked to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, the main cause of the excess mortality in type 2 diabetes, by increased very-low-density lipopro Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. maswazir

    Folks. Two years ago I was told by my Doctor that drinking of Too much water is dangerous for human health. too much water can put pressure on our kidnies, he said.
    as I asked him that i had be drinking more water then normal people, less in Quantity but frequently drinks, so he warned me that you should drink less.
    The Question i s ,that, how much water we need ? for Diabetics and Hypertesnions petaints also need the same amount of water ,althugh they feel thirsty.
    if you explain i t ,that how much water we should drink ?
    thanks.
    MasWazir.

  2. u139860

    It is very difficult to say exactly how much water you must drink as there are several ways you lose water naturally. Sweating, bowel movements, even respiration just to name a few besides urination.
    I recently started forming kidney stones, mostly because I have been dehydrated. So my Dr wants me to drink more. I was told to measure my output and keep it around 2 Liters. That is the minimum volume your kidneys need to stay healthy.
    I also monitor the color of my urine to make sure it is not too dark. It should be the color of lemonade.
    The only problem might be if you have heart failure or problems with your kidneys. So monitor your weight as well. If you gain a lot of weight over a couple of days and have swollen ankles you may be retaining water. That would require another doctor visit to discuss what to do about that.

  3. morrisolder

    It isa possible to dringk too much water. Notably, a few years ago at the Boston and London Marathons a few runners have died from drinking too much water resulting in a condition called hyponatraemia.
    But it takes an enormous amount of drinking water to get there--think extra gallons in a day, an amount that you are unlikely to drinkg.
    Now when you have undiagnosed diabetes with blood sugar constantly over 180, it is possible to drink huge amounts of water --but in this case it is water that your body needs. The kidneys work hard to filter all the excess sugar out of your blood, resulitn in a need for much more urination than normal, so the body takes whatever moisture it can find in your body to produce that urine. This leaves you dehydrated, and constantly thristy. People think they are peeing so much because they are drinking so much water, but actually it is the reverse--they are drinking so much because they need to pee.
    But ordinarily you would have to wrok really hard to drink too much water. A normal recommendation is about 2 liters a day, and although one size does not fit all, if you are close to that you are not drinking too much. Absent high blood sugar levels, you are much more likely to drink too little, resulting in dehydration, which can cause leg cramps among other things.

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