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Etiology Of Abdominal Pain In Dka

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Etiology In DKA, there is a reduction in the net effective concentration of circulating insulin along with an elevation of counter-regulatory hormones (glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone). These alterations lead to extreme manifestations of metabolic derangements that can occur in diabetes. The two most common precipitating events are inadequate insulin therapy or infection. Underlying medical conditions such as MI or stroke that provoke the release of counter-regulatory hormones are also likely to result in DKA in patients with diabetes. Drugs that affect carbohydrate metabolism, such as corticosteroids, thiazides, sympathomimetic agents (e.g., dobutamine and terbutaline), and second-generation antipsychotic agents, may participate in the development of DKA. [1] [9] The use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors has also been implicated in the development of DKA in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. [10] [11] [12] Pathophysiology Reduced insulin concentration or action, along with increased insulin counter-regulatory hormones, leads to the hyperglycemia, volume depletion, and electrolyte imbalance that underlie the pathophysiology of DKA. Hormonal alterations in DKA lead to increased gluconeogenesis, hepatic and renal glucose production, and impaired glucose utilization in peripheral tissues, which result in hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity. Insulin deficiency leads to release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue (lipolysis), hepatic fatty acid oxidation, and formation of ketone bodies (beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate), which result in ketonemia and acidosis. Studies have demonstrated the elevation of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory biomarkers (e.g., CRP), markers of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidatio Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Professor of Pediatric Endocrinology University of Khartoum, Sudan Introduction DKA is a serious acute complications of Diabetes Mellitus. It carries significant risk of death and/or morbidity especially with delayed treatment. The prognosis of DKA is worse in the extremes of age, with a mortality rates of 5-10%. With the new advances of therapy, DKA mortality decreases to > 2%. Before discovery and use of Insulin (1922) the mortality was 100%. Epidemiology DKA is reported in 2-5% of known type 1 diabetic patients in industrialized countries, while it occurs in 35-40% of such patients in Africa. DKA at the time of first diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is reported in only 2-3% in western Europe, but is seen in 95% of diabetic children in Sudan. Similar results were reported from other African countries . Consequences The latter observation is annoying because it implies the following: The late diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in many developing countries particularly in Africa. The late presentation of DKA, which is associated with risk of morbidity & mortality Death of young children with DKA undiagnosed or wrongly diagnosed as malaria or meningitis. Pathophysiology Secondary to insulin deficiency, and the action of counter-regulatory hormones, blood glucose increases leading to hyperglycemia and glucosuria. Glucosuria causes an osmotic diuresis, leading to water & Na loss. In the absence of insulin activity the body fails to utilize glucose as fuel and uses fats instead. This leads to ketosis. Pathophysiology/2 The excess of ketone bodies will cause metabolic acidosis, the later is also aggravated by Lactic acidosis caused by dehydration & poor tissue perfusion. Vomiting due to an ileus, plus increased insensible water losses due to tachypnea will worsen the state of dehydr Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis

Ketoacidosis

Glucose (a type of sugar) is the body's main energy source. But when the body can't use glucose for fuel - like when a person has untreated diabetes - the body breaks down fat for energy instead. When fat is broken down, the body produces chemicals called ketones, which appear in the blood and urine. High levels of ketones cause the blood to become more acidic. This is known as ketoacidosis (it's called diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA, when uncontrolled diabetes is the cause). Ketoacidosis is a severe life-threatening condition requiring immediate treatment. Symptoms of ketoacidosis include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, rapid breathing, and, in severe cases, unconsciousness. Continue reading >>

Acute Abdomen

Acute Abdomen

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Pelvic Pain in Women article more useful, or one of our other health articles. Synonym: acute abdominal pain See also the separate article on Abdominal Pain. The term 'acute abdomen' represents a rapid onset of severe symptoms that may indicate life-threatening intra-abdominal pathology. Pain is usually a feature but is not always the case. A pain-free acute abdomen is more likely in the elderly, in children and in the third trimester of pregnancy.[1] The differential diagnosis is extremely wide and definitive diagnosis is often difficult, particularly in primary care. This is due to the many different organs within the peritoneal cavity and the potential for referred pain. Abdominal pain is a common problem, ranking in the top three symptoms of patients presenting to accident and emergency departments, but only a few of those patients will have an acute abdomen. Management of the acute abdomen in primary care should focus on careful assessment to reach a differential diagnosis list, with close attention paid to symptoms and signs that may indicate a need to investigate the situation further in hospital. The clinical scenario can change rapidly and conclusions previously reached by you or your colleagues may need to be revised as events evolve. A failure to be open-minded and revise a previous diagnosis is often at the heart of medicolegal claims relating to patients with an acute abdomen.[1] This article will concentrate on diagnosing the important causes of the acute abdomen in primary care/emergency department settings. Major causes This list is far Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis, or simply DKA, is one of the complications of diabetes mellitus. It occurs suddenly, is severe and can be life-threatening if neglected. The diabetic ketoacidosis is a complex metabolic state comprising of increased blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia), increased production and presence of ketone acids in the blood (ketonemia) and acidic changes in the internal environment of the body (acidosis). These changes together constitute the diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis is more common in persons with type – 1 as compared to type – 2 diabetes mellitus. Sometimes, it may be the first sign of diabetes mellitus in patients with no previous diagnosis of diabetes. In normal individuals, insulin hormone is produced and secreted by an organ called pancreas. Insulin is necessary for the entry of blood glucose into our cells. Insulin works like a key and unlocks the cellular gates to help glucose enter the cells. The cells use entered glucose to produce energy. In type – 1 diabetes mellitus, the pancreatic cells producing insulin are destroyed. This lack of insulin prevents the entry of blood glucose into our cells as the cellular gates are closed, increasing the blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia). Our body cells starve and cannot utilize glucose for energy despite increased amounts of glucose in our blood. In this starving state, our body burns fats and produces ketones for energy purposes. Ketones have an advantage that they do not need insulin to enter into cells but the ketones also have a disadvantage that they are acidic in nature and when produced in excessive amounts, they change our body environment and make it acidic, which can be life-threatening. The patients often develop ketoacidosis when: They have missed their insulin doses T Continue reading >>

The Etiology Of Abdominal Pain In Diabetic Acidosis*

The Etiology Of Abdominal Pain In Diabetic Acidosis*

The usual signs, symptoms, and laboratory findings in prediabetic coma are well known. The clinical picture of dehydration associated with malnutrition, polyuria, and odor of acetone on the breath, decreased intraocular tension, and Kussmaul breathing, when found in conjunction with sugar and acetone bodies in the urine make a clinical picture that could hardly be confused with any other condition. Other laboratory findings are a high blood sugar, a low CO2 combining power of the blood plasma, and leukocytosis. The white cell count sometimes rises above 65,0001 per cubic millimeter of blood. This picture is usually clear cut and offers Continue reading >>

Systemic Causes Of Abdominal Pain

Systemic Causes Of Abdominal Pain

a Department of Emergency Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, 1020 Sansom Street, Thompson Building 239, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA b Division of Emergency Ultrasonography, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA Abstract A variety of systemic and extra-abdominal diseases can cause symptoms within the abdominal cavity. Systemic and extra-abdominal diseases may include abdominal symptoms caused by several mechanisms. This article discusses the most important and common of these causes, namely the metabolic/endocrine causes, hematologic causes, inflammatory causes, infectious causes, functional causes, and the neurogenic causes. Keywords A variety of systemic and extra-abdominal diseases can cause symptoms within the abdominal cavity (Box 1). This article discusses the most important and common of these diseases. Systemic and extra-abdominal diseases may include abdominal symptoms caused by several mechanisms listed in Table 1. Mechanisms include direct pathologic effects on intra-abdominal organs (eg, gallstone formation in sickle cell disease); conversely, systemic illnesses (eg, congestive heart failure, diabetic ketoacidosis [DKA], or addisonian crisis) may themselves be precipitated by diseases in the abdomen. Some systemic illnesses have a direct (eg, constipation in hypercalcemia) or indirect (eg, nausea and vomiting in diabetic or alcoholic ketoacidosis [AKA]) effect on the functioning of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Abdominal symptoms may be caused by disease in contiguous organs outside the abdomen (eg, diaphragmatic irritation from disease of adjacent structures in the lung and mediastinum).1–4 Finally, symptoms may be referred to the abdomen from extra-abdom Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

In Brief Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) are two acute complications of diabetes that can result in increased morbidity and mortality if not efficiently and effectively treated. Mortality rates are 2–5% for DKA and 15% for HHS, and mortality is usually a consequence of the underlying precipitating cause(s) rather than a result of the metabolic changes of hyperglycemia. Effective standardized treatment protocols, as well as prompt identification and treatment of the precipitating cause, are important factors affecting outcome. The two most common life-threatening complications of diabetes mellitus include diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS). Although there are important differences in their pathogenesis, the basic underlying mechanism for both disorders is a reduction in the net effective concentration of circulating insulin coupled with a concomitant elevation of counterregulatory hormones (glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone). These hyperglycemic emergencies continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes. DKA is reported to be responsible for more than 100,000 hospital admissions per year in the United States1 and accounts for 4–9% of all hospital discharge summaries among patients with diabetes.1 The incidence of HHS is lower than DKA and accounts for <1% of all primary diabetic admissions.1 Most patients with DKA have type 1 diabetes; however, patients with type 2 diabetes are also at risk during the catabolic stress of acute illness.2 Contrary to popular belief, DKA is more common in adults than in children.1 In community-based studies, more than 40% of African-American patients with DKA were >40 years of age and more than 2 Continue reading >>

Can Diabetes Cause Abdominal Pain?

Can Diabetes Cause Abdominal Pain?

In a specific situation, diabetes can lead to abdominal pain. A condition known as Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) occurs when a lack of insulin causes blood glucose and acid levels to rise in people with diabetes. Diabetic Ketoacidosis is a medical emergency and requires urgent medical attention. Diabetic Ketoacidosis can cause abdominal pain. Often the pain is non specific (not in one particular area). There are many other signs and symptoms of DKA including: Thirst Frequent urination Nausea & vomiting Confusion / coma Breathlessness Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Abbas E. Kitabchi, PhD., MD., FACP, FACE Professor of Medicine & Molecular Sciences and Maston K. Callison Professor in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism UT Health Science Center, 920 Madison Ave., 300A, Memphis, TN 38163 Aidar R. Gosmanov, M.D., Ph.D., D.M.Sc. Assistant Professor of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 920 Madison Avenue, Suite 300A, Memphis, TN 38163 Clinical Recognition Omission of insulin and infection are the two most common precipitants of DKA. Non-compliance may account for up to 44% of DKA presentations; while infection is less frequently observed in DKA patients. Acute medical illnesses involving the cardiovascular system (myocardial infarction, stroke, acute thrombosis) and gastrointestinal tract (bleeding, pancreatitis), diseases of endocrine axis (acromegaly, Cushing`s syndrome, hyperthyroidism) and impaired thermo-regulation or recent surgical procedures can contribute to the development of DKA by causing dehydration, increase in insulin counter-regulatory hormones, and worsening of peripheral insulin resistance. Medications such as diuretics, beta-blockers, corticosteroids, second-generation anti-psychotics, and/or anti-convulsants may affect carbohydrate metabolism and volume status and, therefore, could precipitateDKA. Other factors: psychological problems, eating disorders, insulin pump malfunction, and drug abuse. It is now recognized that new onset T2DM can manifest with DKA. These patients are obese, mostly African Americans or Hispanics and have undiagnosed hyperglycemia, impaired insulin secretion, and insulin action. A recent report suggests that cocaine abuse is an independent risk factor associated with DKA recurrence. Pathophysiology In Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (causing Abdominal Pain)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (causing Abdominal Pain)

Tricky when occurring in undiagnosed, occult Type-1 Diabetics Accompanied by nausea / vomiting; may be severe enough to mimic acute abdomen Polydypsia & Polyuria usually present, but you have to ask about them Urine dipstick for large ketones (and glucose) strongly suggestive Continue reading >>

Exploring Common Causes Of Abdominal Pain

Exploring Common Causes Of Abdominal Pain

Abdominal pain has many causes, some of which can be serious and require emergency care. Getting an accurate diagnosis is essential when you have abdominal pain, so you can get the treatment you need. Here is a look at some of the most common causes of abdominal pain. Pancreatitis Pancreatitis refers to inflammation of the pancreas. It can be chronic, lasting for years, or acute, which comes on suddenly. Although some cases of pancreatitis are mild, others can be life-threatening. It causes pain in the upper abdomen, often severe, which may radiate to the back and often gets worse after eating. It can also cause fever, nausea, vomiting, and rapid heart rate. The upper abdomen may also be sensitive to the touch. In the long term, you may experience oily stools and may lose weight without trying. Treatments vary, depending on the severity of your symptoms and the type of pancreatitis you have. Kidney Stones Kidney stones can cause excruciating abdominal pain, often in the lower abdomen, side, and back. Nausea and vomiting are also possible, and if the stones cause an infection, you may also develop a fever. When you have kidney stones, urination may be painful, and your urine may be pink, brown, or red, from blood in the urinary tract. Kidney stone pain is often so intense that you find it difficult to sit still. At the emergency room, you may receive pain medicine, and if necessary, you may be referred for surgery if the stones are large. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA, occurs when blood glucose levels are dangerously high and the blood fills with acidic ketones. Abdominal pain is a common symptom of DKA, as is extreme thirst, frequent urination, and fatigue. DKA is a medical emergency that requires intravenous insulin therapy and close monitoring. L Continue reading >>

Acute Complications Of Diabetes - Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Acute Complications Of Diabetes - Diabetic Ketoacidosis

- [Voiceover] Oftentimes we think of diabetes mellitus as a chronic disease that causes serious complications over a long period of time if it's not treated properly. However, the acute complications of diabetes mellitus are often the most serious, and can be potentially even life threatening. Let's discuss one of the acute complications of diabetes, known as diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA for short, which can occur in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Now recall that type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder. And as such, there's an autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas, which prevents the pancreas from producing and secreting insulin. Therefore, there is an absolute insulin deficiency in type 1 diabetes. But what exactly does this mean for the body? To get a better understanding, let's think about insulin requirements as a balancing act with energy needs. Now the goal here is to keep the balance in balance. As the energy requirements of the body go up, insulin is needed to take the glucose out of the blood and store it throughout the body. Normally in individuals without type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is able to produce enough insulin to keep up with any amount of energy requirement. But how does this change is someone has type 1 diabetes? Well since their pancreas cannot produces as much insulin, they have an absolute insulin deficiency. Now for day-to-day activities, this may not actually cause any problems, because the small amount of insulin that is produced is able to compensate and keep the balance in balance. However, over time, as type 1 diabetes worsens, and less insulin is able to be produced, then the balance becomes slightly unequal. And this results in the sub-acute or mild symptoms of type 1 diabetes such as fatigue, because the body isn Continue reading >>

What Is The Origin/mechanism Of Abdominal Pain In Diabetic Ketoacidosis?

What Is The Origin/mechanism Of Abdominal Pain In Diabetic Ketoacidosis?

Other than all papers I could find citing the depth of the keto-acidosis (and not the height of the blood glucose levels) correlating with abdominal pain, nothing else to explain how these two are linked. Decades ago, I was taught that because of the keto-acidosis causing a shift of intracellular potassium (having been exchanged for H+ protons of which in keto-acidosis there were too many of in the extracellular fluid) to the extracellular, so also the blood compartment, resulting in hyperkalemia, paralyzing the stomach, which could become grossly dilated - that’s why we often put in a nasogastric drainage tube to prevent vomiting and aspiration - and thus cause “stomach pain”. This stomach pain in the majority of cases indeed went away after the keto-acidosis was treated and serum electrolyte levels normalized. In one patient it didn’t, she remained very, very metabolically acidotic, while blood glucose levels normalized, later we found her to have a massive and fatal intestinal infarction as the underlying reason for her keto-acidosis….. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>

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