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Etiology Of Abdominal Pain In Dka

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Practice Essentials Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, major, life-threatening complication of diabetes that mainly occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes, but it is not uncommon in some patients with type 2 diabetes. This condition is a complex disordered metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and ketonuria. Signs and symptoms The most common early symptoms of DKA are the insidious increase in polydipsia and polyuria. The following are other signs and symptoms of DKA: Nausea and vomiting; may be associated with diffuse abdominal pain, decreased appetite, and anorexia History of failure to comply with insulin therapy or missed insulin injections due to vomiting or psychological reasons or history of mechanical failure of insulin infusion pump Altered consciousness (eg, mild disorientation, confusion); frank coma is uncommon but may occur when the condition is neglected or with severe dehydration/acidosis Signs and symptoms of DKA associated with possible intercurrent infection are as follows: See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis On examination, general findings of DKA may include the following: Characteristic acetone (ketotic) breath odor In addition, evaluate patients for signs of possible intercurrent illnesses such as MI, UTI, pneumonia, and perinephric abscess. Search for signs of infection is mandatory in all cases. Testing Initial and repeat laboratory studies for patients with DKA include the following: Serum electrolyte levels (eg, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus) Note that high serum glucose levels may lead to dilutional hyponatremia; high triglyceride levels may lead to factitious low glucose levels; and high levels of ketone bodies may lead to factitious elevation of creatinine levels. Continue reading >>

Systemic Causes Of Abdominal Pain

Systemic Causes Of Abdominal Pain

a Department of Emergency Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, 1020 Sansom Street, Thompson Building 239, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA b Division of Emergency Ultrasonography, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA Abstract A variety of systemic and extra-abdominal diseases can cause symptoms within the abdominal cavity. Systemic and extra-abdominal diseases may include abdominal symptoms caused by several mechanisms. This article discusses the most important and common of these causes, namely the metabolic/endocrine causes, hematologic causes, inflammatory causes, infectious causes, functional causes, and the neurogenic causes. Keywords A variety of systemic and extra-abdominal diseases can cause symptoms within the abdominal cavity (Box 1). This article discusses the most important and common of these diseases. Systemic and extra-abdominal diseases may include abdominal symptoms caused by several mechanisms listed in Table 1. Mechanisms include direct pathologic effects on intra-abdominal organs (eg, gallstone formation in sickle cell disease); conversely, systemic illnesses (eg, congestive heart failure, diabetic ketoacidosis [DKA], or addisonian crisis) may themselves be precipitated by diseases in the abdomen. Some systemic illnesses have a direct (eg, constipation in hypercalcemia) or indirect (eg, nausea and vomiting in diabetic or alcoholic ketoacidosis [AKA]) effect on the functioning of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Abdominal symptoms may be caused by disease in contiguous organs outside the abdomen (eg, diaphragmatic irritation from disease of adjacent structures in the lung and mediastinum).1–4 Finally, symptoms may be referred to the abdomen from extra-abdom Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>

Master Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) Signs And Symptoms With Picmonic For Physician Assistant

Master Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) Signs And Symptoms With Picmonic For Physician Assistant

With Picmonic, facts become pictures. We've taken what the science shows - image mnemonics work - but we've boosted the effectiveness by building and associating memorable characters, interesting audio stories, and built-in quizzing. Dyed-bead-pancreas with Key-to-acidic-lemon Picmonic Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a medical emergency and complication of diabetes. Patients have increased insulin requirements, which leads to a shortage. As a response, the body begins burning excess fat (and fatty acids), causing ketone body buildup. Symptoms of DKA include deep, labored Kussmaul respirations, dehydration, abdominal pain and nausea and vomiting. Due to electrolyte and fluid changes, patients display mental status changes and psychosis while exhibiting fruity breath odor. Picmonic for Physician Assistant covers information that is relevant to your entire Physician Assistant education. Whether you’re studying for your classes or getting ready to conquer the PANCE, we’re here to help. Research shows that students who use Picmonic see a 331% improvement in memory retention and a 50% improvement in test scores. "I was shocked at how much information and high yield details I was able to recall using Picmonic. I can picture a lot of the Picmonics now and remember the details months later!" - Katrina, New York College of Osteopathic Medicine of NYIT TRY IT FREE Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (causing Abdominal Pain)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (causing Abdominal Pain)

Tricky when occurring in undiagnosed, occult Type-1 Diabetics Accompanied by nausea / vomiting; may be severe enough to mimic acute abdomen Polydypsia & Polyuria usually present, but you have to ask about them Urine dipstick for large ketones (and glucose) strongly suggestive Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Etiology In DKA, there is a reduction in the net effective concentration of circulating insulin along with an elevation of counter-regulatory hormones (glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone). These alterations lead to extreme manifestations of metabolic derangements that can occur in diabetes. The two most common precipitating events are inadequate insulin therapy or infection. Underlying medical conditions such as MI or stroke that provoke the release of counter-regulatory hormones are also likely to result in DKA in patients with diabetes. Drugs that affect carbohydrate metabolism, such as corticosteroids, thiazides, sympathomimetic agents (e.g., dobutamine and terbutaline), and second-generation antipsychotic agents, may participate in the development of DKA. [1] [9] The use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors has also been implicated in the development of DKA in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. [10] [11] [12] Pathophysiology Reduced insulin concentration or action, along with increased insulin counter-regulatory hormones, leads to the hyperglycemia, volume depletion, and electrolyte imbalance that underlie the pathophysiology of DKA. Hormonal alterations in DKA lead to increased gluconeogenesis, hepatic and renal glucose production, and impaired glucose utilization in peripheral tissues, which result in hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity. Insulin deficiency leads to release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue (lipolysis), hepatic fatty acid oxidation, and formation of ketone bodies (beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate), which result in ketonemia and acidosis. Studies have demonstrated the elevation of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory biomarkers (e.g., CRP), markers of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidatio Continue reading >>

What Is The Origin/mechanism Of Abdominal Pain In Diabetic Ketoacidosis?

What Is The Origin/mechanism Of Abdominal Pain In Diabetic Ketoacidosis?

Other than all papers I could find citing the depth of the keto-acidosis (and not the height of the blood glucose levels) correlating with abdominal pain, nothing else to explain how these two are linked. Decades ago, I was taught that because of the keto-acidosis causing a shift of intracellular potassium (having been exchanged for H+ protons of which in keto-acidosis there were too many of in the extracellular fluid) to the extracellular, so also the blood compartment, resulting in hyperkalemia, paralyzing the stomach, which could become grossly dilated - that’s why we often put in a nasogastric drainage tube to prevent vomiting and aspiration - and thus cause “stomach pain”. This stomach pain in the majority of cases indeed went away after the keto-acidosis was treated and serum electrolyte levels normalized. In one patient it didn’t, she remained very, very metabolically acidotic, while blood glucose levels normalized, later we found her to have a massive and fatal intestinal infarction as the underlying reason for her keto-acidosis….. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.[1] Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness.[1] A person's breath may develop a specific smell.[1] Onset of symptoms is usually rapid.[1] In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes.[1] DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances.[1] Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids.[1] DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies.[3] DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine.[1] The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin.[1] Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin.[3] Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium.[1] Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked.[1] Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection.[6] In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended.[1][6] Rates of DKA vary around the world.[5] In the United Kingdom, about 4% of people with type 1 diabetes develop DKA each year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year.[1][5] DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost univ Continue reading >>

Can Diabetes Cause Abdominal Pain?

Can Diabetes Cause Abdominal Pain?

In a specific situation, diabetes can lead to abdominal pain. A condition known as Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) occurs when a lack of insulin causes blood glucose and acid levels to rise in people with diabetes. Diabetic Ketoacidosis is a medical emergency and requires urgent medical attention. Diabetic Ketoacidosis can cause abdominal pain. Often the pain is non specific (not in one particular area). There are many other signs and symptoms of DKA including: Thirst Frequent urination Nausea & vomiting Confusion / coma Breathlessness Continue reading >>

Exploring Common Causes Of Abdominal Pain

Exploring Common Causes Of Abdominal Pain

Abdominal pain has many causes, some of which can be serious and require emergency care. Getting an accurate diagnosis is essential when you have abdominal pain, so you can get the treatment you need. Here is a look at some of the most common causes of abdominal pain. Pancreatitis Pancreatitis refers to inflammation of the pancreas. It can be chronic, lasting for years, or acute, which comes on suddenly. Although some cases of pancreatitis are mild, others can be life-threatening. It causes pain in the upper abdomen, often severe, which may radiate to the back and often gets worse after eating. It can also cause fever, nausea, vomiting, and rapid heart rate. The upper abdomen may also be sensitive to the touch. In the long term, you may experience oily stools and may lose weight without trying. Treatments vary, depending on the severity of your symptoms and the type of pancreatitis you have. Kidney Stones Kidney stones can cause excruciating abdominal pain, often in the lower abdomen, side, and back. Nausea and vomiting are also possible, and if the stones cause an infection, you may also develop a fever. When you have kidney stones, urination may be painful, and your urine may be pink, brown, or red, from blood in the urinary tract. Kidney stone pain is often so intense that you find it difficult to sit still. At the emergency room, you may receive pain medicine, and if necessary, you may be referred for surgery if the stones are large. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA, occurs when blood glucose levels are dangerously high and the blood fills with acidic ketones. Abdominal pain is a common symptom of DKA, as is extreme thirst, frequent urination, and fatigue. DKA is a medical emergency that requires intravenous insulin therapy and close monitoring. L Continue reading >>

<< Guidelines For The Ed Management Of Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

<< Guidelines For The Ed Management Of Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Epidemiology, Etiology, And Pathophysiology Epidemiology and Etiology "Type 1" and "Type 2" Diabetes in Children Type 1 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes seen in children today. The primary metabolic derangement in type 1 diabetes is an absolute insulin deficiency. These patients will have a life-long dependence on insulin injections. The overall incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes is about 15 cases per 100,000 people per year (about 50,000 are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes each year). An estimated 3 children of every 1000 will develop insulin-dependent diabetes by the age of 20. Type 1 diabetes is primarily a disease of Caucasians. The worldwide incidence is highest in Finland and Sardinia and lowest in the Asian and black populations. Type 1 diabetes is more frequently diagnosed in the winter months (the reason for this is not known.) Interestingly, twins affected by type 1 diabetes are often discordant in the development of the disease.13 About 95% of cases of type 1 diabetes are the result of a genetic defect of the immune system, exacerbated by environmental factors.13 The autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas results in the inability to produce insulin. Inheritance of type 1 diabetes is carried in genes of the major histocompatibility complex, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. Eventually, this research may lead to a vaccine using the insulin B chain 8-24 peptides to actually prevent type 1 diabetes.13 It is currently thought that islet cells damaged by a virus produce a membrane antigen that may stimulate a response by T killer cells of the immune system in the genetically susceptible patient. The T killer cells misidentify the beta cell as foreign and destroy it. As the beta cells in the pancreas are destroyed, the remai Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

In Brief Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) are two acute complications of diabetes that can result in increased morbidity and mortality if not efficiently and effectively treated. Mortality rates are 2–5% for DKA and 15% for HHS, and mortality is usually a consequence of the underlying precipitating cause(s) rather than a result of the metabolic changes of hyperglycemia. Effective standardized treatment protocols, as well as prompt identification and treatment of the precipitating cause, are important factors affecting outcome. The two most common life-threatening complications of diabetes mellitus include diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS). Although there are important differences in their pathogenesis, the basic underlying mechanism for both disorders is a reduction in the net effective concentration of circulating insulin coupled with a concomitant elevation of counterregulatory hormones (glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone). These hyperglycemic emergencies continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes. DKA is reported to be responsible for more than 100,000 hospital admissions per year in the United States1 and accounts for 4–9% of all hospital discharge summaries among patients with diabetes.1 The incidence of HHS is lower than DKA and accounts for <1% of all primary diabetic admissions.1 Most patients with DKA have type 1 diabetes; however, patients with type 2 diabetes are also at risk during the catabolic stress of acute illness.2 Contrary to popular belief, DKA is more common in adults than in children.1 In community-based studies, more than 40% of African-American patients with DKA were >40 years of age and more than 2 Continue reading >>

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

What is alcoholic ketoacidosis? Cells need glucose (sugar) and insulin to function properly. Glucose comes from the food you eat, and insulin is produced by the pancreas. When you drink alcohol, your pancreas may stop producing insulin for a short time. Without insulin, your cells won’t be able to use the glucose you consume for energy. To get the energy you need, your body will start to burn fat. When your body burns fat for energy, byproducts known as ketone bodies are produced. If your body is not producing insulin, ketone bodies will begin to build up in your bloodstream. This buildup of ketones can produce a life-threatening condition known as ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis, or metabolic acidosis, occurs when you ingest something that is metabolized or turned into an acid. This condition has a number of causes, including: shock kidney disease abnormal metabolism In addition to general ketoacidosis, there are several specific types. These types include: alcoholic ketoacidosis, which is caused by excessive consumption of alcohol diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which mostly develops in people with type 1 diabetes starvation ketoacidosis, which occurs most often in women who are pregnant, in their third trimester, and experiencing excessive vomiting Each of these situations increases the amount of acid in the system. They can also reduce the amount of insulin your body produces, leading to the breakdown of fat cells and the production of ketones. Alcoholic ketoacidosis can develop when you drink excessive amounts of alcohol for a long period of time. Excessive alcohol consumption often causes malnourishment (not enough nutrients for the body to function well). People who drink large quantities of alcohol may not eat regularly. They may also vomit as a result of drinking too Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

The Facts Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a condition that may occur in people who have diabetes, most often in those who have type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. It involves the buildup of toxic substances called ketones that make the blood too acidic. High ketone levels can be readily managed, but if they aren't detected and treated in time, a person can eventually slip into a fatal coma. DKA can occur in people who are newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and have had ketones building up in their blood prior to the start of treatment. It can also occur in people already diagnosed with type 1 diabetes that have missed an insulin dose, have an infection, or have suffered a traumatic event or injury. Although much less common, DKA can occasionally occur in people with type 2 diabetes under extreme physiologic stress. Causes With type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to make the hormone insulin, which the body's cells need in order to take in glucose from the blood. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to make sufficient amounts of insulin in order to take in glucose from the blood. Glucose, a simple sugar we get from the foods we eat, is necessary for making the energy our cells need to function. People with diabetes can't get glucose into their cells, so their bodies look for alternative energy sources. Meanwhile, glucose builds up in the bloodstream, and by the time DKA occurs, blood glucose levels are often greater than 22 mmol/L (400 mg/dL) while insulin levels are very low. Since glucose isn't available for cells to use, fat from fat cells is broken down for energy instead, releasing ketones. Ketones accumulate in the blood, causing it to become more acidic. As a result, many of the enzymes that control the body's metabolic processes aren't able Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Abbas E. Kitabchi, PhD., MD., FACP, FACE Professor of Medicine & Molecular Sciences and Maston K. Callison Professor in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism UT Health Science Center, 920 Madison Ave., 300A, Memphis, TN 38163 Aidar R. Gosmanov, M.D., Ph.D., D.M.Sc. Assistant Professor of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 920 Madison Avenue, Suite 300A, Memphis, TN 38163 Clinical Recognition Omission of insulin and infection are the two most common precipitants of DKA. Non-compliance may account for up to 44% of DKA presentations; while infection is less frequently observed in DKA patients. Acute medical illnesses involving the cardiovascular system (myocardial infarction, stroke, acute thrombosis) and gastrointestinal tract (bleeding, pancreatitis), diseases of endocrine axis (acromegaly, Cushing`s syndrome, hyperthyroidism) and impaired thermo-regulation or recent surgical procedures can contribute to the development of DKA by causing dehydration, increase in insulin counter-regulatory hormones, and worsening of peripheral insulin resistance. Medications such as diuretics, beta-blockers, corticosteroids, second-generation anti-psychotics, and/or anti-convulsants may affect carbohydrate metabolism and volume status and, therefore, could precipitateDKA. Other factors: psychological problems, eating disorders, insulin pump malfunction, and drug abuse. It is now recognized that new onset T2DM can manifest with DKA. These patients are obese, mostly African Americans or Hispanics and have undiagnosed hyperglycemia, impaired insulin secretion, and insulin action. A recent report suggests that cocaine abuse is an independent risk factor associated with DKA recurrence. Pathophysiology In Continue reading >>

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