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Drugs That Prevent Ketosis

The Impact Of Ketogenic Diet On Cognition In Older Adults With Hiv

The Impact Of Ketogenic Diet On Cognition In Older Adults With Hiv

Poor cognitive function is a serious problem in the aging HIV-positive population, where it has been estimated that up to 59 percent of HIV-positive adults demonstrate at least mild cognitive impairment. University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Nursing Assistant Professor Shannon Morrison, Ph.D., is exploring multiple effects of a ketogenic diet—a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet with adequate protein—in medically stable, older persons living with HIV who have mild to moderate neurocognitive impairment. The study, following previous encouraging research, is supported by a one-year, $60,000 grant from the UAB Center for Clinical and Translational Science. "In the studies that have been conducted so far, the ketogenic diet has shown some promising results in improving cognition in other neurocognitive disorders," Morrison said. "We're hoping to see if the same or similar results will occur to the older, cognitively impaired HIV population. I am just thrilled at this opportunity and am preparing to begin recruitment in early January." A person consumes fewer than 50 total grams of carbohydrates per day on a ketogenic diet. When the amount of carbohydrates, or sugars, the body has to process for fuel is limited, it will start to break down fat and, as a byproduct of that fat metabolism, produce the ketones for which the ketogenic diet is named. "What a ketogenic diet does is change the energy source the body uses for fuel for its activities," Morrison said. "If you are not taking in much sugar, your body will start breaking down fat for energy, and a byproduct of the fat metabolism is ketone bodies. The body, including the brain, is then able to efficiently utilize ketone bodies for energy." This randomized control trial, "The Effect of a Ketogenic Diet on HIV-Assoc Continue reading >>

Ketosis-prone Type 2 Diabetes Medication

Ketosis-prone Type 2 Diabetes Medication

Medication Summary Insulin injected subcutaneously is the first-line treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. The different types of insulin vary with respect to onset and duration of action. Short-, intermediate-, and long-acting insulins are available. Short-acting and rapid-acting insulins are the only types that can be administered intravenously (IV). Human insulin currently is the only species of insulin available in the United States; it is less antigenic than the previously used animal-derived varieties. Pharmacologic therapy of type 2 diabetes has changed dramatically in the last 10 years, with new drugs and drug classes becoming available. These drugs allow for the use of combination oral therapy, often with improvement in glycemic control that was previously beyond the reach of medical therapy. Agents used in diabetic therapy include the following: Traditionally, diet modification has been the cornerstone of diabetes management. Weight loss is more likely to control glycemia in patients with recent onset of the disease than in patients who are significantly insulinopenic. Medications that induce weight loss, such as orlistat, may be effective in highly selected patients but are not generally indicated in the treatment of the average patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients who are symptomatic at initial presentation with diabetes may require transient treatment with insulin to reduce glucose toxicity (which may reduce beta-cell insulin secretion and worsen insulin resistance) or an insulin secretagogue to rapidly relieve symptoms such as polyuria and polydipsia. Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet

Ketogenic Diet

What the Diet Does Normally, our bodies run on energy from glucose, which we get from food. We can’t store large amounts of glucose, however. We only have about a 24-hour supply. When a child has no food for 24 hours — which is the way the diet begins, usually in a hospital — he or she uses up all the stored glucose. With no more glucose to provide energy, the child’s body begins to burn stored fat. The ketogenic diet keeps this process going. It forces the child’s body to burn fat round the clock by keeping calories low and making fat products the primary food that the child is getting. In fact, the diet gets most (80 percent) of its calories from fat. The rest comes from carbohydrates and protein. Each meal has about four times as much fat as protein or carbohydrate. The amounts of food and liquid at each meal have to be carefully worked out and weighed for each person. Doctors don’t know precisely why a diet that mimics starvation by burning fat for energy should prevent seizures, although this is being studied. Nor do they know why the same diet works for some children and not for others. Trying to put a child on the diet without medical guidance puts a child at risk of serious consequences. Every step of the ketogenic diet process must be managed by an experienced treatment team, usually based at a specialized medical center. Chances of Success Often, a period of fine-tuning is needed before it’s clear whether or not a child is going to respond to the ketogenic diet. Doctors often ask parents to try the diet for at least one month, and even as long as two or three, if it’s not working at first. A child on the diet usually continues taking anti-seizure medicine, but may be able to take less of it later on. If a child does very well, the doctor may sl Continue reading >>

Avoid Unnecessary Drug-related Carbohydrates For Patients Consuming The Ketogenic Diet.

Avoid Unnecessary Drug-related Carbohydrates For Patients Consuming The Ketogenic Diet.

Abstract The ketogenic diet is intended for use in patients with epilepsy whose seizures are resistant to conventional drug therapy. It is a diet high in fat and low in carbohydrate and protein content, and is intended to produce ketosis from the incomplete metabolism of fats. It is safe and effective--many patients with severe, drug-resistant epilepsy show improvement. Limiting carbohydrate intake in patients to obtain the necessary ratio of fats to carbohydrates and protein requires careful planning and, in children, parental involvement. Although the ketogenic diet is professionally planned, an unrecognized source of carbohydrates is prescription and over-the-counter medications. If the carbohydrate content of medications is overlooked, ketosis can be inhibited with potential loss of seizure control occurring. Thus, it is essential for care providers and parents to know the carbohydrate content of medications, including not only the typical sugar content, but also the content of reduced carbohydrate (e.g., glycerin). From information supplied by drug manufacturers, we determined the carbohydrate content of commonly used medications. By knowing the carbohydrate content of these often used medications, the additional carbohydrate content of the medications can be taken into account and adjustments can be made in the ketogenic diet. Continue reading >>

What Is Ketosis?

What Is Ketosis?

"Ketosis" is a word you'll probably see when you're looking for information on diabetes or weight loss. Is it a good thing or a bad thing? That depends. Ketosis is a normal metabolic process, something your body does to keep working. When it doesn't have enough carbohydrates from food for your cells to burn for energy, it burns fat instead. As part of this process, it makes ketones. If you're healthy and eating a balanced diet, your body controls how much fat it burns, and you don't normally make or use ketones. But when you cut way back on your calories or carbs, your body will switch to ketosis for energy. It can also happen after exercising for a long time and during pregnancy. For people with uncontrolled diabetes, ketosis is a sign of not using enough insulin. Ketosis can become dangerous when ketones build up. High levels lead to dehydration and change the chemical balance of your blood. Ketosis is a popular weight loss strategy. Low-carb eating plans include the first part of the Atkins diet and the Paleo diet, which stress proteins for fueling your body. In addition to helping you burn fat, ketosis can make you feel less hungry. It also helps you maintain muscle. For healthy people who don't have diabetes and aren't pregnant, ketosis usually kicks in after 3 or 4 days of eating less than 50 grams of carbohydrates per day. That's about 3 slices of bread, a cup of low-fat fruit yogurt, or two small bananas. You can start ketosis by fasting, too. Doctors may put children who have epilepsy on a ketogenic diet, a special high-fat, very low-carb and protein plan, because it might help prevent seizures. Adults with epilepsy sometimes eat modified Atkins diets. Some research suggests that ketogenic diets might help lower your risk of heart disease. Other studies show sp Continue reading >>

Low-carb Questions & Answers

Low-carb Questions & Answers

Weight loss I’m not losing weight as fast as I want to or I have plateaued. What to do? There are a few things you can think about in order to lose weight, where the ones that might have the greatest impact are: Eat a strict low-carb diet with less than 20 grams of carbs per day. Eat only when hungry and avoid snacking. Try intermittent fasting. Sleep enough (7 or even 8+ hours per night) and avoid excessive stress. Note that as you get closer to reaching your ideal weight, the rate of weight loss will most likely slow down. It’s normal to reach a temporary plateau at some point. Also weight fluctuations of several pounds happen every day. This is all OK, just keep on doing what you’re doing. However if your weight loss stops for many weeks or even months, or if you want to speed it up, here are more things to consider: How to Lose Weight Do people who stop a low-carb diet and return to their old eating habits regain weight fast? Can low-carb diets cause “carb intolerance”? When following low-carb diets people lose more weight than on other diets (on average). So it is logical that when people return to their old diet they regain more. It is simply a bigger step in the wrong direction, compared to going off other diets. There’s no evidence for the speculation that low carb would cause carb intolerance. However, a temporary “cheat day” may lead to filling up stored sugars in the body (glycogen), which binds more water, adding weight. This water weight (perhaps 1-2 pounds) quickly disappears within days when you go low carb again. How do I STOP losing weight? For some people it is very easy to drop a significant amount of weight on low carb. Normally weight loss stabilizes within the normal weight range, as long as you eat when hungry and don’t starve yo Continue reading >>

What Is Keto Flu? (plus 6 Ways To Cure It)

What Is Keto Flu? (plus 6 Ways To Cure It)

You’re tired and dizzy, you crave sugar, bread, pasta, and your mind wanders like crazy. You just started a ketogenic diet (or a Paleo or other low carb diet) and you’re suspicious if your new diet is making you feeling this crappy. Removing carbohydrates from your diet all of a sudden may well be the reason why you’re barely able to concentrate on this sentence! This can happen even on a Paleo diet if you remove too many carbs from your diet. And all this feeling of crappiness is due to something people call Keto Flu (or Carb Flu). Read on to find out what is keto flu, how long keto flu lasts, and of course, how to cure keto flu. (CARB FLU = KETO FLU) KETO FLU INFOGRAPHIC – please pin! Please feel free to pin and share this infographic about the keto flu. WHAT IS KETO FLU? Keto flu describes the flu-like symptoms that people starting a low-carb diet often experience. These symptoms are caused by your body being too used to receiving carbohydrates from the food you eat and not being able to change your body’s energy source when you stop eating carbs. (If you’re interested in the science, then this article provides a very detailed explanation of why keto flu happens.) Some people explain keto flu as symptoms resulting from withdrawal from carbohydrates (think drug addiction here). And indeed, there are studies showing that sugars (which are a form of carbohydrates) can cause drug-like additions. But don’t panic if you think you have keto flu. I’ve listed several ways to shorten that period of feeling crappy below. WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF KETO FLU? If you just started a low carb or ketogenic diet, then you might experience keto flu symptoms like: Fatigue Sugar cravings Dizziness Difficulty focusing (or Brain Fog) Nausea Difficulty Getting To Sleep Irritab Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet

Ketogenic Diet

The Ketogenic Diet is a high fat, moderate protein, low carbohydrate diet that is mostly used to control difficult cases of epilepsy in children. This diet forces the body to burn fat rather than carbohydrates. Given the relative lack of carbohydrates, the liver converts fats into fatty acids and ketone bodies. This leads to a situation known as ketosis which has an anticonvulsant effect. This diet was first developed in the 1920 but lost popularity when effective anticonvulsant drugs became available. The first sets of ketogenic diets were actually developed as far back as the early 1920s by the Johns Hopkins Pediatric Epilepsy Center and also by Dr. R.M. Wilder of the Mayo Clinic to treat children with hard to control seizures. The diets were designed to mimic the biochemical changes that occurred during periods of fasting, namely ketosis, acidosis, and dehydration. The diets involved the consumption of about 10-15 grams of carbohydrates per day, 1 gram of protein per kilogram bodyweight of the patient and the remaining calories derived from fats. In the mid-1990s a two-year old epileptic boy was not responding to anticonvulsant drugs or alternative therapies. He underwent the Ketogenic Diet at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland and rapidly became seizure free. Some evidence exists that epileptic adults may benefit from this diet, or a less rigorous one such as a modified Atkins Diet. The standard Ketogenic Diet contains 80% fat and 20% protein and carbohydrate by weight. Foods high in carbohydrates such as bread, grains, pasta, starchy fruits and vegetables, and sugar are eliminated and replaced by high fat foods such as butter and cream. The Ketogenic Diet is not a diet that children and young adults can undertake lightly. It must be considered as serious Continue reading >>

The Ketogenic Diet: High Fat, High Hopes

The Ketogenic Diet: High Fat, High Hopes

In 1921, an endocrinologist named Dr Henry Rawle Geyelin arrived at the annual meeting of the American Medical Association to deliver a talk on therapeutic fasting in the treatment of epileptic seizures. Ninety years later, Geyelin would probably be surprised to find that the same diet is being heralded as the latest magic weight-loss programme. The ketogenic diet has been called the “new Atkins” and is being taken up by an increasing number of people. But Professor Thomas Seyfried from Boston College, who has conducted research on the regimen, urges caution. “This diet is not to be taken lightly and there are healthcare professionals who work specifically in administering it,” he says. “Done incorrectly, you can alter your blood lipid parameters, which is not healthy. But when done the correct way, the blood parameters for the heart look beautiful.” That the diet exists at all is down to the persistence of Geyelin, who was also one of the first doctors in New York to use insulin as a treatment for diabetes. But his ideas were not new. The ancient Greeks had discovered that one of the best ways to manage epileptic seizures was to stop eating, a finding that particularly fascinated Hippocrates. Unfortunately, it clearly was not a long-term solution. Both Hippocrates and Geyelin discovered that once fasting was over, the seizures invariably returned. Epileptic seizures are brought on by abnormal electrical activity in the brain. The causes can vary, from a defective gene to a head injury, but one common mechanism of the condition is chronic inflammation throughout the whole body. Geyelin wondered what precisely happens during fasting that might be acting to counter this. He found changes in two particular molecules in the blood: falling blood glucose and raise Continue reading >>

Beyond Weight Loss: A Review Of The Therapeutic Uses Of Very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) Diets

Beyond Weight Loss: A Review Of The Therapeutic Uses Of Very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) Diets

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition volume 67, pages 789796 (2013) Very-low-carbohydrate diets or ketogenic diets have been in use since the 1920s as a therapy for epilepsy and can, in some cases, completely remove the need for medication. From the 1960s onwards they have become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Recent work over the last decade or so has provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets in many pathological conditions, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, acne, neurological diseases, cancer and the amelioration of respiratory and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The possibility that modifying food intake can be useful for reducing or eliminating pharmaceutical methods of treatment, which are often lifelong with significant side effects, calls for serious investigation. This review revisits the meaning of physiological ketosis in the light of this evidence and considers possible mechanisms for the therapeutic actions of the ketogenic diet on different diseases. The present review also questions whether there are still some preconceived ideas about ketogenic diets, which may be presenting unnecessary barriers to their use as therapeutic tools in the physicians hand. During recent years, an increasing amount of evidence has accumulated in the literature, suggesting that very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) could have a therapeutic role in numerous diseases. The use of VLCKD in treating epilepsy has been well established for many decades and these diets have become even more widely known, as they became popular in the 1970s for weight lossespecially as the Atkins Diet. 1 More recently, the therapeutic use of ketogenic diets in other diseases has been studied with positive resultsit Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet

Ketogenic Diet

This article is about a dietary therapy for epilepsy. For information on ketogenic diets as a lifestyle choice or for weight loss, see Low-carbohydrate diet and No-carbohydrate diet. The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in children. The diet forces the body to burn fats rather than carbohydrates. Normally, the carbohydrates contained in food are converted into glucose, which is then transported around the body and is particularly important in fueling brain-function. However, if there is very little carbohydrate in the diet, the liver converts fat into fatty acids and ketone bodies. The ketone bodies pass into the brain and replace glucose as an energy source. An elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood, a state known as ketosis, leads to a reduction in the frequency of epileptic seizures.[1] Almost half of children, and young people, with epilepsy who have tried some form of this diet saw the number of seizures drop by at least half, and the effect persists even after discontinuing the diet.[2] There is some evidence that adults with epilepsy may benefit from the diet, and that a less strict regimen, such as a modified Atkins diet, is similarly effective.[1] The most common adverse effect is constipation, affecting about 30% of patients—this was due to fluid restriction, which was once a feature of the diet, but this led to increased risk of kidney stones, and is no longer considered beneficial.[2][3] The original therapeutic diet for paediatric epilepsy provides just enough protein for body growth and repair, and sufficient calories[Note 1] to maintain the correct weight for age and height. The classic therapeutic ketogenic diet was develope Continue reading >>

Rhr: The Ketogenic Diet And Cancer

Rhr: The Ketogenic Diet And Cancer

The conventional view of cancer is that it is caused by DNA mutations in the cell nuclei. However, the metabolic theory of cancer proposes that some cancers are caused by a dysfunction of cellular respiration and that the restriction of glucose in the diet may prevent and even reverse some cancers. Today I’ll review the research supporting this theory and explore how the ketogenic diet may impact cancer tumor growth. In this episode we discuss: A disorder of energy metabolism Metabolic dysfunction may be a root cause How the ketogenic diet can help Existing research on keto and cancer Additional evidence supporting the metabolic theory Why keto alone may not be enough Chris Kresser: Hey, everybody, Chris Kresser here. Welcome to another episode of Revolution Health Radio. Today, we have a question from Kelsey. Let’s give it a listen. Kelsey: Hi, Chris, I was just wondering about your thoughts on the ketogenic diet as an approach to cancer prevention and therapy. I just read something about how cancer cells can only thrive on glucose, and in its absence we can prevent cancer potentially. So I was wondering if you could discuss this in a podcast. I think that would be great. Thank you. Chris: Okay. Thanks, Kelsey, for sending that question in. It’s a really great question, one that’s been on my mind a lot recently, actually, and I’ve been diving into the research on. Most of you probably know that cancer dogma holds that malignancies are caused by DNA mutations inside the nuclei of cells and that these mutations ultimately lead to runaway cellular proliferation, which is the hallmark feature of cancer. A disorder of energy metabolism But there are some cancer biologists out there that feel that while mutations are ubiquitous in cancer, they may not be the primar Continue reading >>

Diabetes & Ketogenic Diet: Can You Manage Your Diabetes On A Ketogenic Diet?

Diabetes & Ketogenic Diet: Can You Manage Your Diabetes On A Ketogenic Diet?

In this article we will cover what a Ketogenic diet is and if you can manage your diabetes while on this diet. Ketogenic diet for diabetics is a highly controversial topic, but we will break down everything here for you! As a Certified Diabetes Educator (CDE), I have to tell you from the start I will have a biased view here. Sorry, but I feel that I need to be completely honest right up front! I will however, present all the evidence that is available currently on the subject. As a CDE, I have been taught to follow the American Diabetes Association Dietary Guidelines for Americans which is low in carbohydrates, high in fiber, with fresh vegetables, fruits and whole grains. The Ketogenic Diet this article will be discussing is much lower in carbohydrates, in order to promote the state of nutritional ketosis, or the fat burning state for weight loss. What is a Ketogenic Diet? The Ketogenic Diet is a low carbohydrate diet, consisting initially of less than 20 carbohydrates per day. Not per meal, yes, you heard me correctly, per day. It is not for the faint of heart and yes I am writing from experience. Of course I have tried it! Hasn’t everybody in America at some point who has wanted to lose weight? Does it work you ask? Of course it does! The problem is how long can you keep it up? Your body uses the carbohydrates you eat for energy, so if we restrict how many carbohydrates we eat, the body has to get its fuel source from fat. A byproduct of this fat burning state are ketones which are produced; this is called nutritional ketosis. You can determine if you are in this fat burning state by purchasing urine ketone testing strips from your local pharmacy. The Ketogenic Diet with Diabetes Some precautions must be made clear; this diet is not appropriate for people with any Continue reading >>

Ketones To Combat Alzheimer’s Disease

Ketones To Combat Alzheimer’s Disease

Despite decades of efforts to develop a drug that prevents or cures Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most prevalent form of dementia afflicting our aging population, there is currently no treatment for this devastating condition. Emerging research suggests that such a miracle treatment might already exist, not in the form of a pill, but as a simple dietary change. A growing number of studies report that interventions to improve metabolic health can alleviate symptoms and reduce brain pathology associated with AD. A popular theory posits that AD has multiple causes, but their common thread may involve metabolic dysfunction. Indeed, markers of poor metabolic health, such as diabetes, inflammation and high cholesterol, are major risk factors for AD. Just like our muscles, the brain requires energy to function properly. Both neurons and muscles have the unique capacity to metabolize ketones as an alternative fuel source when glucose is in short supply, for instance during fasting or on a low-carbohydrate diet. In the 1920s scientists discovered that a high fat diet promoting ketogenesis controlled epilepsy, and ketosis remains one of the most effective treatments for the condition. This raised the possibility that ketones may also be neuroprotective against other diseases that stem from aberrant neural metabolism, such as AD. Since then, research has confirmed that ketones do in fact alter brain metabolism in ways that reduce neuropathology and relieve behavioral symptoms. Ketones alleviate symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease Over the past decade, several studies have supported the clinical value of ketosis in cognitively impaired patients. In a 2004 study twenty individuals with AD or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) were treated with placebo or medium chain triglycerides, a t Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

There is a lot of confusion about the term ketosis among medical professionals as well as laypeople. It is important to understand when and why nutritional ketosis occurs, and why it should not be confused with the metabolic disorder we call ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state where the liver produces small organic molecules called ketone bodies. Most cells in the body can use ketone bodies as a source of energy. When there is a limited supply of external energy sources, such as during prolonged fasting or carbohydrate restriction, ketone bodies can provide energy for most organs. In this situation, ketosis can be regarded as a reasonable, adaptive physiologic response that is essential for life, enabling us to survive periods of famine. Nutritional ketosis should not be confused with ketoacidosis, a metabolic condition where the blood becomes acidic as a result of the accumulation of ketone bodies. Ketoacidosis can have serious consequences and may need urgent medical treatment. The most common forms are diabetic ketoacidosis and alcoholic ketoacidosis. What Is Ketosis? The human body can be regarded as a biologic machine. Machines need energy to operate. Some use gasoline, others use electricity, and some use other power resources. Glucose is the primary fuel for most cells and organs in the body. To obtain energy, cells must take up glucose from the blood. Once glucose enters the cells, a series of metabolic reactions break it down into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy in the process. The body has an ability to store excess glucose in the form of glycogen. In this way, energy can be stored for later use. Glycogen consists of long chains of glucose molecules and is primarily found in the liver and skeletal muscle. Liver glycogen stores are used to mai Continue reading >>

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