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Drug And Chemical Induced Metabolic Acidosis

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What is BASAL METABOLIC RATE? What does BASAL METABOLIC RATE mean? BASAL METABOLIC RATE meaning - BASAL METABOLIC RATE definition - BASAL METABOLIC RATE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimal rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit time ranging from watt (joule/second) to ml O2/min or joule per hour per kg body mass J/(hkg)). Proper measurement requires a strict set of criteria be met. These criteria include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, while in the post-absorptive state (i.e., not actively digesting food). In bradymetabolic animals, such as fish and reptiles, the equivalent term standard metabolic rate (SMR) is used. It follows the same criteria as BMR, but requires the documentation of the temperature at which the metabolic rate was measured. This makes BMR a variant of standard metabolic rate measurement that excludes the temperature data, a practice that has led to problems in defining "standard" rates of metabolism for many mammals. Metabolism comprises the processes that the body needs to function. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy expressed in calories that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest. Some of those processes are breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth, brain and nerve function, and contraction of muscles. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) affects the rate that a person burns calories and ultimately whether that individual maintains, gains, or loses weight. The basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by individuals. It is influenced by several factors. BMR typically declines by 12% per decade after age 20, mostly due to loss of fat-free mass, although the variability between individuals is high. The body's generation of heat is known as thermogenesis and it can be measured to determine the amount of energy expended. BMR generally decreases with age and with the decrease in lean body mass (as may happen with aging). Increasing muscle mass has the effect of increasing BMR. Aerobic (resistance) fitness level, a product of cardiovascular exercise, while previously thought to have effect on BMR, has been shown in the 1990s not to correlate with BMR when adjusted for fat-free body mass. But anaerobic exercise does increase resting energy consumption (see "aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise"). Illness, previously consumed food and beverages, environmental temperature, and stress levels can affect one's overall energy expenditure as well as one's BMR. BMR is measured under very restrictive circumstances when a person is awake. An accurate BMR measurement requires that the person's sympathetic nervous system not be stimulated, a condition which requires complete rest. A more common measurement, which uses less strict criteria, is resting metabolic rate (RMR).

Metabolic Acidosis

Metabolic acidosis is a condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body. If unchecked, metabolic acidosis leads to acidemia, i.e., blood pH is low (less than 7.35) due to increased production of hydrogen ions by the body or the inability of the body to form bicarbonate (HCO3−) in the kidney. Its causes are diverse, and its consequences can be serious, including coma and death. Together with respiratory acidosis, it is one of the two general causes of acidemia. Terminology : Acidosis refers to a process that causes a low pH in blood and tissues. Acidemia refers specifically to a low pH in the blood. In most cases, acidosis occurs first for reasons explained below. Free hydrogen ions then diffuse into the blood, lowering the pH. Arterial blood gas analysis detects acidemia (pH lower than 7.35). When acidemia is present, acidosis is presumed. Signs and symptoms[edit] Symptoms are not specific, and diagnosis can be difficult unless the patient presents with clear indications for arterial blood gas sampling. Symptoms may include chest pain, palpitations, headache, altered mental status such as sev Continue reading >>

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  1. lrrpkd

    You know the dangers of diabetic ketoacidosis.

  2. tide_reflects_sky

    So five minutes in, the wife falls off a pier into the lake and Ferrell's character jumps in after her. After some dramatic CPR and ambulance cut scene, he is at the hospital with clothes completely dry. This is off to a pretty good start.

  3. nightschwing

    "You startled me. I was daydreaming. I do that a lot."

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2018 Icd-10-cm Diagnosis Code

A condition in which the blood is too acidic. It may be caused by severe illness or sepsis (bacteria in the bloodstream). A disorder characterized by abnormally high acidity (high hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues. A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up. A state due to excess retention of carbon dioxide in the body. Acid base imbalance resulting from an accumulation of carbon dioxide secondary to hypoventilation. Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as diabetes mellitus, leukemia, or liver failure. Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized; may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as diabetes mellitus, leukemia, or liver failure. An abnormal increase in the acidity of the body's fluids An abnormally high acidity (excess hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues. An abnormally high acidity of the blood and other body ti Continue reading >>

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  1. Courtney Schumacher

    Ketoacidosis

    Comas

    Medical Treatments

    Medical Conditions and Diseases


    Neuroscience

    Medicine and Healthcare



    Why does Ketoacidosis cause coma? How is it treated?




    1 Answer







    I’m assuming that you do know that ketoacidosis does not have to mean that you have high blood sugar. It means that you have a high level of ketones in your blood, which are usually by-products of your body trying to break down fatty acids for fuel it’s not getting from your food intake.
    It is usually treated with fluids, electrolytes, and insulin. It is much more common in those with type 1 diabetes then type 2, but it can still occur.

    You can look up more specific information on diabetes at the Mayo Clinic site.

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    How can ketoacidosis cause a coma?


    How does diabetic ketoacidosis cause vomiting?


    Why is there hyperkalemia in diabetic ketoacidosis?


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In this video I discuss what is metabolic rate, how to calculate metabolic rate, and how to calculate calories burned, and how many calories burned in a day. I also discuss basal metabolic rate, and resting metabolic rate. Transcript (partial with notes) In this video, I am going to show you the formula on how to calculate your calories burned in a day (metabolic rate). And give some examples. Lets start off with the term metabolic rate. In this video we are defining metabolic rate as the amount of calories you would burn off in a day (24 hours) while at rest. So, not moving around or being active. In the fitness community, There are 2 popular formulas to calculate this. BMR, basal metabolic rate, and RMR, resting metabolic rate. BMR is taken after 8 hours of sleep and 12 hours of fasting. RMR is taken under less restrictions, and has been shown to be statistically more accurate. Lets look at a couple of examples. Here we have kyle and Samantha, and their metrics are here. Kyle is 44 yrs old, is 58 tall, and weighs 160 pounds. Samantha is 33 yrs old, 54 tall, and weighs 126 pounds. The RMR equation for men is (4.55 x Weight in pounds) + (15.88 x Height in inches) - (5*age) + 5, for women the equation is (4.55 x Weight in pounds) + (15.88 x Height in inches) - (5*age) -161. When we plug in Kyles and Sams #s, we see that Kyles RMR is 1592.84 cal/day, and Sams is 1263.62 cal/day. So, after rounding up, this tells us that if Kyle and Sam were to sit around all day, they would need 1583 and 1264 calories per day to maintain their weights. We know that neither Kyle or Samantha are going to sit around all day. So there is a multiplication factor that we must use next. It is based on each of their lifestyles. The factor is as follows 1.200 = sedentary (little or no exercise) 1.375 = lightly active (light exercise/sports 1-3 days/week, approx. 590 Cal/day) 1.550 = moderately active (moderate exercise/sports 3-5 days/week, approx. 870 Cal/day) 1.725 = very active (hard exercise/sports 6-7 days a week, approx. 1150 Cal/day) 1.900 = extra active (very hard exercise/sports and physical job, approx. 1580 Cal/day) Lets say Kyle is very sedentary, so if we multiply his RMR by 1.2 we have .1911.6 cal/day. Now, Samantha is in the very active category, so we need to multiply her RMR by 1.725, and we get2180.4 cal/day . So, based on these calculations Kyle can consume 1912 calories per day to maintain his current weight, and Samantha can consume 2180 calories per day to maintain her weight. Now, You can use the RMR equation and lifestyle multiplication factor to calculate your baseline. Drawbacks A few of things I need to mention. First, this and any other formula used to calculate your metabolic rate is just an estimate. There is a margin for error. Second, muscle mass is very important. Lets look at Kyle, and Jack, who both weigh the same. However, Jack has much more muscle mass than K, since muscle burns more calories than fat, J will have a higher metabolic rate. Third, the type of diet ( for example consuming whole vs processed foods) is not factored either. Bottom Line I dont believe that counting calories is a path to successfully sustaining weight loss in the long run. However, Using the RMR formula and the lifestyle multiplication factor is extremely helpful in increasing your awareness to how many calories you need to consume per day. Which In turn can lead to a higher awareness of how quickly calories you consume add up. Other sources... http://www.scientificpsychic.com/heal... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15...

Drug-induced Metabolic Acidosis

Pharmacologically-Induced Metabolic Acidosis. Liamis G et al. Drug Saf 2010 May 1; 33:371-391. This somewhat wordy article is a complete review of drug-induced metabolic acidosis, and well worth reading for those interested in expanding their knowledge beyond the mnemonic MUDPILES or reviewing the 4 types of renal tubular acidosis. There is so much detail here that the paper is impossible to summarize, but here are some of its clinical pearls: Most of the patients who develop metformin-associated lactic acidosis had been taking the drug despite have a contraindication to its use, such as renal insufficiency or severe underlying disease. Antiviral therapy, especially nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, have been associated with life-threatening metabolic acidosis. Drugs implicated most often include didanosine, stavudine, and zidovudine. Linezolid impairs mitochondrial function and can cause metabolic acidosis, usually after prolonged therapy. The occurrence of metabolic acidosis in patients on propofol may herald onset of propofol infusion syndrome , which has a mortality rate of greater than 80%. Occult laxative abuse is on the differential diagnosis for a patient with u Continue reading >>

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  1. Ellie_Baum

    I've been debating about putting this up for a while. I don't want to create fear or confusion. I've been very grateful for the keto way of eating. The story below does not make me want to change back to a SAD diet. I can't believe the benefits I get from eating Keto.
    But at the same time, if it can happen to one person it can happen to more than one. And I love this community and want to protect it.
    On the Keto reddit (an internet forum like this) recently, there was a story about a guy on Keto who was supplementing with lite salt. A LOT of lite salt. Like 2 tsp in a 32oz of keto-friendly lemonade everyday. And then had another major dose of it in broth when he wasn't feeling well. Long story short, he ended up in the hospital with Hyperkalemia - dangerously high levels of potassium in the blood. He should have died, the levels he had.
    I know a lot of Newbies on here will be feeling bad and we in the community will recommend taking more electrolytes. While that is usually true, please be careful about recommending that as a miracle cure for any and every aliment. If someone has a weird symptom, if you're not a doctor, be careful about chiming in. I also think that everyone should be aware that there is an upper limit of appropriate amounts of potassium.
    Here is the reddit link:
    reddit.com
    86
    Morton Lite Salt and Potassium Supplementation: A Cautionary Tale • r/keto
    Edit: So this got pretty big, and I'm glad I've been able to make a positive impact for some people. But I want to make a brief clarification...

    KCKO, eat an avocado not 2 tsp of lite salt.

  2. Mare

    I didn't end up so badly, but a couple of weeks ago, I felt the 'need' for more potassium, so I used that LiteSalt regularly for a couple of days.

    I was due for labs soon after, and my endo mentioned my high potassium (it's usually right in range) and suggested I avoid 'potassium rich' foods for a while. I didn't mention the LiteSalt but quickly put it away in the cupboard when I got home.

  3. Ellie_Baum

    So glad you're ok!!

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