Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Dealing with Breathing Problems article more useful, or one of our other health articles. The term hyperventilation describes excessive ventilation of the lungs, beyond what is required to achieve normal arterial blood gases. Where hyperventilation occurs chronically or in recurrent episodes and is associated with somatic (respiratory, neurological, intestinal) or psychological (anxiety) symptoms, it is known as hyperventilation syndrome. About 5-10% of general medical outpatients are thought to have this syndrome and, because of the range of somatic symptoms, the risk of misdiagnosis is high. Pathogenesis Hyperventilation has little effect on arterial pO2 and almost no effect on oxygen saturation which is nearly 100% under normal circumstances. Its main effect is to lower pCO2 and produce a respiratory alkalosis. A secondary hypocalcaemia also occurs as calcium dissociation is shifted towards the unionised, bound form. There are many factors that influence the respiratory drive, including the elasticity of the lungs and the resistance in the airways but the most important factors are arterial pH, pCO2 and pO2. Of these, pCO2 is most important, although some people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can depend on the hypoxic drive. Epidemiology It is quite common but precise prevalence is unknown. A postal survey indicated that 8% of adults without asthma have functional breathing problems (of which symptomatic hyperventilation is the most common). Hyperventilation syndrome is more common in people with asthma and also more common i Continue reading >>
What Are The Symptoms Of Gestational Diabetes?
When taking a patient's breathing (ventilation) rate, you should take note of his breathing rate, the profundity and cadence of his ventilations, the nature of his ventilations, and any factor, (for example, hacking) that is not ordinary. Breathing ought to be easy and scarcely discernible. In the event that it is toiled or uproarious, too quick, or too moderate, at that point it is not typical and ought to be dealt with forcefully. a. Rate. A typical grown-up will inhale at an enduring rate. A breathing rate from 12 to 20 breaths for every moment is typical. Youngsters have an ordinary breathing rate of 20 to 28 breaths for every moment. Babies have an ordinary scope of 30 to 60 breaths for every moment. (1) Normal. A patient's breathing rate is said to be typical on the off chance that it is inside the suitable range. For instance, a breathing rate of 26 is typical for a youthful tyke, moderate for a newborn child, and fast for a grown-up. Ordinary Respirations (2) Rapid. On the off chance that a patient's breathing rate is higher than the ordinary range, at that point his breathing is quick. Quick breathing is otherwise called hyperventilation. Tachypnea (3) Slow. On the off chance that a patient's breathing rate is underneath the typical range, his breathing is moderate. Moderate Breathing b. Profundity. The profundity of ventilation alludes to the measure of air that is breathed in and breathed out. The measure of air breathed in and breathed out in one cycle is known as the tidal volume. The more the chest hole extends, the more prominent the profundity of the ventilation. Full development of the chest divider with full unwinding on exhalation is a decent pointer of sufficient profundity of breathing and satisfactory tidal volume. Many books will attempt and apply Continue reading >>
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine. The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium. Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked. Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection. In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended. Rates of DKA vary around the world. In the United Kingdom, about 4% of people with type 1 diabetes develop DKA each year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year. DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost univ Continue reading >>
What Are Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis?
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication typically faced by people with type-1 diabetes, which occurs when body starts running out of insulin. This condition can leave the patient in coma or even death if not treated immediately. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when body is lacking lacking insulin to allow sufficient glucose to enter cells. Therefore the body absorbs energy by burning fatty acids and in turn produce acidic ketone bodies. Blood containing high levels of ketone bodies can cause serious illness. Diabetic ketoacidosis is itself a symptom of undiagnosed type-1 diabetes. Other symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: 1. Dehydration 2. Vomiting 3. Nausea 4. Blurred vision 5. Fatigue & sleepiness 6. Frequent urination 7. Rapid heartbeat 8. Unusual smell on the breath (similar to that of pear drops) 9. Confusion and disorientation 10. Hyperventilation or deep laboured breathing 11. Coma The symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis usually develop over a 24-hour period if blood glucose levels are and remain very high (hyperglycemia). Continue reading >>
How We Control That Person Who Is Crying In Sleeping?
While sleeping our body is actually rejuvenating and repairing. Dreaming is an important part of it. Normally when we sleep our mind is subconsciously active while our bodies are temporarily paralysed. But in some people or at certain times this doesn’t happen and our body starts reacting to what our mind is experiencing. This results in weeping laughing talking while you are sleeping and also in extreme cases cause sleep walk. Mostly it happens when we sleep because when we are asleep our subconscious brain works a lot better. Mainly the reasons for crying while being asleep are:- Depression (Adult) Depression is a painful sadness that interferes with daily life and includes hopelessness, anxiety, and more. Night terrors Night terrors are a sleep disorder that cause people to partially wake up confused and terrified. Generalized anxiety disorder Generalized anxiety disorder is a condition in which a person has nearly constant anxiety. Sleep apnea People with sleep apnea stop and restart breathing multiple times while sleeping. Child abuse The signs and symptoms of child abuse include bruises, burns, bleeding, fearful behavior, bedwetting and more. Depression (Child and Adolescent) Depression is a painful sadness that interferes with a child's schoolwork, family life, and social activities. Panic attack When someone has a panic attack, that person feels a sudden, intense fear that can't be controlled. Sleep deprivation Sleep deprivation occurs when the lack of restful sleep is severe enough to compromise basic body functions. Excessive caffeine use Excessive caffeine use can cause irritability, difficulty sleeping, anger, depression, and fatigue. Epilepsy (temporal lobe) Epilepsy is a condition marked by seizures. Epilepsy (simple partial seizures) During simple parti Continue reading >>
Do You Know The Side Effects Of Respirdal?
Risperdal is available as a generic drug. Common side effects of Risperdal include: extrapyramidal effects (sudden, often jerky, involuntary motions of the head, neck, arms, body, or eyes), tiredness, drowsiness, feeling hot or cold, restlessness, stomach pain, runny or stuffy nose, Tell your doctor if you experience serious side effects of Risperdal including difficulty swallowing, muscle spasms, shaking (tremor), mental/mood changes, or signs of infection (such as fever, persistent sore throat). Risperdal dose ranges from 0.5 mg to 8mg/day. Risperdal may interact with other medicines that make you sleepy (such as cold or allergy medicine, narcotic pain medicine, sleeping pills, muscle relaxers, and medicine for seizures, depression, or anxiety), carbamazepine, cimetidine, ranitidine, clozapine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, phenytoin, valproic acid, phenobarbital, rifampin, or medicines used to treat Parkinson's Disease. Tell your doctor all medications and supplements you use. There are no adequate studies of risperidone in pregnant women so it should not be used unless the benefits outweigh the potential unknown risks. Risperidone is excreted in human breast milk and women receiving risperidone should not breastfeed. Our Risperdal Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication. articles. This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. Risperdal in Detail - Patient Information: Side Effects Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop Continue reading >>
Hyperventilation In Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis*
Abstract To explore whether the carbon dioxide-bicarbonate (P(CO(2))-HCO(3)) buffering system in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in diabetic ketoacidosis should influence the approach to ventilation in patients at risk of cerebral edema. Medline search, manual search of references in articles found in Medline search, and use of historical literature from 1933 to 1967. A clinical vignette is used--a child with severe diabetic ketoacidosis who presented with profound hypocapnia and then deteriorated--as a basis for discussion of integrative metabolic and vascular physiology. Studies included reports in diabetic ketoacidosis where arterial and CSF acid-base data have been presented. Studies where simultaneous acid-base, ventilation, respiratory quotient, and cerebral blood flow data are available. We revisit a hypothesis and, by reassessing data, put forward an argument based on the significance of low [HCO(3)](CSF) and rising Pa(CO(2))- hyperventilation in diabetic ketoacidosis and the limit in biology of survival; repair of severe diabetic ketoacidosis and Pa(CO(2))-and mechanical ventilation. The review highlights a potential problem with mechanical ventilation in severe diabetic ketoacidosis and suggests that the P(CO(2))--HCO(3) hypothesis is consistent with data on cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis. It also indicates that the recommendation to avoid induced hyperventilation early in the course of intensive care may be counter to the logic of adaptive physiology. ) “iso-acidity” lines. A, changes in the index case: point 1, at presentation; point 2, 15 mins ABG 7.09 ⫾0.04 14.0 ⫾1.0 5.0 ⫾1.0 Ohman et al. (9) CSF 7.35 ⫾0.03 23.0 ⫾2.0 12.0 ⫾2.0 ABG 7.15 ⫾0.06 19.9 ⫾2.5 7.6 ⫾1.6 Marks et al. (10) CSF 7.22 ⫾0.03 25.0 ⫾2.7 10.2 ⫾1.7 ABG Continue reading >>
Hyperventilation In Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the carbon dioxide-bicarbonate (P(CO(2))-HCO(3)) buffering system in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in diabetic ketoacidosis should influence the approach to ventilation in patients at risk of cerebral edema. DATA SOURCE: Medline search, manual search of references in articles found in Medline search, and use of historical literature from 1933 to 1967. DESIGN: A clinical vignette is used--a child with severe diabetic ketoacidosis who presented with profound hypocapnia and then deteriorated--as a basis for discussion of integrative metabolic and vascular physiology. STUDY SELECTION: Studies included reports in diabetic ketoacidosis where arterial and CSF acid-base data have been presented. Studies where simultaneous acid-base, ventilation, respiratory quotient, and cerebral blood flow data are available. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: We revisit a hypothesis and, by reassessing data, put forward an argument based on the significance of low [HCO(3)](CSF) and rising Pa(CO(2))- hyperventilation in diabetic ketoacidosis and the limit in biology of survival; repair of severe diabetic ketoacidosis and Pa(CO(2))-and mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: The review highlights a potential problem with mechanical ventilation in severe diabetic ketoacidosis and suggests that the P(CO(2))--HCO(3) hypothesis is consistent with data on cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis. It also indicates that the recommendation to avoid induced hyperventilation early in the course of intensive care may be counter to the logic of adaptive physiology. Continue reading >>
Is It Common For Emt Crews To Be Dispatched For Someone Who Is Hyperventilating?
It is unlikely an up-to-date dispatch center would send out a call with “Hyperventilation” as the call type because Hyperventilation syndrome is an actual condition, i.e. a diagnosis made based on history, respiratory rate, and blood gas readings confirming normal-high oxygen tension and oxygen saturation, low carbon dioxide, and respiratory alkalosis. Therefore, EMTs and Paramedics need to be especially careful, eliminating other possible conditions, before settling on hyperventilation due to psychological causes as a diagnosis. People experiencing hyperventilation syndrome typically call 911 stating they can’t breathe, and the 911 system obliges with that complaint, e.g. “Respond to a male with shortness of breath/difficulty breathing.” The external presentation of hyperventilation syndrome is of anxiousness and rapid breathing. Rapid breathing is technically known as tachypnea or, if rapid and deep, hyperpnea. Either of these are common initial responses to shock, heat stroke, hemorrhage, trauma, pain, metabolic derangement, toxicity, or other cardiorespiratory problems. Therefore, before one can conclude tachypnea/hyperpnea is simply the result of psychogenic hyperventilation, causes of compensatory tachypnea/hyperpnea must be ruled out. This is no different than if an EMT/Paramedic observed a patient with a rapid heart rate, i.e. tachycardia. Any EMS provider who says a patient is experiencing “hyperventilation” without knowing damned well what the condition actually entails is full of shit and a fool. Unfortunately, many EMTs and Paramedics fit the bill. More than one EMT or Paramedic and even hospital triage nurses have screwed this up, misdiagnosing the very severe condition of pulmonary embolism with “hyperventilation” because they look the sa Continue reading >>
Why Do We Cry While Sleeping?
I would like to answer this as this happened to me years before. When I was in college, I had a spat with my then boyfriend. He had hurt me immensely with his words and told me that he no longer wanted to see me. I went home with a very heavy heart and fell asleep as I felt so tired. I remember dreaming about him, feeling very hurt and asking him if he wants to talk. After 12 hours I woke up suddenly feeling thirtsy. As I was nearing the kitchen I heard my aunt telling my mother that she heard me sobbing while sleeping. I dont want to believe it first as I can’t remember crying. But something in her voice told me that it’s true. I retreated my steps and went back to my room. There I reflected and assessed how I feel. You know the feeling when you are hurt but somewhat feels a little lighter? I believed my mind has reacted instinctively. It wants me to feel better and get off the bone crushing pain i feel by urging my eyes to cry without me knowing. I think its your mind helping you get off the pain and heartache that you feel. I am praying that you feel better soon and that you feel lighter everytime you wake up. I hope that you survive whatever hurdle you are having right now and come out as a survivor. Continue reading >>
What Is The Fastest Way To Lower My Ph Level?
The fastest way to lower your blood pH (lower pH is more acidic) is not through dietary means. In fact, dietary changes take quite a while to have any effect and the effects on blood pH are very minimal because your body has many mechanisms to counter the effects of diet on this area. Respiratory acidosis/alkalosis can be induced rather quickly to change the blood pH. The CO2/Bicarbonate buffering system is in place to fight against these changes. @Normal Bodily Function Exhaling CO2 is the body's primary way of expelling excess H+ generated by the body's metabolism. @Blood Buffer - Chemical Buffer The fastest way to lower your blood pH level would be to hold your breath. Obviously there are SO many problems with trying to influence blood pH by doing this. If you actively hold your breath too long you will pass out. It's the body's way of protecting yourself from doing something stupid like holding your breath until you die. Now there will be some out there that will say you actually want your blood pH to be more alkaline. Again, the body does not want this and you will only function within a relatively narrow range of pH. Yes, if you hyperventilate you will blow off more CO2 and it will result in a respiratory alkalosis. Your body has protective mechanisms in place to keep you from moving your pH too far out of whack by doing this (like making you pass out). A dietary method of changing blood pH would be a carb restricted diet that promotes the formation of keytone bodies. This thread is not the place to discus the merits or risks of @Ketosis but this is one of the few dietary ways of changing blood pH. If you do manage to move your blood pH through metabolic means (your diet) then your body's natural respiratory rhythm will automatically and consciously adjust to comp Continue reading >>
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)
Tweet Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication faced by people with diabetes which happens when the body starts running out of insulin. DKA is most commonly associated with type 1 diabetes, however, people with type 2 diabetes that produce very little of their own insulin may also be affected. Ketoacidosis is a serious short term complication which can result in coma or even death if it is not treated quickly. Read about Diabetes and Ketones What is diabetic ketoacidosis? DKA occurs when the body has insufficient insulin to allow enough glucose to enter cells, and so the body switches to burning fatty acids and producing acidic ketone bodies. A high level of ketone bodies in the blood can cause particularly severe illness. Symptoms of DKA Diabetic ketoacidosis may itself be the symptom of undiagnosed type 1 diabetes. Typical symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Vomiting Dehydration An unusual smell on the breath –sometimes compared to the smell of pear drops Deep laboured breathing (called kussmaul breathing) or hyperventilation Rapid heartbeat Confusion and disorientation Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a 24 hour period if blood glucose levels become and remain too high (hyperglycemia). Causes and risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis As noted above, DKA is caused by the body having too little insulin to allow cells to take in glucose for energy. This may happen for a number of reasons including: Having blood glucose levels consistently over 15 mmol/l Missing insulin injections If a fault has developed in your insulin pen or insulin pump As a result of illness or infections High or prolonged levels of stress Excessive alcohol consumption DKA may also occur prior to a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Ketoacidosis can occasional Continue reading >>
Respiratory Failure In Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Go to: INTRODUCTION Ketoacidosis in subjects with type 1, or less frequently, type 2 diabetes mellitus remains a potentially life-threatening diabetic manifestation. The subject has justifiably attracted attention in the literature. Sequential reviews[1-9] have documented important changes in the clinical concepts that are related to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and its management. A large number of case series of DKA have addressed various aspects of its clinical presentation and management. For this review, we selected representative studies focused on management, outcome, age differences, gender differences, associated morbid conditions, ethnicity and prominent clinical and laboratory features[10-35]. In recognition of the complexity of treatment, the recommendation to provide this care in intensive care units was made more than 50 years ago. Severe DKA is treated in intensive care units today. Evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and management of DKA have been published and frequently revised in North America[37,38] and Europe. Losses of fluids and electrolytes, which are important causes of morbidity and mortality in DKA, vary greatly between patients. Quantitative methods estimating individual losses and guiding their replacement have also been reported[40,41]. The outcomes of DKA have improved with new methods of insulin administration and adherence to guidelines[43-46]. The aim of treatment is to minimize mortality and prevent sequelae. One study documented that the target of zero mortality is feasible. However, mortality from DKA, although reduced progressively in the early decades after the employment of insulin treatment, remains high. Up to fifty plus years ago, mortality from DKA was between 3% and 10%[1,16]. A recent review re Continue reading >>
What Will Happen With The Human Body If The Ph Is Too Low (acidic) Or Too High (basic)?
The medical terms are acidemia and alkalemia for low and high blood pH, and the conditions that cause these are called acidosis and alkalosis. Normal range is 7.35–7.45. A large number of conditions can cause deviations from normal pH, so the clinical symptoms are many, and partly due to the disorder (e.g., a tumor) rather than the abnormal pH. But abnormal pH alone causes severe symptoms. Low pH causes coma and high pH causes excitability. You can raise the pH of your blood easily by hyperventilating, and you know how that feels. One common cause of low pH and coma is diabetic ketoacidosis. A common cause of high pH is panic attacks. Continue reading >>