Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Dogs
Studies show that female dogs (particularly non-spayed) are more prone to DKA, as are older canines. Diabetic ketoacidosis is best classified through the presence of ketones that exist in the liver, which are directly correlated to the lack of insulin being produced in the body. This is a very serious complication, requiring immediate veterinary intervention. Although a number of dogs can be affected mildly, the majority are very ill. Some dogs will not recover despite treatment, and concurrent disease has been documented in 70% of canines diagnosed with DKA. Diabetes with ketone bodies is also described in veterinary terms as diabetic ketoacidosis or DKA. It is a severe complication of diabetes mellitus. Excess ketone bodies result in acidosis and electrolyte abnormalities, which can lead to a crisis situation for your dog. If left in an untreated state, this condition can and will be fatal. Some dogs who are suffering from diabetic ketoacidosis may present as systemically well. Others will show severe illness. Symptoms may be seen as listed below: Change in appetite (either increase or decrease) Increased thirst Frequent urination Vomiting Abdominal pain Mental dullness Coughing Fatigue or weakness Weight loss Sometimes sweet smelling breath is evident Slow, deep respiration. There may also be other symptoms present that accompany diseases that can trigger DKA, such as hypothyroidism or Cushing’s disease. While some dogs may live fairly normal lives with this condition before it is diagnosed, most canines who become sick will do so within a week of the start of the illness. There are four influences that can bring on DKA: Fasting Insulin deficiency as a result of unknown and untreated diabetes, or insulin deficiency due to an underlying disease that in turn exacerba Continue reading >>
Hyperglycemia In Diabetes
Print Overview High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) affects people who have diabetes. Several factors can contribute to hyperglycemia in people with diabetes, including food and physical activity choices, illness, nondiabetes medications, or skipping or not taking enough glucose-lowering medication. It's important to treat hyperglycemia, because if left untreated, hyperglycemia can become severe and lead to serious complications requiring emergency care, such as a diabetic coma. In the long term, persistent hyperglycemia, even if not severe, can lead to complications affecting your eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart. Symptoms Hyperglycemia doesn't cause symptoms until glucose values are significantly elevated — above 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 11 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Symptoms of hyperglycemia develop slowly over several days or weeks. The longer blood sugar levels stay high, the more serious the symptoms become. However, some people who've had type 2 diabetes for a long time may not show any symptoms despite elevated blood sugars. Early signs and symptoms Recognizing early symptoms of hyperglycemia can help you treat the condition promptly. Watch for: Frequent urination Increased thirst Blurred vision Fatigue Headache Later signs and symptoms If hyperglycemia goes untreated, it can cause toxic acids (ketones) to build up in your blood and urine (ketoacidosis). Signs and symptoms include: Fruity-smelling breath Nausea and vomiting Shortness of breath Dry mouth Weakness Confusion Coma Abdominal pain When to see a doctor Call 911 or emergency medical assistance if: You're sick and can't keep any food or fluids down, and Your blood glucose levels are persistently above 240 mg/dL (13 mmol/L) and you have ketones in your urine Make an appointment with your Continue reading >>
Which Foods Increase Blood Acidity?
Before Having Your Tonsils Removed Tonsillectomies are performed under general anesthesia. You will be completely asleep and will not be able to feel pain during the procedure. You will not be able to eat before surgery. This is because there is a risk of vomiting with anesthesia. Your physician or nurse will give you exact instructions about when to stop eating and drinking. In addition to not eating or drinking, you should not smoke, chew gum, or suck on mints or candy. Tonsillectomies are mostly performed in same day surgery settings. This means that you will go home the same day that you have your tonsils removed. You should wear loose comfortable clothing to the surgical center. Arrive on time. In some cases a medication called Versed can be given prior to the procedure to reduce anxiety, especially in small children. If you have other health problems, your doctor may order blood work or other tests before the surgery. If you are a woman of childbearing age (usually age 12 to 55 unless you have had a hysterectomy), it is mandatory that you have a pregnancy test before the surgery. This requires a small amount of urine. If the patient is a child and has a comfort item, such as a blanket or a favorite toy, bring it with you. Also, if your child drinks from a bottle or special cup, bring it along so your child can drink after the surgery. Make sure you bring comfortable clothing and extra diapers or underwear. Prior to having your tonsils removed, you will need to remove any metal from your body, including jewelry, retainers or body piercings. You will also need to remove contact lenses, dentures, and hearing aids. You will also need to refrain from medications that have the ability to thin your blood for one to two weeks before surgery. These medications include aspi Continue reading >>
Is Diabetes Causing My Nausea?
Nausea comes in many forms. Sometimes it can be mild and short-lived. Other times, it can be severe and last for a long time. For people with diabetes, nausea is a common complaint. It can even be a sign of a life-threatening condition that requires swift medical attention. 5 common causes of nausea Factors related to your diabetes may cause you to feel nausea. Medication Metformin (Glucophage) is one of the more common medications used to treat diabetes. Nausea is a potential side effect for people taking this medication. Taking metformin on an empty stomach may make nausea worse. Injectable medications used to treat diabetes, such as exenatide (Byetta), liraglutide (Victoza), and pramlintide (Symlin), may also cause nausea. The nausea may go away after extended use. Your doctor may also start you on a lower dosage to try to reduce or eliminate nausea. Hypo- and hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar levels) or hypoglycemia (blood sugar levels that are too low) may cause nausea. Check your blood sugar and respond appropriately if you suspect abnormal blood sugar levels. To avoid hypo- and hyperglycemia, stick to your diabetes meal plan, monitor your blood sugar, and take your medication as prescribed. You should also avoid exercising in extreme temperatures and keep cool by drinking cold liquids during outside activities, advises Sheri Colberg, PhD, author, exercise physiologist, and expert on diabetes management. Diabetic ketoacidosis Severe nausea may be a sign of diabetic ketoacidosis. This is a dangerous medical condition that must be treated to avoid coma or even death. Symptoms include: nausea excessive thirst frequent urination abdominal pain weakness or fatigue shortness of breath confusion fruity-scented breath If you suspect diabetic ketoacidosis, Continue reading >>
How Does Diabetes Affect The Organs?
Type 1 diabetes can affect major organs in your body, including heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys. Keeping your blood sugar level close to normal most of the time can dramatically reduce the risk of many complications. Long-term complications of type 1 diabetes develop gradually, over decades. Good blood sugar management can help lower the risk of complications. Eventually, diabetes complications may be disabling or even life-threatening. Heart and blood vessel disease. Diabetes dramatically increases your risk of various cardiovascular problems, including coronary artery disease with chest pain (angina), heart attack, stroke, narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis) and high blood pressure. Nerve damage (neuropathy). Excess sugar can injure the walls of the tiny blood vessels (capillaries) that nourish your nerves, especially in the legs. This can cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward. Poorly controlled blood sugar could cause you to eventually lose all sense of feeling in the affected limbs. Damage to the nerves that affect the gastrointestinal tract can cause problems with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. For men, erectile dysfunction may be an issue. Kidney damage (nephropathy). The kidneys contain millions of tiny blood vessel clusters that filter waste from your blood. Diabetes can damage this delicate filtering system. Severe damage can lead to kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant. Eye damage. Diabetes can damage the blood vessels of the retina (diabetic retinopathy), potentially leading to blindness. Diabetes also increases the risk of other serious vision conditions, such as catarac Continue reading >>
Take Care Of Yourself When Sick Or Under Stress
When we're stressed, our bodies need extra energy to help us cope and recover. This is true whether bodies are under stress from illness or injury or are dealing with the effects of emotional stress, both good and bad. To meet the demand for more energy, the body responds by releasing into the bloodstream sugar that's been stored in the liver, causing blood sugar levels to rise. In someone without diabetes, the pancreas responds to the rise in blood sugar by releasing enough insulin into the bloodstream to help convert the sugar into energy. This brings blood sugar levels back down to normal. In someone with diabetes, the extra demand usually means needing to take more diabetes medicine (insulin or pills.) To make sure your body is getting enough medicine to help keep your blood sugar levels close to normal, you'll need to test more often when you are: Sick Recovering from surgery Fighting an infection Feeling upset Under more stress than usual Traveling Type 1 Diabetes In people with type 1 diabetes, blood sugar levels rise in response to stress, but the body doesn't have enough insulin to turn the sugar into energy. Instead, the body burns stored fat to meet energy needs. When fat is burned for energy, it creates waste products called ketones. As fat is broken down, ketones start to build up in the bloodstream. High levels of ketones in the blood can lead to a serious condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which can cause a person to lose consciousness and go into a diabetic coma. Type 2 Diabetes In people with type 2 diabetes, the body usually has enough insulin available to turn sugar into energy, so it doesn't need to burn fat. However, stress hormones can cause blood sugar levels to rise to very high and even dangerous levels. People with type 2 diabetes Continue reading >>
Tweet Diarrhoea is commonly experienced as a result of gastroenteritis but may also be caused by specific medication including statins and metformin. Diarrhoea is defined as passing loose, watery stools more than three times a day. Diarrhoea may also result from conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, coeliac disease and autonomic neuropathy. Common causes of diarrhoea The NHS lists gastroenteritis, bowel infection, as the most common cause of diarrhoea. Gastroenteritis can be caused by a bacterial or viral infection. Other relatively common causes of diarrhoea include: Food intolerances - such as lactose or gluten intolerance Irritable Bowel Syndrome Drinking too much coffee or alcohol Read further below for causes more specifically related to diabetes. Diagnosing diarrhoea In most cases diarrhoea will clear within a week. If diarrhoea persists longer is accompanied by other symptoms such as: Fever Blood in your stools Vomiting Unexplained weight loss If you have recently been treated in hospital or have recently been put onto antibiotics see your GP. To diagnose the cause of persistent diarrhoea, your GP will review the medications you are on and will likely ask questions about your bowel movements and other questions which may help to isolate a possible cause. Your GP may need to take a stool sample or a blood test or perform a rectal examination if further information is needed. Treating diarrhoea Depending on the cause of diarrhoea, treatment may vary. See further below for more about specific causes related to diabetes. Whilst you have diarrhoea, it is important to take regular drinks of fluid, ideally water, as you will lose more water than usual through diarrhoea. High blood glucose, which can also commonly result from viral infections, can also increase th Continue reading >>
The Signs, Diagnosis & Types Of Diabetes Mellitus In Cats
There are certain signs or symptoms which are commonly seen in cats with diabetes mellitus. Unfortunately, these signs also occur in other diseases and conditions. Therefore, laboratory tests are necessary to diagnose diabetes mellitus in cats. The following article includes a discussion of how this diagnosis is made and the types of diabetes found in cats. What are the signs of diabetes mellitus in cats and why do they occur? Depending on how severely insulin production is impaired, there may be few signs of disease, or the signs may be severe. Dogs with diabetes often develop cataracts; cats do not. The most common signs of diabetes are: Increased thirst (polydipsia) and urination (polyuria) Change in appetite Weight loss Change in gait (walking) Decreased activity, weakness, depression Vomiting Increased Thirst and Urination: Because the glucose cannot enter the cells, the glucose levels in the blood become abnormally high (hyperglycemia). The glucose is filtered out by the kidneys and is found in the urine (glucosuria). When it is filtered out, it carries water with it. The animal, then, is losing more water through the urine than normal and has to make up for it by drinking more. Inappropriate Elimination: The increased urination may result in the cat not always urinating in the litter box. This inappropriate urination may be one of the first signs of diabetes in cats. In addition, cats with diabetes can often develop urinary tract infections, which may also result in inappropriate elimination. Change in Appetite: Some diabetic cats eat less, because frankly, they do not feel well. Other cats may have voracious appetites and eat a lot (polyphagia) because their hypothalamus keeps telling them they are hungry. Weight Loss: Because the cat cannot use the calories he Continue reading >>
Planning Ahead For Sick Days
Having a bad cold or the flu can make anyone want to crawl into bed and stay there until it’s over. But when you have diabetes, hiding under the covers and sleeping until you feel better isn’t the best option (although getting plenty of rest is still a good idea). That’s because any illness or infection can make your blood glucose more difficult to control, which increases the risk of serious acute complications. So just when you’re feeling your worst is when it’s most important to stay vigilant about your diabetes care and to take good care of yourself to help your body heal. What happens when you’re sick Your body may know it’s sick even before you feel any symptoms, and a good clue can be an unexplained steady rise in blood glucose. Everybody has a high release of stress hormones when they’re battling or about to battle an illness. Typically, stress hormones cause a rise in blood glucose level because they cause the liver to release more glucose than normal into the bloodstream. People who don’t have diabetes can compensate by releasing more insulin, but people who have diabetes may produce no insulin, or their bodies may not use insulin efficiently, so blood glucose levels stay high unless something is done (such as taking insulin) to lower them. The release of stress hormones and consequent rise in blood glucose level is why people with diabetes are advised to continue taking their diabetes medicines (insulin or oral medicines) when they are sick, even if they’re vomiting. Monitoring blood glucose levels every 2–4 hours and sipping liquids every 15 minutes to stay hydrated are also important. Not taking diabetes medicines during an illness raises the risk of developing diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a medical emergency characterized by high bloo Continue reading >>
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) happens when your blood sugar is high and your insulin level is low. This imbalance in the body causes a build-up of ketones. Ketones are toxic. If DKA isn’t treated, it can lead to diabetic coma and even death. DKA mainly affects people who have type 1 diabetes. But it can also happen with other types of diabetes, including type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes (during pregnancy). DKA is a very serious condition. If you have diabetes and think you may have DKA, contact your doctor or get to a hospital right away. The first symptoms to appear are usually: frequent urination. The next stage of DKA symptoms include: vomiting (usually more than once) confusion or trouble concentrating a fruity odor on the breath. The main cause of DKA is not enough insulin. A lack of insulin means sugar can’t get into your cells. Your cells need sugar for energy. This causes your body’s glucose levels to rise. To get energy, the body starts to burn fat. This process causes ketones to build up. Ketones can poison the body. High blood glucose levels can also cause you to urinate often. This leads to a lack of fluids in the body (dehydration). DKA can be caused by missing an insulin dose, eating poorly, or feeling stressed. An infection or other illness (such as pneumonia or a urinary tract infection) can also lead to DKA. If you have signs of infection (fever, cough, or sore throat), contact your doctor. You will want to make sure you are getting the right treatment. For some people, DKA may be the first sign that they have diabetes. When you are sick, you need to watch your blood sugar level very closely so that it doesn’t get too high or too low. Ask your doctor what your critical blood sugar level is. Most patients should watch their glucose levels c Continue reading >>
Why Is Type 2 Diabetes Dangerous?
What Are The Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes? Fatigue, thirst, blurred vision, dry mouth, excessive urination, weight loss, hunger, etc are some of the common symptoms of type 2 diabetes. How Type 2 Diabetes Is Different From Type 1 Diabetes? The cells of our body that release insulin, gets destroyed by the body's immune system in type 1 diabetes. It reduces the insulin production from the body. In type 2 diabetes, our body still makes insulin but the cells don't use insulin in a right way and this condition is known as insulin resistance. What Is The Normal Range Of Blood Glucose Levels? Normal blood glucose levels for a diabetic person should be 70-130 mg/dL before meals and under 180 mg/dL is recommended, 2 hours after meals. Complications Of Type 2 Diabetes High blood sugar may affect our eyes, feet, skin, Heart and blood vessels. Even common infections may become serious if you are suffering from diabetes. Diabetic patients experience a rapid fall in weight, as like the other cells of the body, the fat cells are also not able to utilize the sugar available in blood for their maintenance. Dehydration is another feature which affects the body cells. The patient feels thirsty and anxious all the time. Painful and frequent urination which is accompanied by urinary tract infections. Nausea and vomiting LONG TERM COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES Long term complications of Diabetes include stroke, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, urinary infections and coronary artery disease. Continue reading >>
Possible Side Effects Of Farxiga
FARXIGA can cause serious side effects, including: See the What is the most important information I should know about FARXIGA? section. Dehydration (the loss of body water and salt), which may cause you to feel dizzy, faint, lightheaded, or weak, especially when you stand up (orthostatic hypotension). You may be at a higher risk of dehydration if you have low blood pressure; take medicines to lower your blood pressure, including water pills (diuretics); are 65 years of age or older; are on a low salt diet, or have kidney problems Ketoacidosis occurred in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes during treatment with FARXIGA. Ketoacidosis is a serious condition which may require hospitalization and may lead to death. Symptoms may include nausea, tiredness, vomiting, trouble breathing, and abdominal pain. If you get any of these symptoms, stop taking FARXIGA and call your healthcare provider right away. If possible, check for ketones in your urine or blood, even if your blood sugar is less than 250 mg/dL Kidney problems. Sudden kidney injury occurred in people taking FARXIGA. Talk to your doctor right away if you reduce the amount you eat or drink, or if you lose liquids; for example, from vomiting, diarrhea, or excessive heat exposure The most common side effects of FARXIGA (far-SEE-guh) include: Vaginal yeast infections and yeast infections of the penis Stuffy or runny nose and sore throat Changes in urination, including urgent need to urinate more often, in larger amounts, or at night These are not all the possible side effects of FARXIGA. For more information, please read the Medication Guide; ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist. Call your healthcare provider for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. Continue reading >>
What Are The Short-term Consequences Of Not Controlling Type 1 Diabetes?
Death. Well, that depends on just how poorly controlled you're talking, but if you mean not treating at all, then you can progress through some serious consequences ending in death over the course of a day or so. Unlike the more common Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, people with Diabetes mellitus type 1 do not produce insulin on their own, and need an external source of insulin to survive. That is because cells cannot take in sugar from the bloodstream to fuel themselves without insulin, so once the sugar in there is used up the cells have to start breaking down fatty acids to stay alive, but that produces ketones, which are toxic. At the same time, all the sugar that's stuck, unusable, in the bloodstream interferes with kidney function, causing dehydration. Its a combination that leads to Diabetic ketoacidosis, which can kill a person within 24 hours of their first symptoms. Ok, so now lets consider a person who is still taking some insulin, but not really paying attention to their blood sugar. It is still possible for them to undertreat themselves, which can potentially still lead to diabetic ketoacidosis. Or, they can overtreat themselves, causing hypoglycaemia, which if only slight might just make them a little woozy, but if severe can lead to unconsciousness and death if they are not found and treated. Easing up a little more, we can imagine a person who's a bit more careful. They still take their insulin, they check their blood sugars relatively often, but they can be a little forgetful about just how many helpings of dessert they had. Their sugars will run high, but there should be enough getting into the cells to prevent DKA. Most of the consequences of that are going to be long-term, like peripheral vascular disease, kidney damage and retinopathy. In the short term, Continue reading >>
Diabetic Ketoacidosis Clinical Presentation
History Insidious increased thirst (ie, polydipsia) and urination (ie, polyuria) are the most common early symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Malaise, generalized weakness, and fatigability also can present as symptoms of DKA. Nausea and vomiting usually occur and may be associated with diffuse abdominal pain, decreased appetite, and anorexia. A history of rapid weight loss is a symptom in patients who are newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Patients may present with a history of failure to comply with insulin therapy or missed insulin injections due to vomiting or psychological reasons. Decreased perspiration is another possible symptom of DKA. Altered consciousness in the form of mild disorientation or confusion can occur. Although frank coma is uncommon, it may occur when the condition is neglected or if dehydration or acidosis is severe. Among the symptoms of DKA associated with possible intercurrent infection are fever, dysuria, coughing, malaise, chills, chest pain, shortness of breath, and arthralgia. Acute chest pain or palpitation may occur in association with myocardial infarction. Painless infarction is not uncommon in patients with diabetes and should always be suspected in elderly patients. A study by Crossen et al indicated that in children with type 1 diabetes, those who have had a recent emergency department visit and have undergone a long period without visiting an endocrinologist are more likely to develop DKA. The study included 5263 pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes.  Continue reading >>
Do Low-carb Diets Have Any Negative Side Effects?
Low carb diets are generally considered to be safe for most people (not all). However, it may lead to a few negative side effects, especially in the beginning: “Keto Flu” - the symptoms are headache, fatigue, brain fog, disturbed sleep, nausea. The condition is generally short lived. Bad breath caused by formation of ketones that smell like acetone Cramping of leg muscles due to water and mineral loss in the beginning of ketosis Digestive issues such as constipation (from neglecting to drink enough water or intake adequate fiber) or in some cases diarrhea Palpitations or increased heart rate which may be caused by decreased intake of water and salt or too much coffee These short term negative side effects can be corrected by increasing the intake of water, salt/ Sodium, minerals/ Magnesium, fiber from natural sources such as nuts, seeds, berries, low carb vegetables, all natural low carb products like GET FIT Roti Wrap FIT ROTI (full disclosure, I co-founded the company that makes this product). In a few cases, less common longer term negative side effects have been noted. These include: 1. Ketoacidosis (a serious condition that occurs in uncontrolled diabetes) triggered in some breastfeeding women on a ketogenic diet 2. Kidney stones in epileptic children and 3. Raised overall cholesterol and LDL levels in some people 4. Hormonal problems such as increased production of stress hormone cortisol and disruption of the Hypothalamic- Pituitary-Adrenal axis which is responsible for regulating stress levels, mood, emotions, digestion, immune system, sex drive, metabolism and energy levels. Researchers at Stanford also found that in an obesity research study where 300 participants were split into two groups and administered a low fat/ low carb diet, a small percentage of p Continue reading >>