Diabetes, The Ketogenic Diet & Stem Cell Therapy
More and more people are getting to know the benefits of the ketogenic diet. Why? A ketogenic diet (also known as a keto diet) focuses on the benefits of a low carbohydrate, high fat nutritional program. And while this healthy, new lifestyle trend certainly does wonders with weight management, the advantages go far beyond that. A ketogenic diet has been shown to help control seizures caused by epilepsy, especially in the case of children, and appears to aid in the reversal of kidney disease related to both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Stem cell therapy for diabetes is one of the most sought after treatments at the National Stem Cell Institute. So it is no wonder that the physicians and nutritional counselors at NSI have found that the ketogenic diet is a natural partner to stem cell therapy in treating this disease. Studies are showing that a well-planned keto diet may also benefit people who suffer from traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Parkinson’s disease, among others. So, why is the ketogenic diet proving to be such a boon to health and a valuable addition to stem cell therapies? Let’s take a closer look at the basics: first for keto diet regimens and then for therapy using stem cells. Ketogenic Diet Basics Ketogenic is derived from the word “ketone.” Ketones are an energy source that the body can utilize. Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules that the liver produces. During a ketogenic diet, the ketone levels in the blood elevate. This is known as ketosis. The body’s cells can get energy from ketones, which are produced when fat levels in the blood are raised and blood sugar levels are lowered. Basically, the body turns fat into fuel instead of relying on carbohydrates. A ketogenic diet is designed to make this switch to fat burning happen. There Continue reading >>
Q. Do Ketones In Urine Mean Kidney Damage?
Hello doctor, I am 5 feet and 5 inches, 112 lbs and eat a normal diet. I recently had a urine test with trace ketones, although negative for glucose. My test showed cloudy clarity and presence of crystals. All the other values on the urine test were normal. I also had normal blood tests. My doctor is referring me to a nephrologist. Do you think my doctor suspects a kidney disease? I researched ketones and what it means for kidney function. The more I read, the more confusing all this becomes. Thank you for any information as I wait to see a nephrologist. Hello doctor, Thanks for your reply. I am not on any drugs, nor am I having any burning or pain when urinating. My doctor has ruled out diabetes because of no glucose in the urine and normal blood glucose numbers. So, what could be the reason for ketones in urine? I had fasted for my blood test, but my doctor did not seem to think that was the reason for the presence of the ketones. My main question is, is it necessary to see a nephrologist based on my urine reports? Thank you doctor, Do ketones in urine mean kidney damage? Do you have any major concerns as a nephrologist based on my urine analysis? Continue reading >>
Low Carb Dieting Myths
The myths about low carb dieting and specifically ketogenic diets abound in the American collective consciousness. These are just a few of the most pervasive myths I've encountered, with explanations as to why they are incorrect and simply don't make sense, scientifically: Myth 1: Carbs are an essential nutrient for good health. Some nutrition professionals still believe that carbohydrates are necessary to provide glucose to fuel the brain and avoid hypoglycemia. It's an old way of thinking, and it's just not true scientifically. Essential nutrients are nutrients which your body cannot make, so they have to be obtained on a daily basis from your food sources. There are essential proteins, and essential fatty acids, but there is no such thing as an essential carbohydrate. When the body is in ketosis, it has a “glucose sparing” effect. First, the skeletal muscles burn fatty acids preferentially which spares glucose for the brain to use. Second, once a person is keto-adapted, the brain switches to using ketone bodies for over half of the fuel it needs, and less glucose is needed since ketone bodies are being used as an alternative fuel. This small amount of carbohydrate (glucose or blood sugar) needed to fuel the brain during keto adaptation can be generated internally. Your liver can make all the glucose needed for brain function from glycogen stored in the liver. And if need be, the body can also make glucose from the protein in your food. Hence, carbohydrates are NOT essential nutrients, and many people, such as the Inuit of Alaska and the Masai of Africa live without them for long periods of time without any effect on health and well-being. The “brain needs carbs” idea is only true if you consistently eat a high carb diet (as most registered dietitians will tel Continue reading >>
Top 14 Low-carb & Keto Fears (and Whether You Should Be Worried)
It is not at all uncommon that people are skeptical of a low-carb diet in the beginning, especially since we’ve been flooded with bad high-carb, low-fat advice for decades. Of course, we don’t want any unsubstantiated fears of the past get in the way of people reaping the benefits of a low-carb diet. So here’s a short Q&A explaining why most of these fears are nothing to worry about. We also want to make low carb simple, and this includes being very upfront and honest about potential problems and how to handle them. Some problems actually can occur on low carb, and it can be very helpful to know what they are and what can be done about them. Here are the most common fears about low carb, and whether they are true or false. Does a low-carb diet cause high cholesterol? Low-carb diets tend to improve the cholesterol profile by increasing levels of the “good” HDL cholesterol, and decreasing levels of harmful triglycerides. These are both good changes, associated with improved health. Regarding the “bad” LDL cholesterol, most people experience no significant changes on low carb. However, some people can lower or (more often) increase LDL levels somewhat. Note that studies show that at least people over 60 years of age tend to live longer with higher LDL levels. Taken together, studies show that low-carb diets generally improve risk factors for disease, including cholesterol. For a small minority of people however, cholesterol may go up abnormally high on an LCHF diet. In those situations it could be worth adapting the diet to normalize the cholesterol levels. The bottom line: Low-carb and high-fat diets on average improve the cholesterol profile and reduce most risk factors for disease. The effect of this has been demonstrated in a 2010 study that showed a redu Continue reading >>
Metabolism And Ketosis
Dr. Eades, If the body tends to resort to gluconeogenesis for glucose during a short-term carbohydrate deficit, are those who inconsistently reduce carb intake only messing things up by not effecting full blown ketosis? If the body will still prefer glucose as main energy source unless forced otherwise for at least a few days, is it absolutely necessary to completely transform metabolism for minimal muscle loss? Also, if alcohol is broken down into ketones and acetaldehyde, technically couldn’t you continue to drink during your diet or would the resulting gluconeogenesis inhibition from alcohol lead to blood glucose problems on top of the ketotic metabolism? Would your liver ever just be overwhelmed by all that action? I’m still in high school so hypothetical, of course haha… Sorry, lots of questions but I’m always so curious. Thank you so much for taking the time to inform the public. You’re my hero! P.S. Random question…what’s the difference between beta and gamma hydroxybutyric acids? It’s crazy how simple orientation can be the difference between a ketone and date rape drug…biochem is so cool! P.P.S. You should definitely post the details of that inner mitochondrial membrane transport. I’m curious how much energy expenditure we’re talkin there.. Keep doin your thing! Your Fan, Trey No, I don’t think people are messing up if they don’t get into full-blown ketosis. For short term low-carb dieting, the body turns to glycogen. Gluconeogenesis kicks in fairly quickly, though, and uses dietary protein – assuming there is plenty – before turning to muscle tissue for glucose substrate. And you have the Cori cycle kicking in and all sorts of things to spare muscle, so I wouldn’t worry about it. And you can continue to drink while low-carbing. Continue reading >>
As fat is broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is sometimes the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who have not yet been diagnosed. It can also occur in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing doses of insulin shots, or surgery can lead to DKA in people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but it is less common. It is usually triggered by uncontrolled blood sugar, missing doses of medicines, or a severe illness. Continue reading >>
Low-carb Dieting And Kidney Health: Setting The Record Straight
A s I walk down my hospital unit, on my way to the lunch room, I try to not be so conspicuous. The aroma of crisp fatty bacon leaves a trail of evidence that I simply can’t cover. In normal situations, I wouldn’t care if people saw me eating bacon. However, I’m a dietitian, and unless you are caught up on research, registered nutritionists should NOT be eating bacon. Explaining myself sometimes takes a lot of energy, and the last thing I need on my lunch break is a headache. Thus, I often chose my battles when it comes to explaining my low-carb, high-fat lifestyle. For clinical workers who are not up to speed, I may be viewed as a clinician who lacks integrity. Those of us who follow Carb Nite® or Carb Backloading™, know that simply isn’t the case, and in fact, quite the opposite. One of the biggest misconceptions I find is the thought that higher protein, or low-carb diets, cause damage to the kidneys. As I chomp on my bacon people often look at me with a dumbfounded look and ask, “Isn’t all that protein bad on your kidneys?” I thought this topic was old news. I was incorrect. It’s actually one of the most common questions, next to the saturated fat topic, that seems to keep resurfacing with whoever questions the low-carb lifestyle. It’s time to set the record straight. • Higher protein diets are safe for the general population. • There is a small population who may need to keep their protein intake at a minimum. • High-fat, moderate protein diets may have a protective effect in those with insulin resistance. It’s important to note the researched reviewed was not done on athletes; the recommendations made are for the average population. Higher protein diets are safe, for most people Research shows that high-protein diets may be harmful for Continue reading >>
What Is Proteinuria?
Proteinuria is a type of Nephrotoxicity. Proteinuria is an excess of protein in the blood. Protein is an important component in our blood, as it carries food, hormones, and many other things through our blood stream. Once the blood is cleansed of excess wastes, the proteins will continue to flow through the body, carrying out their important functions. Protein is not filtered out of the body, as the large protein molecules are too big to through the tiny kidneys. When there has been damage to the kidneys, depending on the cause, you may develop protein in your urine. Causes of Proteinuria": You may develop proteinuria as a result of: Chemotherapy drugs such as: Streptozocin Biologic therapies such as: Interleukin-2 Certain diseases or conditions - Multiple myeloma will cause you to have a special kind of protein in your urine, called the "M-protein", "myeloma protein", or Bence-Jones protein. These are all terms for the same kind of protein. If Protienuria is among your symptoms of kidney problems, your doctor or healthcare provider will monitor your urine proteins periodically - either monthly, or yearly, depending on the severity and activity of your disease. Systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) - you may develop a "glomerulonephritis", or lupus nephritis, from your disease. Diabetes - with diabetes, the protein that you will have in your urine is called albumin. If you have sustained long-term damage to your kidneys from poor blood sugar control, your kidneys may fail. Long-standing high blood pressure (Hypertension) - long-standing hypertension may cause your kidney failure. Infection - Inflammation in the kidneys (Nephritis) may cause protein in your urine Symptoms of Proteinuria: Unless there has been damage to your kidneys, many people with Proteinuria will have no Continue reading >>
The Effect Of Ketone Bodies On Renal Ammoniogenesis
Infusion of ketone bodies to ammonium chloride-loaded acidotic dogs was found to induce significant reduction in urinary excretion of ammonia. This effect could not be attributed to urinary pH variations. Total ammonia production by the left kidney was measured in 25 animals infused during 90 min with the sodium salt of D,L-β-hydroxybutyric acid adjusted to pH 6.0 or 4.2. Ketonemia averaged 4.5 mM/liter. In all experiments the ammonia content of both urine and renal venous blood fell markedly so that ammoniogenesis was depressed by 60% or more within 60 min after the onset of infusion. Administration of equimolar quantities of sodium acetoacetate adjusted to pH 6.0 resulted in a 50% decrease in renal ammonia production. Infusion of ketone bodies adjusted to pH 6.0 is usually accompanied by a small increase in extracellular bicarbonate (3.7 mM/liter). However infusion of D,L-sodium lactate or sodium bicarbonate in amounts sufficient to induce a similar rise in plasma bicarbonate resulted in only a slight decrement in ammonia production (15%). The continuous infusion of 5% mannitol alone during 90-150 min failed to influence renal ammoniogenesis. Infusion of pure sodium-free β-hydroxybutyric acid prepared by ion exchange (pH 2.2) resulted in a 50% decrease in renal ammoniogenesis in spite of the fact that both urinary pH and plasma bicarbonate fell significantly. During all experiments where ketones were infused, the renal extraction of glutamine became negligible as the renal glutamine arteriovenous difference was abolished. Renal hemodynamics did not vary significantly. Infusion of β-hydroxybutyrate into the left renal artery resulted in a rapid decrease in ammoniogenesis by the perfused kidney. The present study indicates that ketone bodies exert their inhibitory in Continue reading >>
Ketone bodies Acetone Acetoacetic acid (R)-beta-Hydroxybutyric acid Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise,, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy. In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids. Ketone bodies are produced by the liver under the circumstances listed above (i.e. fasting, starving, low carbohydrate diets, prolonged exercise and untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus) as a result of intense gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (not including fatty acids). They are therefore always released into the blood by the liver together with newly produced glucose, after the liver glycogen stores have been depleted (these glycogen stores are depleted after only 24 hours of fasting). When two acetyl-CoA molecules lose their -CoAs, (or Co-enzyme A groups) they can form a (covalent) dimer called acetoacetate. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a reduced form of acetoacetate, in which the ketone group is converted into an alcohol (or hydroxyl) group (see illustration on the right). Both are 4-carbon molecules, that can readily be converted back into acetyl-CoA by most tissues of the body, with the notable exception of the liver. Acetone is the decarboxylated form of acetoacetate which cannot be converted Continue reading >>
Is Keto And Ketosis Safe?
The ketogenic diet and ketosis are safe. Not only are they safe, but they are useful in helping people with many different conditions. The ketogenic diet has helped cancer patients, people with diabetes (type 1 and type 2), women with polycystic ovary syndrome, people with heart disease, and many others. So, where does the rumor that the ketogenic diet and ketosis may not be safe come from? Well, it starts with ketones. Rumors Spread Like Ketones in an Insulin Deficient Body One of the primary goals of the ketogenic diet is to enter ketosis (a normal metabolic process when ketones are produced for fuel). Ketosis is primarily regulated by the liver, which helps produce enough ketones to meet the body’s needs. However, ketone production can get out of hand when insulin is deficient, leading to ketoacidosis. This may be where the rumor that keto and ketosis are not safe came from. Ketoacidosis — A Serious Condition That Is Not Caused By The Ketogenic Diet Ketoacidosis is a serious condition caused by uncontrolled diabetes. It is brought on by being born without the ability to produce enough insulin (type 1 diabetes) or living a lifestyle that promotes insulin resistance (type 2 diabetes). In both cases, there isn’t enough insulin to tell that cells that energy is available (insulin deficiency). The lack of insulin signaling causes the fat cells and liver cells to go into starvation mode, even after a calorically dense meal. The fat cells begin to dump triglycerides into the blood to provide the other cells with energy because the cells are perceiving that there is no fuel available. Meanwhile, the liver starts mobilizing stored glycogen and using gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis to provide the body with sugar and ketones that it doesn’t need. All of this causes bloo Continue reading >>
Abnormal Contents Of Urine
Normally, urine contains water and wastes, such as urea, uric acid, creatinine, and some ions. However, some of these substances may be abnormally elevated, which usually indicates that something is wrong with the body. The following are some of the abnormal constituents of urine and some possible causes. Albumin Albumin is a type of protein, which is a normal component of plasma—the fluid component of blood. When albumin is found to be excessive in the urine, it may indicate that the tiny filtering units in the kidney, called nephrons, are damaged or destroyed. Elevated albumin in the urine is termed albuminuria. Bilrubin Bilirubin, when modified by the kidneys, contributes to the classical yellow color of urine. It is a byproduct that results from the breakdown of hemoglobin—the red pigment in red blood cells. When levels of bilirubin in urine is above normal, the condition is called bilirubinuria. This may indicate liver disease or obstructive biliary disease. Glucose The presence of glucose or blood sugar in urine is called glucosuria. It may indicate that the person has diabetes. Ketone bodies The presence of ketone bodies in the urine may indicate diabetes or anorexia. It may also be elevated during fasting and starvation. Microbes The presence of microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungus may indicate urinary tract infection. Blood The red blood cells in blood should not be found in urine because they are too large to pass through the nephrons. Hematuria is the clinical term used when red blood cells are present in the urine. It may indicate damage to the kidney, such as in renal or kidney disease. Sometimes, blood may be present because of the presence of kidney stones. White blood cells When white blood cells are present in the urine, it may indicate infect Continue reading >>
Ketone Body Metabolism
Ketone body metabolism includes ketone body synthesis (ketogenesis) and breakdown (ketolysis). When the body goes from the fed to the fasted state the liver switches from an organ of carbohydrate utilization and fatty acid synthesis to one of fatty acid oxidation and ketone body production. This metabolic switch is amplified in uncontrolled diabetes. In these states the fat-derived energy (ketone bodies) generated in the liver enter the blood stream and are used by other organs, such as the brain, heart, kidney cortex and skeletal muscle. Ketone bodies are particularly important for the brain which has no other substantial non-glucose-derived energy source. The two main ketone bodies are acetoacetate (AcAc) and 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) also referred to as β-hydroxybutyrate, with acetone the third, and least abundant. Ketone bodies are always present in the blood and their levels increase during fasting and prolonged exercise. After an over-night fast, ketone bodies supply 2–6% of the body's energy requirements, while they supply 30–40% of the energy needs after a 3-day fast. When they build up in the blood they spill over into the urine. The presence of elevated ketone bodies in the blood is termed ketosis and the presence of ketone bodies in the urine is called ketonuria. The body can also rid itself of acetone through the lungs which gives the breath a fruity odour. Diabetes is the most common pathological cause of elevated blood ketones. In diabetic ketoacidosis, high levels of ketone bodies are produced in response to low insulin levels and high levels of counter-regulatory hormones. Ketone bodies The term ‘ketone bodies’ refers to three molecules, acetoacetate (AcAc), 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and acetone (Figure 1). 3HB is formed from the reduction of AcAc i Continue reading >>
Common Ketosis Side Effects And Treatments
There are many awesome benefits with come with adopting a low-carb ketogenic diet, such as weight loss, decreased cravings, and even possibly reduce diseases risks. That being said, it’s also good to talk about possible ketosis side effects so you know fully what to expect as you start this new health journey. Not everyone experiences side effects when starting a ketogenic diet, and thankfully, those who do don’t usually experience them for very long. It varies with the individual, but just to make sure all your bases are covered, we’re going to breaking down each possible side effect and go over ways to manage and alleviate them if needed. KETOSIS SIDE EFFECT 1 – Frequent Urination As your body burns through the stored glucose in your liver and muscles within the first day or two of starting a ketogenic diet, you’ll be releasing a lot of water in the process. Plus, your kidneys will start excreting excess sodium as the levels of your circulating insulin drop. Basically, you might notice yourself needing to pee more often throughout the day. But no worries; this side effect of ketosis takes care of itself once your body adjusts and is no longer burning through the extra glycogen. KETOSIS SIDE EFFECT 2 – Dizziness and Drowsiness As the body is getting rid of this excess water, it will also be eliminating minerals like potassium, magnesium, and sodium too. This can make you feel dizzy, lightheaded, and fatigued. Thankfully, this is also very avoidable; all it takes is a little preparation beforehand. Focus on eating foods that are rich in potassium, such as: Leafy greens (aim for at least two cups each day!) Broccoli Dairy Meat, poultry, and fish Avocados Add salt to your foods or use salty broth when cooking too. You can also dissolve about a teaspoon of regu Continue reading >>
Low-carbohydrate Diets: Are They Safe And Effective?
Mayo Clinic Low-Carbohydrate Diets: Are They Safe and Effective? Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research Mayo Clinic is a charitable, not-for-profit organization based in Rochester, Minn. comprising of an integrated multi-specialty clinic and two hospitals, staffed by more than 1,500 physicians. Americans spend billions of dollars yearly on weight-loss programs and products, looking for the magic cure to help them shed pounds quickly and painlessly. Anyone who has tried to lose weight knows how challenging it can be. This is why many people turn to fad diets. Fad diets have been around for decades. New ones surface regularly, and some older ones fall in and out of favor. One of the more popular diets today is a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet. Researchers have reported some successful short-term results from restricting carbohydrate intake, findings that have sparked further debate in the medical community about the effectiveness and safety of such diet programs. Low-carbohydrate diets â€” such as the Atkins diet, the Zone and the South Beach Diet â€” have received a lot of attention. With book sales in the millions and pervasive marketing campaigns, many people turn to these diets for help in losing weight. But it's important to ask yourself the same questions posed by health experts: Do these low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets work? Are they safe? Low-carbohydrate diets: The theory The main thrust behind low-carbohydrate diets is that carbohydrates promote insulin production, which leads to weight gain. So, the theory goes, reduce your intake of carbohydrates and you'll shed extra pounds. The Atkins diet â€” one of the more popular low-carbohydrate diets â€” limits carbohydrates to 20 grams a day initially. By contrast, the Nationa Continue reading >>