What Is Proteinuria?
Proteinuria is a type of Nephrotoxicity. Proteinuria is an excess of protein in the blood. Protein is an important component in our blood, as it carries food, hormones, and many other things through our blood stream. Once the blood is cleansed of excess wastes, the proteins will continue to flow through the body, carrying out their important functions. Protein is not filtered out of the body, as the large protein molecules are too big to through the tiny kidneys. When there has been damage to the kidneys, depending on the cause, you may develop protein in your urine. Causes of Proteinuria": You may develop proteinuria as a result of: Chemotherapy drugs such as: Streptozocin Biologic therapies such as: Interleukin-2 Certain diseases or conditions - Multiple myeloma will cause you to have a special kind of protein in your urine, called the "M-protein", "myeloma protein", or Bence-Jones protein. These are all terms for the same kind of protein. If Protienuria is among your symptoms of kidney problems, your doctor or healthcare provider will monitor your urine proteins periodically - either monthly, or yearly, depending on the severity and activity of your disease. Systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) - you may develop a "glomerulonephritis", or lupus nephritis, from your disease. Diabetes - with diabetes, the protein that you will have in your urine is called albumin. If you have sustained long-term damage to your kidneys from poor blood sugar control, your kidneys may fail. Long-standing high blood pressure (Hypertension) - long-standing hypertension may cause your kidney failure. Infection - Inflammation in the kidneys (Nephritis) may cause protein in your urine Symptoms of Proteinuria: Unless there has been damage to your kidneys, many people with Proteinuria will have no Continue reading >>
Ketone bodies Acetone Acetoacetic acid (R)-beta-Hydroxybutyric acid Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise,, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy. In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids. Ketone bodies are produced by the liver under the circumstances listed above (i.e. fasting, starving, low carbohydrate diets, prolonged exercise and untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus) as a result of intense gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (not including fatty acids). They are therefore always released into the blood by the liver together with newly produced glucose, after the liver glycogen stores have been depleted (these glycogen stores are depleted after only 24 hours of fasting). When two acetyl-CoA molecules lose their -CoAs, (or Co-enzyme A groups) they can form a (covalent) dimer called acetoacetate. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a reduced form of acetoacetate, in which the ketone group is converted into an alcohol (or hydroxyl) group (see illustration on the right). Both are 4-carbon molecules, that can readily be converted back into acetyl-CoA by most tissues of the body, with the notable exception of the liver. Acetone is the decarboxylated form of acetoacetate which cannot be converted Continue reading >>
This Diet Is Trending, But Does It Work?
If the new year prompted you to look for a new way to lose weight, you aren’t alone. More than 20 percent of 2017 New Year’s resolutions involved dropping pounds. The newest and trendiest diets often catch the eyes of those resolved to lighten their loads. And, according to Google search trends, the ketogenic diet is poised to become one of the hottest ways to slim down in 2017. So, what is it? Does it work? Is it safe? What is the ketogenic diet? The ketogenic, or “keto”, diet is, essentially a low-carb, high-fat diet turned up to “11”. It shares many similarities with the well-known Atkins diet, but is generally less structured. According to Dr. Howard McNair, an Advocate Medical Group family medicine physician on staff at Advocate South Suburban Hospital in Hazel Crest, Ill., a strict ketogenic diet would involve ultra-low carb consumption of 20-30 grams per day. That’s about the number of carbohydrates in one small apple or a cob of corn. The keto diet replaces the carbohydrate intake with fat, along with limiting protein consumption. Dr. McNair says that following a keto diet plan means healthy fats will account for about 80 percent of calories, and protein will make up about 20 percent. The reduction in carbs puts your body into ketosis, a natural state of using fat for energy instead of usual blood sugar that comes from carbs. “As ketosis occurs, your body becomes more efficient at burning fat for energy,” says Dr. McNair. “It also turns fat into ketones in the liver, which then supplies energy for the body and brain.” Following a keto diet means eating plenty of these foods: Meat – red meat, pork, chicken and turkey Fatty fish – salmon, trout, tuna and mackerel Eggs Butter and cream Cheese – Unprocessed cheese Nuts and seeds – Almon Continue reading >>
Ketone Body Metabolism
Ketone body metabolism includes ketone body synthesis (ketogenesis) and breakdown (ketolysis). When the body goes from the fed to the fasted state the liver switches from an organ of carbohydrate utilization and fatty acid synthesis to one of fatty acid oxidation and ketone body production. This metabolic switch is amplified in uncontrolled diabetes. In these states the fat-derived energy (ketone bodies) generated in the liver enter the blood stream and are used by other organs, such as the brain, heart, kidney cortex and skeletal muscle. Ketone bodies are particularly important for the brain which has no other substantial non-glucose-derived energy source. The two main ketone bodies are acetoacetate (AcAc) and 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) also referred to as β-hydroxybutyrate, with acetone the third, and least abundant. Ketone bodies are always present in the blood and their levels increase during fasting and prolonged exercise. After an over-night fast, ketone bodies supply 2–6% of the body's energy requirements, while they supply 30–40% of the energy needs after a 3-day fast. When they build up in the blood they spill over into the urine. The presence of elevated ketone bodies in the blood is termed ketosis and the presence of ketone bodies in the urine is called ketonuria. The body can also rid itself of acetone through the lungs which gives the breath a fruity odour. Diabetes is the most common pathological cause of elevated blood ketones. In diabetic ketoacidosis, high levels of ketone bodies are produced in response to low insulin levels and high levels of counter-regulatory hormones. Ketone bodies The term ‘ketone bodies’ refers to three molecules, acetoacetate (AcAc), 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and acetone (Figure 1). 3HB is formed from the reduction of AcAc i Continue reading >>
The Effect Of Ketone Bodies On Renal Ammoniogenesis
Infusion of ketone bodies to ammonium chloride-loaded acidotic dogs was found to induce significant reduction in urinary excretion of ammonia. This effect could not be attributed to urinary pH variations. Total ammonia production by the left kidney was measured in 25 animals infused during 90 min with the sodium salt of D,L-β-hydroxybutyric acid adjusted to pH 6.0 or 4.2. Ketonemia averaged 4.5 mM/liter. In all experiments the ammonia content of both urine and renal venous blood fell markedly so that ammoniogenesis was depressed by 60% or more within 60 min after the onset of infusion. Administration of equimolar quantities of sodium acetoacetate adjusted to pH 6.0 resulted in a 50% decrease in renal ammonia production. Infusion of ketone bodies adjusted to pH 6.0 is usually accompanied by a small increase in extracellular bicarbonate (3.7 mM/liter). However infusion of D,L-sodium lactate or sodium bicarbonate in amounts sufficient to induce a similar rise in plasma bicarbonate resulted in only a slight decrement in ammonia production (15%). The continuous infusion of 5% mannitol alone during 90-150 min failed to influence renal ammoniogenesis. Infusion of pure sodium-free β-hydroxybutyric acid prepared by ion exchange (pH 2.2) resulted in a 50% decrease in renal ammoniogenesis in spite of the fact that both urinary pH and plasma bicarbonate fell significantly. During all experiments where ketones were infused, the renal extraction of glutamine became negligible as the renal glutamine arteriovenous difference was abolished. Renal hemodynamics did not vary significantly. Infusion of β-hydroxybutyrate into the left renal artery resulted in a rapid decrease in ammoniogenesis by the perfused kidney. The present study indicates that ketone bodies exert their inhibitory in Continue reading >>
Is The Keto Diet Safe? 10 Myth-busting Arguments For The Safety Of Ketosis
Is ketosis safe? The truth is that we can’t say for certain that it is 100% safe. Humans don’t understand everything under the branch of nutritional science and probably won’t for a very long time. As an individual, the only thing you can do is take a look at the research yourself and form your own conclusion. Personally, through the reading I’ve done and the experience I’ve had with the Keto diet, I’ve formed my own conclusion that ketosis is safe. Could I be wrong? Absolutely. But I could also be right. I’m willing to take that risk in order to follow a diet which could maximize longevity, well being and function. My personal conclusion shouldn’t matter to you though. You need to do your own research and come to your own conclusion. I’ve put together this post to organize all of the issues surrounding the safety of ketosis so that you can make your own decision. In trying to prove something to be safe there are two ways to go about it. Disprove the claims of danger Show evidence which may be correlated with safety This article will dispel the top 10 claims people make in an argument to label ketosis as dangerous. Like I said, the science on ketosis is still quite immature. The following data is not meant to 100% prove or disprove the safety of ketosis. It’s merely the information we have available today which can help us form a nutritional strategy we feel is best for ourselves. I’m not a doctor or a researcher. The following information is material I’ve collected in my attempt to feel confident following a Keto diet indefinitely. Most of it is sourced from doctors or authors although I have also included anecdotal accounts from experiences posted on message boards and Reddit. I know, much of the information here isn’t sourced directly from s Continue reading >>
Reversing Kidney Failure
In 2011 Dr. Mobbs’ research at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine have for the first time determined that the ketogenic diet, a specialized high-fat, low carbohydrate diet, may reverse impaired kidney function in people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Since high glucose metabolism causes kidney failure in diabetes, researchers hypothesized that the ketogenic diet would block those toxic effects of glucose. Dr. Mobbs’ research indicates that exposure to the diet for as little as a month may be sufficient to “reset” the gene expression and pathological process leading to kidney failure.” The researchers also identified a large array of genes expressed during diabetic nephropathy not previously known to play a role in the development of this complication. These genes are associated with kidney failure as a result of the stress on cellular function. The team found that the expression of these genes was also reversed in the mice on the ketogenic diet. “Knowing how the ketogenic diet reverses nephropathy will help us identify a drug target and subsequent pharmacological interventions that mimic the effect of the diet,” said Dr. Mobbs. “We look forward to studying this promising development further.” As always the big pharmaceutical companies are looking at a drug target treatment as he feels the “the extreme requirements of the diet, it is not a long-term solution in adults” So in summary the researcher founds that after eight weeks, kidney failure was reversed in the mice on the ketogenic diet. And they plan to continue working on a external drug treatment to mimic the affects of the ketogenic diet. Source – Continue reading >>
Is Keto And Ketosis Safe?
The ketogenic diet and ketosis are safe. Not only are they safe, but they are useful in helping people with many different conditions. The ketogenic diet has helped cancer patients, people with diabetes (type 1 and type 2), women with polycystic ovary syndrome, people with heart disease, and many others. So, where does the rumor that the ketogenic diet and ketosis may not be safe come from? Well, it starts with ketones. Rumors Spread Like Ketones in an Insulin Deficient Body One of the primary goals of the ketogenic diet is to enter ketosis (a normal metabolic process when ketones are produced for fuel). Ketosis is primarily regulated by the liver, which helps produce enough ketones to meet the body’s needs. However, ketone production can get out of hand when insulin is deficient, leading to ketoacidosis. This may be where the rumor that keto and ketosis are not safe came from. Ketoacidosis — A Serious Condition That Is Not Caused By The Ketogenic Diet Ketoacidosis is a serious condition caused by uncontrolled diabetes. It is brought on by being born without the ability to produce enough insulin (type 1 diabetes) or living a lifestyle that promotes insulin resistance (type 2 diabetes). In both cases, there isn’t enough insulin to tell that cells that energy is available (insulin deficiency). The lack of insulin signaling causes the fat cells and liver cells to go into starvation mode, even after a calorically dense meal. The fat cells begin to dump triglycerides into the blood to provide the other cells with energy because the cells are perceiving that there is no fuel available. Meanwhile, the liver starts mobilizing stored glycogen and using gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis to provide the body with sugar and ketones that it doesn’t need. All of this causes bloo Continue reading >>
Does A Ketogenic Diet Cause Kidney Stones?
I remember the first time I learned about the connection between a diet high in sugar and gout, kidney stones and heart disease. I was reading a book (I don’t remember which one) that was laying out the evidence that showed a clear link between sugar consumption and those diseases and it immediately peaked my interest because I didn’t know that gout was still a thing. I had only heard of old French monarchs having it and honestly didn’t know it was still around until just a few weeks before reading that book. Just a few weeks prior to reading that, I learned that my son’s Father in Law had gout and occasional kidney stones and as I read that passage in the book, I thought about calling him and telling him what I read. I decided against it and figured I would bring it up the next time I saw him at church. Unfortunately, before I ever got a chance to say anything to him, he had a heart attack. He’s fine now but I have always felt bad I didn’t immediately make a call. I realize it wouldn’t have done much given how quickly it all happened but still, I should have said something. Since then, probably the most common question I get about the ketogenic diet is whether or not it will cause kidney stones and there is definitely a connection but possibly not how you think. First let’s go over how kidney stones are formed. How Kidney Stones are Formed At one point in time it was thought that uric acid was produced solely from the breakdown of purines found in foods like liver, pork, mushrooms, anchovies, mackerel and dried beans which is why most patients that were susceptible to kidney stones or gout were put on a low purine diet. Unfortunately those diets didn’t work too well and almost always had to be supplemented with additional medications that controlled t Continue reading >>
High-protein, Low-carb Diets Explained
High-protein, low-carbohydrate diets, like The Atkins Diet, have been widely promoted as effective weight loss plans. These programs generally recommend that dieters get 30% to 50% of their total calories from protein. By comparison, the American Heart Association, the National Cholesterol Education Program, and the American Cancer Society all recommend a diet in which a smaller percentage of calories come from protein. Normally your body burns carbohydrates for fuel. When you drastically cut carbs, the body goes into a metabolic state called ketosis, and it begins to burn its own fat for fuel. When your fat stores become a primary energy source, you may lose weight. Some experts have raised concern about high-protein, low-carb diets. High cholesterol.Some protein sources -- like fatty cuts of meat, whole dairy products, and other high-fat foods -- can raise cholesterol, increasing your chance of heart disease. However, studies showed that people on the Atkins diet for up to 2 years actually had decreased “bad” cholesterol levels. Kidney problems. If you have any kidney problems, eating too much protein puts added strain on your kidneys. This could worsen kidney function. Osteoporosis and kidney stones. When you're on a high-protein diet, you may urinate more calcium than normal. There are conflicting reports, but some experts think this could make osteoporosis and kidney stones more likely. If you're considering a high-protein diet, check with your doctor or a nutritionist to see if it's OK for you. They can help you come up with a plan that will make sure you're getting enough fruits and vegetables, and that you're getting lean protein foods. Remember, weight loss that lasts is usually based on changes you can live with for a long time, not a temporary diet. Continue reading >>
How Much Protein Do I Need: Protein Myths Busted
How Much Protein Do I Need: Protein Myths Busted When Clients Ask, Why Do I Need Protein, Can You Answer? As a trainer, youve heard it all when it comes to protein. There are myths galore about protein, from too much is damaging to your body to the idea that protein isnt important unless youre a serious lifter. Lets take a closer look at the function and role of protein, controversial myths, and offer some tips on protein intake. Then, youll be able to answer the question, how much protein do I really need. Protein is an essential nutrient that plays a huge role in helping to keep clients healthy. Further, its essential to building muscle mass. While some clients might be quick to jump on a high protein diet, others might do the opposite due to preferences or belief in myths. Either way, dietary protein consists of amino acids that are responsible for everything. For example, our structure, hormones, enzymes, and immune chemicals all need protein. Because theres such an ongoing functional need for amino acids, keeping a consistent pool of them is like keeping a sink full without a drain plug. Theyre constantly lost as theyre broken down which means theres an ongoing need to consume a diet high in protein rich foods. This is especially the case in goals that involve muscle growth and weight loss. Our clients must realize protein supplies the building blocks of muscle and connective tissue (like ligaments and tendons). So, in the case of resistance training, the body is intentionally breaking down muscle tissue to force it to adapt and build bigger or stronger lean body mass. Therefore, achieving a specific protein intake each day is essential for health, fitness, and weight loss goals. Oftentimes, clients looking for weight loss will consider a low-carb, high-protein di Continue reading >>
Ketones, Ketosis, And Ketogenic Diets
An understanding of ketones and ketosis is essential for understanding how some high protein-low carbohydrate diets (also called Ketogenic Diets) such as Atkins diet works. Ketones are mild acids, a sort of reserve fuel released from burned fats for survival under conditions of starvation. When we go without food for even a few days our bodies begin living off our stored fats, and these release ketones. During ketosis, the body switches from using glucose for energy (sufficient dietary carbohydrates are not available) to using fat. Fatty acids are then released into the bloodstream and converted into ketones. The ketones themselves are produced by the metabolism of fat. Ketosis refers to the process of the conversion. The ketones are used by your muscles, your brain, and other organs as an energy source. Excess ketones are then eliminated during urination. Ketosis occurs when the amount of carbohydrate fuel- the fuel that is needed to run the body - drops below a critical level, forcing the body to turn first to protein and then to fat reserves to do the work carbohydrates normally do. When protein is deflected in this manner, it releases nitrogen into the blood stream, placing a burden on the kidneys as they try to excrete excessive urinary water due to sodium loss. When fat is likewise deflected, the breakup releases fatty acids, or ketones, into the bloodstream, further burdening the kidneys. If ketosis continues for long periods of time, serious damage to the liver and kidneys can occur, which is why most low-carbohydrate, or ketogenic diets recommend only short-term use, typically 14 days. Many nutritionists caution their patients-especially women in the early stages of pregnancy-against following them at all. Fasters experience a sensation of improved well-being a Continue reading >>
Ketone Supplements: More Harm Than Good?
Enjoy this article co-authored with my dear friend, Tatiana Schallert, who is co-serving with me, my ministry, and my family. I AM Love, Dr. Sharnael Have you noticed that Ketone supplements are so popular recently? I know my Facebook newsfeed is buzzing with different articles and brands promoting ketones. I honestly had no clue what the deal was so I decided to do some research, which is exactly what I encourage you to do before jumping on the bandwagon. There is a lot of information out there on this topic right now and from what I found – taking Exogenous Ketones may be more harmful than good. What are Ketones? Ketones are produced in the liver from fatty acids. Then they are consumed as alternative fuel by the body, particularly the brain, when blood sugar (glucose) is in short supply. The brain consumes lots of energy every day and it can’t run on fat directly – only in the form of glucose or ketones. Ketones are popularly known as “brain fuel.” Eating a no-carb, moderate-protein, and high-fat diet encourages the body to organically reach a state of Ketosis. It takes about 72 hours for the liver to be in full ketosis so the kidney can assimilate the changes as the ketones gradually increase. Then it takes about two weeks for your body to adjust to the new pathway. What Is Ketosis? When the body produces ketones it’s said to be in ketosis (you can test ketone levels through urine tests). The fastest way to get there is by fasting. However, fasting is not something we do forever. On the other hand, a low-carb or “keto” diet also leads to ketosis and is a more sustainable option. The idea of a ketogenic diet is to get the body to switch its fuel supply to run almost entirely on fat. As insulin levels become very low, fat burning increases dramatically Continue reading >>
Common Ketosis Side Effects And Treatments
There are many awesome benefits with come with adopting a low-carb ketogenic diet, such as weight loss, decreased cravings, and even possibly reduce diseases risks. That being said, it’s also good to talk about possible ketosis side effects so you know fully what to expect as you start this new health journey. Not everyone experiences side effects when starting a ketogenic diet, and thankfully, those who do don’t usually experience them for very long. It varies with the individual, but just to make sure all your bases are covered, we’re going to breaking down each possible side effect and go over ways to manage and alleviate them if needed. KETOSIS SIDE EFFECT 1 – Frequent Urination As your body burns through the stored glucose in your liver and muscles within the first day or two of starting a ketogenic diet, you’ll be releasing a lot of water in the process. Plus, your kidneys will start excreting excess sodium as the levels of your circulating insulin drop. Basically, you might notice yourself needing to pee more often throughout the day. But no worries; this side effect of ketosis takes care of itself once your body adjusts and is no longer burning through the extra glycogen. KETOSIS SIDE EFFECT 2 – Dizziness and Drowsiness As the body is getting rid of this excess water, it will also be eliminating minerals like potassium, magnesium, and sodium too. This can make you feel dizzy, lightheaded, and fatigued. Thankfully, this is also very avoidable; all it takes is a little preparation beforehand. Focus on eating foods that are rich in potassium, such as: Leafy greens (aim for at least two cups each day!) Broccoli Dairy Meat, poultry, and fish Avocados Add salt to your foods or use salty broth when cooking too. You can also dissolve about a teaspoon of regu Continue reading >>
Diabetes Urine Tests
Urine tests may be done in people with diabetes to evaluate severe hyperglycemia (severe high blood sugar) by looking for ketones in the urine. Ketones are a metabolic product produced when fat is metabolized. Ketones increase when there is insufficient insulin to use glucose for energy. Urine tests are also done to look for the presence of protein in the urine, which is a sign of kidney damage. Urine glucose measurements are less reliable than blood glucose measurements and are not used to diagnose diabetes or evaluate treatment for diabetes. They may be used for screening purposes. Testing for ketones is most common in people with type 1 diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes: What Are The Symptoms? This test detects the presence of ketones, which are byproducts of metabolism that form in the presence of severe hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar). Ketones are formed from fat that is burned by the body when there is insufficient insulin to allow glucose to be used for fuel. When ketones build up to high levels, ketoacidosis (a serious and life-threatening condition) may occur. Ketone testing can be performed both at home and in the clinical laboratory. Ketones can be detected by dipping a test strip into a sample of urine. A color change on the test strip signals the presence of ketones in the urine. Ketones occur most commonly in people with type 1 diabetes, but uncommonly, people with type 2 diabetes may test positive for ketones. The microalbumin test detects microalbumin, a type of protein, in the urine. Protein is present in the urine when there is damage to the kidneys. Since the damage to blood vessels that occurs as a complication of diabetes can lead to kidney problems, the microalbumin test is done to check for damage to the kidneys over time. Can urine tests be used to Continue reading >>