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Do Ketones Cause Kidney Stones?

Ketogenic Diet Side Effects

Ketogenic Diet Side Effects

Although the adverse effects related to the ketogenic diet are generally less serve than those of anticonvulsant medications used to treat epilepsy, individuals following the diet may experience a number of undesirable effects. Short-Term Side Effects There are several short-term side effects that are most evident at the beginning of therapy, particularly when patients commence the diet with an initial fast. Hypoglycemia is a common side effect in this instance, and noticeable signs may include: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Fatigue Hunger Confusion, anxiety and/or irritability Tachycardia Lightheadedness and shakiness Sweating and chills Additionally, patients may also experience some constipation and low-grade acidosis. These effects tend to improve when the diet is continued, as the body adapts to the new diet and adjust the ways in which it sources energy. Alteration in Blood Composition As a result of the changes in dietary consumption and the body’s adaptive mechanisms to cope with the reduced carbohydrate intake, there are several changes in the blood composition of individuals following the ketogenic diet. In particular, the levels of lipids and cholesterol in the blood are commonly higher than what is considered to be normal. More than 60% of patients have raised lipid levels and more than 30% have high levels of cholesterol. If these changes are profound and there is some concern about the health of the child, slight changes to the diet can be made for the individual patient. For example, saturated fat sources can be substituted for polyunsaturated fats. In some cases, it may be necessary to lower the ketogenic ratio and reduce the proportion of fat to carbohydrate and protein in the diet. Long-Term Effects When the ketogenic diet is continued for exte Continue reading >>

Is Keto And Ketosis Safe?

Is Keto And Ketosis Safe?

The ketogenic diet and ketosis are safe. Not only are they safe, but they are useful in helping people with many different conditions. The ketogenic diet has helped cancer patients, people with diabetes (type 1 and type 2), women with polycystic ovary syndrome, people with heart disease, and many others. So, where does the rumor that the ketogenic diet and ketosis may not be safe come from? Well, it starts with ketones. Rumors Spread Like Ketones in an Insulin Deficient Body One of the primary goals of the ketogenic diet is to enter ketosis (a normal metabolic process when ketones are produced for fuel). Ketosis is primarily regulated by the liver, which helps produce enough ketones to meet the body’s needs. However, ketone production can get out of hand when insulin is deficient, leading to ketoacidosis. This may be where the rumor that keto and ketosis are not safe came from. Ketoacidosis — A Serious Condition That Is Not Caused By The Ketogenic Diet Ketoacidosis is a serious condition caused by uncontrolled diabetes. It is brought on by being born without the ability to produce enough insulin (type 1 diabetes) or living a lifestyle that promotes insulin resistance (type 2 diabetes). In both cases, there isn’t enough insulin to tell that cells that energy is available (insulin deficiency). The lack of insulin signaling causes the fat cells and liver cells to go into starvation mode, even after a calorically dense meal. The fat cells begin to dump triglycerides into the blood to provide the other cells with energy because the cells are perceiving that there is no fuel available. Meanwhile, the liver starts mobilizing stored glycogen and using gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis to provide the body with sugar and ketones that it doesn’t need. All of this causes bloo Continue reading >>

High-protein, Low-carb Diets Explained

High-protein, Low-carb Diets Explained

High-protein, low-carbohydrate diets, like The Atkins Diet, have been widely promoted as effective weight loss plans. These programs generally recommend that dieters get 30% to 50% of their total calories from protein. By comparison, the American Heart Association, the National Cholesterol Education Program, and the American Cancer Society all recommend a diet in which a smaller percentage of calories come from protein. Normally your body burns carbohydrates for fuel. When you drastically cut carbs, the body goes into a metabolic state called ketosis, and it begins to burn its own fat for fuel. When your fat stores become a primary energy source, you may lose weight. Some experts have raised concern about high-protein, low-carb diets. High cholesterol.Some protein sources -- like fatty cuts of meat, whole dairy products, and other high-fat foods -- can raise cholesterol, increasing your chance of heart disease. However, studies showed that people on the Atkins diet for up to 2 years actually had decreased “bad” cholesterol levels. Kidney problems. If you have any kidney problems, eating too much protein puts added strain on your kidneys. This could worsen kidney function. Osteoporosis and kidney stones. When you're on a high-protein diet, you may urinate more calcium than normal. There are conflicting reports, but some experts think this could make osteoporosis and kidney stones more likely. If you're considering a high-protein diet, check with your doctor or a nutritionist to see if it's OK for you. They can help you come up with a plan that will make sure you're getting enough fruits and vegetables, and that you're getting lean protein foods. Remember, weight loss that lasts is usually based on changes you can live with for a long time, not a temporary diet. Continue reading >>

Does Diabetes Increase My Risk For Developing Kidney Stones?

Does Diabetes Increase My Risk For Developing Kidney Stones?

What’s the connection between diabetes and kidney stones? Diabetes is a condition in which your body doesn’t produce enough insulin or can’t use it properly. Insulin is crucial to regulating blood sugar levels. High blood sugar can cause problems in any part of your body, including your kidneys. If you have type 2 diabetes, you may have very acidic urine. That increases your risk for developing kidney stones. Kidney stones form when you have high concentrations of certain substances in your urine. Some kidney stones form from excess calcium oxalate. Others form from struvite, uric acid, or cysteine. The stones can travel from your kidney through your urinary tract. Small stones may pass through your body and out in your urine with little or no pain. Larger stones may cause a great deal of pain. They can even get lodged in your urinary tract. That can block urine flow and cause infection or bleeding. Other symptoms of kidney stones include: back or abdominal pain nausea vomiting If you experience severe symptoms of kidney stones, see your doctor. Your doctor may suspect kidney stones based on your symptoms. Urinalysis, blood tests, and imaging tests may be needed to confirm the diagnosis. Anyone can form a kidney stone. In the United States, almost 9 percent of people have had at least one kidney stone, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. In addition to diabetes, other risk factors for kidney stones include: obesity diet high in animal protein family history of kidney stones diseases and conditions that affect the kidneys diseases and conditions that affect the amount of calcium and certain acids in your body urinary tract disorders or chronic inflammation of the bowel Certain medications can also put you at higher ris Continue reading >>

Dangers Of Zero-carb Diets, Iv: Kidney Stones

Dangers Of Zero-carb Diets, Iv: Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are a frequent occurrence on the ketogenic diet for epilepsy. [1, 2, 3] About 1 in 20 children on the ketogenic diet develop kidney stones per year, compared with one in several thousand among the general population. [4] On children who follow the ketogenic diet for six years, the incidence of kidney stones is about 25% [5]. A 100-fold odds ratio is hardly ever seen in medicine. There must be some fundamental cause of kidney stones that is dramatically promoted by clinical ketogenic diets. Just over half of ketogenic diet kidney stones are composed of uric acid and just under half of calcium oxalate mixed with calcium phosphate or uric acid. Among the general public, about 85% of stones are calcium oxalate mixes and about 10% are uric acid. So, roughly speaking, uric acid kidney stones are 500-fold more frequent on the ketogenic diet and calcium oxalate stones are 50-fold more frequent. Causes are Poorly Understood In the nephrology literature, kidney stones are a rather mysterious condition. Wikipedia has a summary of the reasons offered in the literature for high stone formation on the ketogenic diet [4]: Kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis) is associated with the diet for four reasons: Excess calcium in the urine (hypercalciuria) occurs due to increased bone demineralisation with acidosis. Bones are mainly composed of calcium phosphate. The phosphate reacts with the acid, and the calcium is excreted by the kidneys. Hypocitraturia: the urine has an abnormally low concentration of citrate, which normally helps to dissolve free calcium. The urine has a low pH, which stops uric acid from dissolving, leading to crystals that act as a nidus for calcium stone formation. Many institutions traditionally restricted the water intake of patients on the diet to Continue reading >>

Ketosis – What Is That All About?

Ketosis – What Is That All About?

What’s it all about? Is it good for you? Is it bad for you? What’s it like? How do I ‘do’ ketosis? How do I know I’m in ketosis? The questions everyone who’s Banting wants the answers to. Ketosis, in chef speak, is quite simply a state your body enters once it has been deprived of glucose. Your body switches to burning fat for energy (stored fat or fat that you have eaten) instead of glucose. A side-effect of that process is the release of ketone bodies into the blood stream. When you’re starved of glucose, your body has no choice but to burn fat for fuel, so it needs little explanation as to why ketosis works at melting fat like a blow heater on an ice sculpture. Ketosis comes with some added extras, namely a commonly noted sense of euphoria or lucidity and increased energy levels. A downside includes toothbrush-proof halitosis, which stems from the secretion of ammonia through the lungs as a side effect of burning all that fat. Some people on low-carb diets have reported kidney stones, gallstones and a number of other ailments. Scientific research on both sides of this debate is being done all the time, but in our experience from talking to the members of our community and tracking their data, it is generally a case of what was done before they started Banting and not Banting itself. But, this post isn’t here to debate that, it serves as a ‘how to’ and not as a ‘you should’. Eat more buttery or creamy sauce on your steak and eat less steak. Your body can convert protein into glucose so too much meat will hinder your progress. What doIdo? Theoretically it is very easy. Avoid anything with high carbs in it. If you’re not sure what those might be, consult the Real Meal Revolution ‘Red List’. Even dipping your toe into the red list will ruin Continue reading >>

Does A Ketogenic Diet Cause Kidney Stones?

Does A Ketogenic Diet Cause Kidney Stones?

Personally, I was wondering if part of the problem might have been PUFA intake. These diets are ketogenic but not paleo and many people think PUFA and grain oils are the healthier fats so the general populace would probably be targeting these kinds of fats. Plus the consumption of mostly muscle meats is likely with little to no emphasis on organ meats. Fruit intake would be nonexistant and veggies are not universally liked. Seems like an easy recipe for a diet that in some cases would be deficient in some important nutrients like magnesium. Of course, then all ketogenic diets are then blamed as dangerous when it could be simply an issue of imbalance and lack of certain nutrients, probably those that co occur with carbs but would exist in higher quantities in the less favored types of meat like grassfed or organ meats. Since neither the innuit nor the masai have a big problem with kidney stones, then it's probably not the ketogenic diet itself that is the problem. I think the scientists are missing the important point of all the clues they have been given about what may cause kidney stones. They are assuming it is the ketogenic diet itself but not looking beyond that to reasons why it may not be. IMO, what they should be looking for is what is diff about the diets of these kidney stone patients compared to other ketogenic diets that do not result in kidney stones. "...what can be done to ameliorate such a risk? In order to ameliorate the risk, doctors at Johns Hopkins Hospital, where this treatment was invented, give large amounts of potassium citrate to these children as a preventative measure. The standard dose is 2 mEq/kg per day. This is a very large dose. For a 150 lb adult, it would be nearly 15 grams per day. That's the amount in an entire bottle of over-the-count Continue reading >>

Will Keto//os Cause Or Aggravate Kidney Stones?

Will Keto//os Cause Or Aggravate Kidney Stones?

Kidney stones are a known potential side effect of the ketogenic diet. Exogenous ketone supplements are a novel technology, so it is currently unknown if it could cause a similar problem, but it is possible. Clinically, potassium citrate is used to help decrease the risk of kidney stones (See here: including those that occur with the ketogenic diet. Potassium citrate is available commercially; however, as always, consumers should consult with their physicians before taking any supplements. Continue reading >>

Does High Protein Intake Cause Kidney Failure?

Does High Protein Intake Cause Kidney Failure?

The role of protein in muscle repair and development is evident. Our body metabolizes a large amount of protein throughout a day. Some research claims that excess amount of protein metabolism can affect the kidney function. So far, there is no direct relation to excess protein intake and kidney damage. However, there are few hypothesis that points out the effect of excess protein on kidney function. Important role of Protein Some important role of protein in our body includes Make hormones Repair and heal tissues Produce antibodies and enzymes Fluid and electrolytes balance Foods high in protein includes eggs, chicken, cottage cheese, milk, peanuts, etc. In what ways an excess protein can affect kidney function? (Src) Metabolism of protein in our body produces some toxic element like ketones as a byproduct. Most of the time, ketones are eliminated by the kidneys. But sometimes they are left behind. These ketones can hamper the kidney function. It can also cause other complications such as dehydration, dizziness, fatigue, heart palpitations, and bad breath. Let see on what basis this is concluded. The Kidney function is measured by Glomerular Filtration Rate ( GFR). It determines how well the kidney is working or filtering the blood. Research have shown that excess protein filtration can affect the GFR rates. Also known as hyperfiltration. Over the long term, hyperfiltration may lead to acute renal failure. CKD (Chronic Kidney Disease) (Src) The various Scientific report indicates that restriction of dietary protein in CKD patient can reduce albuminuria (albumin protein found in urine) and uraemic symptoms. Here are some CKD diseases that is closely related to the dietary protein intake. Proteinuria When kidneys are not functioning well, they cannot filter protein proper Continue reading >>

Emedicinehealth Medical Reference From Healthwise

Emedicinehealth Medical Reference From Healthwise

A A A Urine Test Test Overview A urine test checks different components of urine, a waste product made by the kidneys. A regular urine test may be done to help find the cause of symptoms. The test can give information about your health and problems you may have. The kidneys take out waste material, minerals, fluids, and other substances from the blood to be passed in the urine. Urine has hundreds of different body wastes. What you eat and drink, how much you exercise, and how well your kidneys work can affect what is in your urine. More than 100 different tests can be done on urine. A regular urinalysis often includes the following tests: Color. Many things affect urine color, including fluid balance, diet, medicines, and diseases. How dark or light the color is tells you how much water is in it. Vitamin B supplements can turn urine bright yellow. Some medicines, blackberries, beets, rhubarb, or blood in the urine can turn urine red-brown. Clarity. Urine is normally clear. Bacteria, blood, sperm, crystals, or mucus can make urine look cloudy. Odor. Urine does not smell very strong, but it has a slightly "nutty" odor. Some diseases cause a change in the odor of urine. For example, an infection with E. coli bacteria can cause a bad odor, while diabetes or starvation can cause a sweet, fruity odor. Specific gravity. This checks the amount of substances in the urine. It also shows how well the kidneys balance the amount of water in urine. The higher the specific gravity, the more solid material is in the urine. When you drink a lot of fluid, your kidneys make urine with a high amount of water in it, which has a low specific gravity. When you do not drink fluids, your kidneys make urine with a small amount of water in it, which has a high specific gravity. pH. The pH is Continue reading >>

Ketones

Ketones

Test Overview A ketone test checks for ketones in your blood or urine. Ketones are substances that are made when the body breaks down fat for energy. Normally, your body gets the energy it needs from carbohydrate in your diet. But stored fat is broken down and ketones are made if your diet does not contain enough carbohydrate to supply the body with sugar (glucose) for energy or if your body can't use blood sugar (glucose) properly. Ketones can be tested in a laboratory. Or you can test for ketones anywhere you may be by using home blood or urine tests. Continue reading >>

How Low-carb Diets May Be Causing More Kidney Stones

How Low-carb Diets May Be Causing More Kidney Stones

Like many busy people, David Crossley often used to find himself so wrapped up in his working day that he would go without lunch, and often barely stopped for a cup of tea. In fact, David, 63, a musculoskeletal therapist from Birmingham, admits: 'I would often be so busy at the clinic that I'd forget to drink any liquid at all, other than the odd cup of tea or coffee. It had been the same way for years - although I would drink more water at weekends.' Last year, this habit caught up with him. He noticed a vague ache in his abdomen, stretching around to his back. 'It wasn't agonising but it just didn't feel quite right, so I went to the GP,' he says. 'As I had some bloating, he sent me for an ultrasound.' This revealed two large stones in his right kidney - a direct result, his doctors believe, of his low fluid intake. A CT scan showed that the stones were so large (6 mm across) they could not be passed naturally, and he needed surgery. One in ten of us will develop a kidney stone, and the numbers are rising dramatically. They are the result of waste products in the blood forming crystals inside the kidneys, which eventually build up into a solid lump. They can be excruciatingly painful - on a level, say experts, with childbirth. The stones often remain symptomless while they're in the kidney. They start causing pain - known as renal colic - once they travel down the ureter, the narrow tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder. 'Renal colic is caused by the stone suddenly blocking the ureter,' says Mr Leye Ajayi, consultant urological surgeon at the Hospital of St John & St Elizabeth, London. The pain often comes on suddenly and can cause the patient to 'writhe around in agony', he adds. The pain can be intense enough to cause nausea and vomiting. Once on th Continue reading >>

Protein, Ketones And Kidney Stones

Protein, Ketones And Kidney Stones

Kidney stones may not be on your mind when beginning a weight-loss diet, but if you plan to follow a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet plan, they should be. While many popular low-carb commercial diet plans encourage your body to shift into a fat-burning state called ketosis, the production of ketones that results can alter your urine chemistry and raise the risk of kidney stones. Understanding the risks to your kidneys can help you decide whether the weight loss promises of a high-protein, low-carb diet are worth it. Video of the Day Kidney stones develop when a hard mass of crystals develops in the urinary tract. Kidney stones are often extremely painful, especially when they pass through the thin ureter to exit the body. There are a few different types of kidney stones, each made up of different materials. The cause of kidney stones remains unknown, but some people seem to be more prone to developing them than others, so there may be a hereditary component. Ketones are compounds formed by the breakdown of fat as the body shifts from burning carbohydrates to burning fat for fuel. During a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet, ketones become the main source of energy in the body. After a few days or weeks on this type of diet, the brain begins to use ketones as fuel instead of glucose. However, when too many ketones build up in the bloodstream, the pH of the urine changes from neutral to slightly acidic, which can put stress on the kidneys and potentially raise the risk of developing kidney stones. A 2002 study published in the "American Journal of Kidney Diseases" found that a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet raised the acidity of the blood over a six-week period, a condition known to contribute to kidney stones. The study found up to a 90-percent increase in acid Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet

Ketogenic Diet

This article is about a dietary therapy for epilepsy. For information on ketogenic diets as a lifestyle choice or for weight loss, see Low-carbohydrate diet and No-carbohydrate diet. The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in children. The diet forces the body to burn fats rather than carbohydrates. Normally, the carbohydrates contained in food are converted into glucose, which is then transported around the body and is particularly important in fueling brain-function. However, if there is very little carbohydrate in the diet, the liver converts fat into fatty acids and ketone bodies. The ketone bodies pass into the brain and replace glucose as an energy source. An elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood, a state known as ketosis, leads to a reduction in the frequency of epileptic seizures.[1] Almost half of children, and young people, with epilepsy who have tried some form of this diet saw the number of seizures drop by at least half, and the effect persists even after discontinuing the diet.[2] There is some evidence that adults with epilepsy may benefit from the diet, and that a less strict regimen, such as a modified Atkins diet, is similarly effective.[1] The most common adverse effect is constipation, affecting about 30% of patients—this was due to fluid restriction, which was once a feature of the diet, but this led to increased risk of kidney stones, and is no longer considered beneficial.[2][3] The original therapeutic diet for paediatric epilepsy provides just enough protein for body growth and repair, and sufficient calories[Note 1] to maintain the correct weight for age and height. The classic therapeutic ketogenic diet was develope Continue reading >>

How To Prevent Kidney Stones Naturally

How To Prevent Kidney Stones Naturally

This is a guest post by Laura Schoenfeld, a Registered Dietitian with a Master’s degree in Public Health, and staff nutritionist and content manager for ChrisKresser.com. You can learn more about Laura by checking out her blog or visiting her on Facebook. Anyone who’s had a kidney stone will tell you that they’re one of the worst medical problems you can ever experience. Kidney stones are a common and painful chronic condition seen in otherwise “healthy” patients, and one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. About a million people in the United States are treated for kidney stones each year, and the prevalence in adult men is almost 12% and around 6% in adult women. (1) Stones are most common in caucasian adults between the ages of 20 and 50, and once someone develops a stone, they are far more likely to develop another stone in the future. Like most chronic diseases, the incidence of kidney stones has been increasing over the past 30 years. (2) This is likely due to the variety of dietary and lifestyle changes we’ve made as Americans which aren’t conducive to good health. What are Kidney Stones? Stones can be formed from a variety of substances, but the most common stones are made of calcium and oxalate that has crystalized in the urinary tract. Other types of stones include struvite, uric acid and cystine. While stones themselves are painful enough, they can lead to more serious conditions such as obstruction of the urinary tract, permanent damage to the kidneys, and even life-threatening infections. I’ve seen patients in the hospital who have come in with necrotic kidneys due to obstruction from a stone, so this can become a serious condition if not managed properly. Conventional medical professionals take a multi-pronged approach to tre Continue reading >>

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