Dka Vs Hhs Labs

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What is DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS? What does DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS mean? DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS meaning - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS definition - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine. The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium. Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked. Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection. In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended. Rates of DKA vary around the world. About 4% of people with type 1 diabetes in United Kingdom develop DKA a year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year. DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost universally fatal. The risk of death with adequate and timely treatment is currently around 1–4%. Up to 1% of children with DKA develop a complication known as cerebral edema. The symptoms of an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a period of about 24 hours. Predominant symptoms are nausea and vomiting, pronounced thirst, excessive urine production and abdominal pain that may be severe. Those who measure their glucose levels themselves may notice hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). In severe DKA, breathing becomes labored and of a deep, gasping character (a state referred to as "Kussmaul respiration"). The abdomen may be tender to the point that an acute abdomen may be suspected, such as acute pancreatitis, appendicitis or gastrointestinal perforation. Coffee ground vomiting (vomiting of altered blood) occurs in a minority of people; this tends to originate from erosion of the esophagus. In severe DKA, there may be confusion, lethargy, stupor or even coma (a marked decrease in the level of consciousness). On physical examination there is usually clinical evidence of dehydration, such as a dry mouth and decreased skin turgor. If the dehydration is profound enough to cause a decrease in the circulating blood volume, tachycardia (a fast heart rate) and low blood pressure may be observed. Often, a "ketotic" odor is present, which is often described as "fruity", often compared to the smell of pear drops whose scent is a ketone. If Kussmaul respiration is present, this is reflected in an increased respiratory rate.....

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State

The hallmark of diabetes is a raised plasma glucose resulting from an absolute or relative lack of insulin action. Untreated, this can lead to two distinct yet overlapping life-threatening emergencies. Near-complete lack of insulin will result in diabetic ketoacidosis, which is therefore more characteristic of type 1 diabetes, whereas partial insulin deficiency will suppress hepatic ketogenesis but not hepatic glucose output, resulting in hyperglycaemia and dehydration, and culminating in the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state. Hyperglycaemia is characteristic of diabetic ketoacidosis, particularly in the previously undiagnosed, but it is the acidosis and the associated electrolyte disorders that make this a life-threatening condition. Hyperglycaemia is the dominant feature of the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state, causing severe polyuria and fluid loss and leading to cellular dehydration. Progression from uncontrolled diabetes to a metabolic emergency may result from unrecognised diabetes, sometimes aggravated by glucose containing drinks, or metabolic stress due to infection or intercurrent illness and associated with increased levels of counter-regulatory hormones. Since diabetic Continue reading >>

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  1. ICNAnnie2

    I've been reading your recent dining review and am really enjoying it. However, I must admit even the mention of some of the foods you consumed made my damaged-by-IC bladder cringe!
    Are you doing what I did? Are you denying that diet affects how you feel? Are you thinking that you are in so much discomfort/pain it doesn't seem to matter what you eat or drink? I did that when IC first struck me and lots of others do it, too. Diet denial is common. What you MUST realize is that right now your bladder is so very inflammed and irritated you can't distinguish between foods that are ok and those that hurt you. The only way to get your bladder to calm down is to CAREFULLY follow the diet and eat only foods in the "usually ok" column (follow the IC Diet you can find on the IC Network). Some people say they begin feeling better after a week or so on the diet. For many of us, it takes 8-12 weeks of following it before the bladder begins to calm. When that finally happens you can then begin adding in new foods and you WILL be able to tell if a food is bothering your bladder or not.
    You stated yesterday on another board you consumed tomato soup, grilled cheese and smoked porter. OUCH, OUCH, OUCH!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Ok, the grilled cheese would be alright as long as you used mild American or mozzarella cheese and white bread with no soy flour or preservatives in it. The other items are real bladder burners!!! Also, since you have a cold, watch out for decongestants as they can really irritate the bladder. Many of us with IC are ok with using Mucinex and antihistamines are usually ok (in fact antihistamines are often used, in combination with other meds, to treat IC).
    PLEASE, PLEASE, PLEASE........begin taking care of yourself and start the diet today. IC is a serious disease. It can be one of the most painful diseases known to humankind. Did you know that severe IC pain has been evaluated as being as painful as end-stage cancer? Also, please involve your DH and make him a part of your health care team. He needs to accompany you to some of your appointments and learn as much as he can about your condition so he can better understand what you are going through, give you the support you need and better cope with living with IC. You two are a team. IC will impact every aspect of your life. You are in this journey together.
    With IC, the protective inner layer of the bladder is damaged allowing all the toxic substances passing through to come into direct contact with nerve cells and with the delicate bladder tissue. Now, if you had a wound like that on the surface of your skin and you poured lemon juice, vinegar or alcohol or paprika or chili powder (or any other acid or strong spice) on it every single day, what would that do to the wound? Obviously, it would irritate it and make it more difficult for that wound to heal. Well, the same applies to your bladder. It is wounded and, when you continue to consume bladder-irritating substances, those irritants pour over that injured tissue and make matters worse.
    IC is a monster of a disease. I know how very, VERY difficult it is to give up all that is required. You have to count on your doctors to help you, but you also have to do all you can to help yourself. There is life with IC and it can be a good one. It will be different from what you have known, but it still can be good. The IC Network support forum is there with wonderful experienced ICers who can offer tons of helpful tips to cope with all aspects of this disease.
    I'm sure your dear friends here will also offer invaluable support to you as you travel this difficult road. Good luck.........and PLEASE take care of yourself.

  2. Tink rules

    Awwwww.. Bendy....
    Why are we such sisters in all of this semi misery???
    I keep getting kidney stones and I'm afraid that it's more...
    I can tell you that the bathrooms by the Grand Floridian Cafe do have double ply TP... (I was quite impressed with that...)
    Hugs for feeling better!!!

  3. LilyLake

    Hi Brenda. I thought I'd pop in here and give some support, and commiserate. We've chatted briefly in the past. I'm a fellow figure skating fan. I love your dining reviews. Today I read your Halloween sushi review and really enjoyed it. I also read some of the Boca Ratan (sp?) trip report. That's quite an anniversary gift. I just had my 25th anniversary at my job, and I got to select from a list of gifts which were in the $200-300 range. (Yes, I looked some of them up on the internet to see how much they cost.) I have a very nice globe now. I'm sorry I'm such a lurker and rarely say anything. I guess my name should be LilyLurk.
    While I don't have a bladder problem, I am having a health problem that I'm trying to clear up with some medication and a very limited diet. I'm fighting yeast, which thrive on sugar, so I'm eating a very low-carb diet, in order to keep sugar out of my digestive system. I also have to avoid all yeasts and molds. So I can't have anything with vinegar in it, or any cheese. I'm also avoiding the lactose in dairy products, which also means no cheese - even the not-so-moldy ones. I've been doing this for 2-1/2 weeks. So essentially what I'm eating are meat and vegetables, but I can't have smoked or cured meats. So no bacon, ham, or smoked salmon. I also eat nuts, which I know you don't eat.
    I started with a garden-variety low-carb diet for a week before I started the meds. and really limited diet. In 3-1/2 weeks I've lost about 8 pounds. Okay - I can stand to lose a little weight, but now I'm within 5 pounds of what I consider to be my ideal weight. And I'm not trying to lose weight, or just allow myself to go hungry. I'm eating a lot. I'm watching my ketosis levels with ketostix, and I'm definitely in ketosis. This means I'm burning fat, and is the reason low-carb diets work. So I have a question for some of you on this thread who have done this diet for awhile: do you have a problem with losing too much weight? I haven't looked at the IC website to see what the approved foods are, but I'm wondering what's on there that you can use to keep your weight where you want it. I need to go another 1-1/2 weeks before I start trying to add things back in.
    I've been enjoying reading your latest dining review over the last 2-1/2 weeks, while I try to figure out which meat I'm going to eat next. It does get tiresome. I did make some spaghetti last week. It was essentially ground turkey, onions, garlic, some herbs and canned crushed tomatoes. I just didn't eat it with any noodles or cheese. Boy, did my body not appreciate that dinner! And I had to be up at the high school that evening for a boys hockey meeting. I haven't had any canned tomatoes since.
    Some of the meals I eat are really good, and afterwards I think "this isn't so bad." This lasts until the next time I start to get hungry and have to have some other plain meat and vegetable meal and I want to commit hara-kiri. I have to remind myself that it's for the greater good, and I'm going to stick with it.
    So Brenda, this is new to me, too. Feel free to PM me, if you'd like. I'm depressed for you. I know how much you love food and drinks. Of course, since I'm avoiding yeast, I can't have alcohol, either. I'm not a big drinker, but I do enjoy a nice glass of wine.
    Oh, something else. Apparently my bladder got thrown-off by the anti-yeast medication I'm taking. I guess my bladder is used to having yeast in there and didn't appreciate the change. So I developed a mild bladder infection. Now, antibiotics are probably how I got into this mess, so I wasn't about to try to get an antibiotic for this. What to do? Cranberries! But cranberry juice cocktail is loaded with sugar and I'm not using artificial sweeteners, either. So on Halloween night as you were getting ready to enjoy your sushi dinner, I had the Mr. stop at the grocery store so I could pick up a bag of cranberries from the produce section. That's right - I chomped on plain, raw cranberries. They really weren't as bad as I was expecting. And they did help. I had to eat them for the first couple of weeks, but this week I haven't needed them.

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DKA diabetic ketoacidosis nursing management pathophysiology & treatment. DKA is a complication of diabetes mellitus and mainly affects type 1 diabetics. DKA management includes controlling hyperglycemia, ketosis, and acdidosis. Signs & Symptoms include polyuria, polydipsia, hyperglycemia greater than 300 mg/dL, Kussmaul breathing, acetone breath, and ketones in the urine. Typically DKA treatment includes: intravenous fluids, insulin therapy (IV regular insulin), and electrolyte replacement. This video details what the nurse needs to know for the NCLEX exam about diabetic ketoacidosis. I also touch on DKA vs HHS (diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (please see the other video for more details). Quiz on DKA: http://www.registerednursern.com/diab... Lecture Notes for this video: http://www.registerednursern.com/diab... Diabetes NCLEX Review Videos: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_c... Nursing School Supplies: http://www.registerednursern.com/the-... Nursing Job Search: http://www.registerednursern.com/nurs... Visit our website RegisteredNurseRN.com for free quizzes, nursing care plans, salary information, job search, and much more: http://www.registerednursern.com Check out other Videos: https://www.youtube.com/user/Register... Popular Playlists: "NCLEX Study Strategies": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Fluid & Electrolytes Made So Easy": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Nursing Skills Videos": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Nursing School Study Tips": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Nursing School Tips & Questions": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Teaching Tutorials": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Types of Nursing Specialties": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Healthcare Salary Information": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "New Nurse Tips": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Nursing Career Help": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "EKG Teaching Tutorials": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Personality Types": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Dosage & Calculations for Nurses": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Diabetes Health Managment": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) &

DKA/HHS Presenting Signs Tachycardia Hypotension Dehydration Hypothermia Warm dry Skin Kussmaul Respiration Lethargy or Coma Fruity Odor DKA/HHS Precipitating Factors Infection Pneumonia Gastroenteritis UTI Sepsis Meningitis Influenza Mucormycosis Emotional Problems Trauma Acute Pancreatitis Myocardial Infarction Stroke Endocrine Acromegaly Thyrotoxicosis Cushing’s S. Omission of Antidiabetic Mx’s Drugs Any major Stress/Acute Illness DKA/HHS Drugs that can Precipitate Psychotropic Drugs Chlorpromazine Clozapine Risperidone Loxapine Steroids Immunosuppressants Beta Blockers Calcium Channel Blockers Diuretics Anticonvulsants Diazoxide DKA/HHS Pathogenesis Precipitating Factors Glucagon Catecholamines Cortisol Growth Hormone Absolute Insulin Deficiency Relative Insulin Deficiency Lipolysis FFAs Proteolysis Gluconeogenesis Ketogenesis Glycogenolysis Minimal Lipolysis Gluconeogenic Substrates Ketoacidosis Hyperglycemia Hyperosmolality Glucosuria (Osmotic Diuresis) Loss of Water & Electrolytes Triglycerides Hyperlipidemia Dehydration Decreased GFR DKA/HHS Enhanced Glucose Production G-6-P cAMP Glycogen F-6-P F-1,6-P2 PYR PFK-2 Fat CO2 Glucose Alanine F-2,6P2 Glycerol DKA/HH Continue reading >>

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  1. mandrex

    what is the best time of day to use ketostix, any advice

  2. DeniseTra

    don't use them. They tend to test dehydration mainly. If you are eating at the correct level, you will be in Ketosis.
    Ditto to Mrs REJ's recommendation on the Atkins site. I love it.

  3. jesskripp

    I use the ketosis strips on and off when I need a little boost of reasurance. I think the best time to test is in the morn. when you first wake up I noticed if I tested everday the results would vary. So maybe you should try testing once a week. They strips are kinda pricey but they last awhile. Hope this helps!
    "Life's a journey NOT a destination"

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Visit us (http://www.khanacademy.org/science/he...) for health and medicine content or (http://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/...) for MCAT related content. These videos do not provide medical advice and are for informational purposes only. The videos are not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read or seen in any Khan Academy video. Created by Matthew McPheeters. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep... Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep... NCLEX-RN on Khan Academy: A collection of questions from content covered on the NCLEX-RN. These questions are available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License (available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/b...). About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academys NCLEX-RN channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDx5... Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_...

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Background Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is one of two serious metabolic derangements that occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). [1] It is a life-threatening emergency that, although less common than its counterpart, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), has a much higher mortality rate, reaching up to 5-10%. (See Epidemiology.) HHS was previously termed hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma (HHNC); however, the terminology was changed because coma is found in fewer than 20% of patients with HHS. [2] HHS is most commonly seen in patients with type 2 DM who have some concomitant illness that leads to reduced fluid intake, as seen, for example, in elderly institutionalized persons with decreased thirst perception and reduced ability to drink water. [3] Infection is the most common preceding illness, but many other conditions, such as stroke or myocardial infarction, can cause this state. [3] Once HHS has developed, it may be difficult to identify or differentiate it from the antecedent illness. (See Etiology.) HHS is characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperosmolarity, and dehydration without significant ketoacidosis. Most patients present with severe dehydration and focal Continue reading >>

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  1. ketones

    What are ketones? I was diagnosed with GD but wasn't really told what they were. I called my dr now waiting to here back. My sugar levels are normal, I'mSo stressing. My ketone levels in my urine were very high.

  2. Mamamons

    Ketones are released when your body burns fat. So ketones in your urine when pregnant may signal you need to eat more/change your diet

  3. j

    Ketones appear in your urine, when your body begins burning stored fat b/c there are not carbohydrates to use for energy. Good for dieting, bad during pregnancy. I have GD and have to test every morning for ketones. My dietitian made me increase my carb intake to get rid of ketones. Unfortunately, the added carbs made my sugar levels too high. Hence, my GD could not be controlled by diet alone

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