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Dka Vs Hhs

Hyperglycemic Crises: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka), And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (hhs)

Hyperglycemic Crises: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka), And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (hhs)

Go to: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are acute metabolic complications of diabetes mellitus that can occur in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Timely diagnosis, comprehensive clinical and biochemical evaluation, and effective management is key to the successful resolution of DKA and HHS. Critical components of the hyperglycemic crises management include coordinating fluid resuscitation, insulin therapy, and electrolyte replacement along with the continuous patient monitoring using available laboratory tools to predict the resolution of the hyperglycemic crisis. Understanding and prompt awareness of potential of special situations such as DKA or HHS presentation in comatose state, possibility of mixed acid-base disorders obscuring the diagnosis of DKA, and risk of brain edema during the therapy are important to reduce the risks of complications without affecting recovery from hyperglycemic crisis. Identification of factors that precipitated DKA or HHS during the index hospitalization should help prevent subsequent episode of hyperglycemic crisis. For extensive review of all related areas of Endocrinology, visit WWW.ENDOTEXT.ORG. Go to: INTRODUCTION Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) represent two extremes in the spectrum of decompensated diabetes. DKA and HHS remain important causes of morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients despite well developed diagnostic criteria and treatment protocols (1). The annual incidence of DKA from population-based studies is estimated to range from 4 to 8 episodes per 1,000 patient admissions with diabetes (2). The incidence of DKA continues to increase and it accounts for about 140,000 hospitalizations in the US in 2009 (Figure 1 a) (3). Continue reading >>

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Background Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is one of two serious metabolic derangements that occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). [1] It is a life-threatening emergency that, although less common than its counterpart, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), has a much higher mortality rate, reaching up to 5-10%. (See Epidemiology.) HHS was previously termed hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma (HHNC); however, the terminology was changed because coma is found in fewer than 20% of patients with HHS. [2] HHS is most commonly seen in patients with type 2 DM who have some concomitant illness that leads to reduced fluid intake, as seen, for example, in elderly institutionalized persons with decreased thirst perception and reduced ability to drink water. [3] Infection is the most common preceding illness, but many other conditions, such as stroke or myocardial infarction, can cause this state. [3] Once HHS has developed, it may be difficult to identify or differentiate it from the antecedent illness. (See Etiology.) HHS is characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperosmolarity, and dehydration without significant ketoacidosis. Most patients present with severe dehydration and focal or global neurologic deficits. [2, 4, 5] The clinical features of HHS and DKA overlap and are observed simultaneously (overlap cases) in up to one third of cases. According to the consensus statement published by the American Diabetes Association, diagnostic features of HHS may include the following (see Workup) [4, 6] : Effective serum osmolality of 320 mOsm/kg or greater Profound dehydration, up to an average of 9L Detection and treatment of an underlying illness are critical. Standard care for dehydration and altered mental status is appropriate, including airway management, intravenous (I Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State

The hallmark of diabetes is a raised plasma glucose resulting from an absolute or relative lack of insulin action. Untreated, this can lead to two distinct yet overlapping life-threatening emergencies. Near-complete lack of insulin will result in diabetic ketoacidosis, which is therefore more characteristic of type 1 diabetes, whereas partial insulin deficiency will suppress hepatic ketogenesis but not hepatic glucose output, resulting in hyperglycaemia and dehydration, and culminating in the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state. Hyperglycaemia is characteristic of diabetic ketoacidosis, particularly in the previously undiagnosed, but it is the acidosis and the associated electrolyte disorders that make this a life-threatening condition. Hyperglycaemia is the dominant feature of the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state, causing severe polyuria and fluid loss and leading to cellular dehydration. Progression from uncontrolled diabetes to a metabolic emergency may result from unrecognised diabetes, sometimes aggravated by glucose containing drinks, or metabolic stress due to infection or intercurrent illness and associated with increased levels of counter-regulatory hormones. Since diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state have a similar underlying pathophysiology the principles of treatment are similar (but not identical), and the conditions may be considered two extremes of a spectrum of disease, with individual patients often showing aspects of both. Pathogenesis of DKA and HHS Insulin is a powerful anabolic hormone which helps nutrients to enter the cells, where these nutrients can be used either as fuel or as building blocks for cell growth and expansion. The complementary action of insulin is to antagonise the breakdown of fuel stores. Thus, the relea Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia: Dka And Hhs

Hyperglycemia: Dka And Hhs

Anne Marie Mattingly Assistant Professor of Medicine Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Goals of Treatment Accurately diagnose DKA and/or HHS Provide optimal volume resuscitation Use insulin to stop life-threatening metabolic derangements Correct dangerous electrolyte abnormalities Determine the precipitating factors and provide any urgent treatment Points To Learn Normal glucose metabolism Pathophysiology of hyperglycemic syndromes Basic management (and why it works) Fluids Insulin Electrolytes Common precipitating factors Transitioning to SQ insulin (and the floor) *these will parallel the goals of treatment…. 3 DKA, HHS, or neither? 47 year old with DM (on insulin) several days of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain missed insulin yesterday labs show: 133 3.5 107 16 34 2.6 407 ABG: pending UA: SpGrav 1.024, 1+ ketones DKA, HHS, or neither? 24 year old with DM (on insulin) several days of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain missed insulin yesterday labs show: 136 3.5 95 25 15 1.2 392 ABG: 7.38/38/95/25/99% RA *same symptoms, also missed his insulin *BG still elevated *bicarbonate is 25 and BUN/Cr not as high *pH normal 5 DKA, HHS, or neither? 81 year old SNF resident with DM (diet-controlled), aflutter, CAD, HTN referred to ED from SNF for chest pain, mental status change, and low BP EKG shows rapid a-fib (rate and pain resolve with IVF) labs show: 152 3.6 110 26 65 1.5 916 Lactate 4.0 *not even on insulin *sodium high, but bicarb normal and she has elevated lactate 6 DKA, HHS, or neither? 55 year old SNF resident with DM (on metformin), cerebral palsy, chronic constipation unable to stool for several days, today vomited repeatedly and then aspirated hypotensive and hypoxic labs show: 142 3.1 91 27 16 0.37 499 ABG: 7.47/31/105/22/96% o Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hypersmolar Non-ketotic Coma

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hypersmolar Non-ketotic Coma

Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hypersmolar Non-ketotic coma Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hypersmolar Non-ketotic coma Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are the most serious acute metabolic complications of diabetes. Recent data indicate there are more than 144,000 hospital admissions per year for DKA in the United States and the number of cases show an upward trend, with a 30% increase in the annual number of cases between 1995 and 2009. Treatment of DKA utilizes a large number of resources with an annual medical expense of $2.4 billion. The rate of hospital admissions for HHS is lower than for DKA, accounting for less than 1% of all diabetes-related admissions. Although DKA and HHS are often discussed as separate entities, they represent points along a spectrum of hyperglycemic emergencies due to poorly controlled diabetes. Both DKA and HHS are characterized by insulinopenia and severe hyperglycemia. Clinically, they differ only by the degree of dehydration and the severity of metabolic acidosis. DKA has long been considered a key clinical feature of type 1 diabetes (T1D), but in contrast to popular belief, DKA is more common in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D now accounts for up to one half of all newly diagnosed diabetes in children ages 10-21 years. In the U.S., the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study found that 29.4% of participants under 20 years of age with T1D presented with DKA, compared with 9.7% of youth with T2D. In community-based studies more than 40% of patients with DKA are older than 40 and more than 20% are older than 55. Patients with T2D may develop DKA under stressful conditions such as trauma, surgery or infections. In addition, in recent years an increasing number of unprovoked ketoacidosis cases without preci Continue reading >>

Dka Vs Hhs (hhns) Nclex Review

Dka Vs Hhs (hhns) Nclex Review

Diabetic ketoacidosis vs hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS or HHS): What are the differences between these two complications of diabetes mellitus? This NCLEX review will simplify the differences between DKA and HHNS and give you a video lecture that easily explains their differences. Many students get these two complications confused due to their similarities, but there are major differences between these two complications. After reviewing this NCLEX review, don’t forget to take the quiz on DKA vs HHNS. Lecture on DKA and HHS DKA vs HHNS Diabetic Ketoacidosis Affects mainly Type 1 diabetics Ketones and Acidosis present Hyperglycemia presents >300 mg/dL Variable osmolality Happens Suddenly Causes: no insulin present in the body or illness/infection Seen in young or undiagnosed diabetics Main problems are hyperglycemia, ketones, and acidosis (blood pH <7.35) Clinical signs/symptoms: Kussmaul breathing, fruity breath, abdominal pain Treatment is the same as in HHNS (fluids, electrolyte replacement, and insulin) Watch potassium levels closely when giving insulin and make sure the level is at least 3.3 before administrating. Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome Affects mainly Type 2 diabetics No ketones or acidosis present EXTREME Hyperglycemia (remember heavy-duty hyperglycemia) >600 mg/dL sometimes four digits High Osmolality (more of an issue in HHNS than DKA) Happens Gradually Causes: mainly illness or infection and there is some insulin present which prevents the breakdown of ketones Seen in older adults due to illness or infection Main problems are dehydration & heavy-duty hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity (because the glucose is so high it makes the blood very concentrated) More likely to have mental status changes due to severe dehydrat Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)/hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (hhs): Novel Advances In The Management Of Hyperglycemic Crises (uk Versus Usa)

Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)/hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (hhs): Novel Advances In The Management Of Hyperglycemic Crises (uk Versus Usa)

#The Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Purpose of Review Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyper- glycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are diabetic emergencies that cause high morbidity and mortality. Their treatment dif- fers in the UK and USA. This review delineates the differ- ences in diagnosis and treatment between the two countries. Recent Findings Large-scale studies to determine optimal man- agement of DKA and HHS are lacking. The diagnosis of DKA is based on disease severity in the USA, which differs from the UK. The diagnosis of HHS in the USA is based on total rather than effective osmolality. Unlike the USA, the UK has separate guidelines for DKA and HHS. Treatment of DKA and HHS also differs with respect to timing of fluid and insulin initiation. Summary There is considerable overlap but important differ- ences between the UK and USA guidelines for the manage- ment of DKA and HHS. Further research needs to be done to delineate a unifying diagnostic and treatment protocol. Keywords Diabetic ketoacidosis .Management .Survey . Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are hyperglycemic emergencies that continue to account for increased burden of hospitaliza- tions in both the USA [1] and UK [2]. Historically, both DKA and HHS were initially described as one entity but subse- quently recognized as separate conditions. Since the advent of insulin, mortality has fallen for DKA and HHS, but the risk remains high. Previous work from the UK and seminal ran- domized controlled studies performed in the USA by Abbas Kitabchi form the basis of treatment of DKA and HHS. However, only a few of these were randomized studies to guide clinicians on the best way to manage DKA and HHS. Whilst the principles Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

In Brief Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) are two acute complications of diabetes that can result in increased morbidity and mortality if not efficiently and effectively treated. Mortality rates are 2–5% for DKA and 15% for HHS, and mortality is usually a consequence of the underlying precipitating cause(s) rather than a result of the metabolic changes of hyperglycemia. Effective standardized treatment protocols, as well as prompt identification and treatment of the precipitating cause, are important factors affecting outcome. The two most common life-threatening complications of diabetes mellitus include diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS). Although there are important differences in their pathogenesis, the basic underlying mechanism for both disorders is a reduction in the net effective concentration of circulating insulin coupled with a concomitant elevation of counterregulatory hormones (glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone). These hyperglycemic emergencies continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes. DKA is reported to be responsible for more than 100,000 hospital admissions per year in the United States1 and accounts for 4–9% of all hospital discharge summaries among patients with diabetes.1 The incidence of HHS is lower than DKA and accounts for <1% of all primary diabetic admissions.1 Most patients with DKA have type 1 diabetes; however, patients with type 2 diabetes are also at risk during the catabolic stress of acute illness.2 Contrary to popular belief, DKA is more common in adults than in children.1 In community-based studies, more than 40% of African-American patients with DKA were >40 years of age and more than 2 Continue reading >>

Diagnosis And Management Of Hyperglycemic Crises: Diabetic Ketoacidosis And The Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State

Diagnosis And Management Of Hyperglycemic Crises: Diabetic Ketoacidosis And The Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State

Download Slide Library Key Points DKA and HHS are life-threatening emergencies. Management involves Attention to precipitating cause Fluid and electrolyte management Insulin therapy Patient monitoring Prevention of metabolic complications during recovery Transition to long-term therapy Patient education and discharge planning should aim at prevention of recurrence. Suggested Reading Burghen GA, Etteldorf JN, Fisher JN, Kitabchi AQ. Comparison of high-dose and low-dose insulin by continuous intravenous infusion in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis in children. Diabetes Care. 1980;3:15-20. Devi R, Selvakumar G, Clark L, Downer C, Braithwaite SS. A dose-defining insulin algorithm for attainment and maintenance of glycemic targets during therapy of hyperglycemic crises. Diabetes Manage. 2011;1:397-412. Glaser N, Barnett P, McCaslin I, et al. Risk factors for cerebral edema in children with diabetic ketoacidosis. The Pediatric Emergency Medicine Collaborative Research Committee of the American Academy of Pediatrics. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:264-269. Mudaliar S, Mohideen P, Deutsch R, et al. Intravenous glargine and regular insulin have similar effects on endogenous glucose output and peripheral activation/deactivation kinetic profiles. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:1597-1602. Muir AB, Quisling RG, Yang MC, Rosenbloom AL. Cerebral edema in childhood diabetic ketoacidosis: natural history, radiographic findings, and early identification. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1541-1546. Continue reading >>

My Site - Chapter 15: Hyperglycemic Emergencies In Adults

My Site - Chapter 15: Hyperglycemic Emergencies In Adults

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) should be suspected in ill patients with diabetes. If either DKA or HHS is diagnosed, precipitating factors must be sought and treated. DKA and HHS are medical emergencies that require treatment and monitoring for multiple metabolic abnormalities and vigilance for complications. A normal blood glucose does not rule out DKA in pregnancy. Ketoacidosis requires insulin administration (0.1 U/kg/h) for resolution; bicarbonate therapy should be considered only for extreme acidosis (pH7.0). Note to readers: Although the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in adults and in children share general principles, there are significant differences in their application, largely related to the increased risk of life-threatening cerebral edema with DKA in children and adolescents. The specific issues related to treatment of DKA in children and adolescents are addressed in the Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents chapter, p. S153. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are diabetes emergencies with overlapping features. With insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia causes urinary losses of water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) and the resultant extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) depletion. Potassium is shifted out of cells, and ketoacidosis occurs as a result of elevated glucagon levels and absolute insulin deficiency (in the case of type 1 diabetes) or high catecholamine levels suppressing insulin release (in the case of type 2 diabetes). In DKA, ketoacidosis is prominent, while in HHS, the main features are ECFV depletion and hyperosmolarity. Risk factors for DKA include new diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, insulin omission, infection, myocardial infarc Continue reading >>

Difference Between Dka And Hhs

Difference Between Dka And Hhs

DKA vs HHS “DKA” means “diabetic ketoacidosis” and “HHS” means “Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Syndrome.” Both DKA and HHS are the two complications of diabetes mellitus. Though there are many differences between DKA and HHS, the basic problem is associated with insulin deficiency. When comparing the two, HHS has a higher mortality rate. When DKA has a mortality rate of 2 to 5 per cent, HHS has a 15 per cent mortality rate. Diabetic ketoacidosis is seen mainly in type 1 diabetic patients but is also seen in some type 2 diabetic patients. Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Syndrome is mainly seen in older patients having type 2 diabetes. DKA is mainly characterized by hyperglycemia, acidosis-producing derangements, and dehydration. Infection, disruption of insulin, and onset of diabetes are some of the common causes of DKA. Hyperglycemia, dehydration and hyperosmolarity are some of the common characteristics of Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Syndrome. But HHS does not have ketoacidosis. Some of the early symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include increased thirst and increased urination. Other symptoms include malaise, weakness, and fatigue. Bacterial infection, illness, insulin deficiency, stress, and insulin infusion catheter blockage are some of the causes that lead to DKA. When compared to diabetic ketoacidosis, the Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Syndrome develops only over the course of a week. Diabetic ketoacidosis develops rapidly. Increased dehydration, acute illness, vomiting, dementia, pneumonia, immobility, and urinary tract infections are some of the common causes of Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Syndrome. One of the main goals of treatment of DKA involves correcting high blood glucose levels by injecting insulin as well as replacing fluid lost because of vomiting an Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State In Adults: Clinical Features, Evaluation, And Diagnosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State In Adults: Clinical Features, Evaluation, And Diagnosis

INTRODUCTION Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS, also known as hyperosmotic hyperglycemic nonketotic state [HHNK]) are two of the most serious acute complications of diabetes. DKA is characterized by ketoacidosis and hyperglycemia, while HHS usually has more severe hyperglycemia but no ketoacidosis (table 1). Each represents an extreme in the spectrum of hyperglycemia. The precipitating factors, clinical features, evaluation, and diagnosis of DKA and HHS in adults will be reviewed here. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of these disorders are discussed separately. DKA in children is also reviewed separately. (See "Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state in adults: Epidemiology and pathogenesis".) Continue reading >>

66: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State (hhs)

66: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State (hhs)

In this episode I’ll discuss diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS). Subscribe on iTunes, Android, or Stitcher Definition Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are the most serious acute complications of diabetes. These diabetic crises cause thousands of deaths annually in the US. DKA and HHS differ clinically according to the presence of ketoacidosis and the degree of hyperglycemia. In DKA metabolic acidosis is often the major finding. The serum glucose is below 800 mg/dL and usually in the 350-500 mg/dL range. DKA usually evolves rapidly. In HHS, there is little or no ketoacidosis and the serum glucose concentration frequently exceeds 1000 mg/dL. HHS usually evolves over a period of several days. Overlap between DKA and HHS occurs in more than one-third of patients. Pathogenesis Insulin deficiency/resistance and glucagon excess are responsible for the development of DKA and HHS. The deficiency in insulin (either absolute or relative deficiency) is more severe in DKA compared with HHS. In HHS the residual insulin secretion and its systemic activity minimizes the development of ketoacidosis but is not adequate to control hyperglycemia. In patients with absolute or relative insulin deficiency, DKA and HHS are usually precipitated by a stressor such as infection or discontinuation of / inadequate insulin therapy. Treatment The treatment of DKA and HHS involves the correction of fluid and electrolyte abnormalities, followed by the administration of insulin. Specific treatment protocols include: ADA guidelines, Joslin protocol, and Yale New Haven. The order of treatment is essential. A patient in DKA or HHS is already volume-depleted. Insulin forces glucose as well as potassium and water into cells. Therefor Continue reading >>

Dka Vs Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State (hhs)

Dka Vs Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State (hhs)

Don't miss your chance to win free admissions prep materials! Click here to see a list of raffles . DKA vs Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) why is plasma osmolarity (Posm) always high in HHS, whereas DKA Posm is variable? Pathogenesis of DKA and HHS are discussed in the same article in uptodate but the Posm difference between the 2 is not clearly explained (at least to my feeble mind). The increase in plasma osmolality created by hyperglycemia pulls water out of the cells, expands the ECF, and thereby reduces the plasma sodium (Na) concentration. If a patient with normal serum electrolytes (Na = 140 mEq/L) rapidly developed a glucose concentration of 1000 mg/100 mL, and no urine was made, then that patients serum Na would fall to value between 119 and 126 mEq/L and the osmolality would increase to a level between 294 and 308 mosm/L. However, the osmolality usually increases to a greater degree because a large volume of relatively electrolyte-deficient urine is excreted during the evolution of the hyperglycemic state. The loss of this electrolyte-free water further raises the osmolality . In patients with ketoacidosis, high plasma acetone levels also contribute to the elevated osmolality." according to the pathogenesis flowchart (see figure 1) in this article ( Hyperglycemic Crises in Adult Patients With Diabetes ), there is no real difference in the pathogenesis to HHS first aid does mention than HHS is classically seen in elderly T2DM w/ limited ability to drink. is that the sole reason than HHS has hyperosmolarity? is the sugar way higher in HHS b/c T2DM patients have so much insulin resistance? whereas T1DM patients don't have insulin resistance T1DM is insulin dependent because they dont produce insulin at all, whereras T2DM has insulin resistance but produce Continue reading >>

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State (hhs)

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State (hhs)

By Erika F. Brutsaert, MD, Assistant Professor, Albert Einstein College of Medicine; Attending Physician, Montefiore Medical Center Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is a metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) characterized by severe hyperglycemia, extreme dehydration, hyperosmolar plasma, and altered consciousness. It most often occurs in type 2 DM, often in the setting of physiologic stress. HHS is diagnosed by severe hyperglycemia and plasma hyperosmolality and absence of significant ketosis. Treatment is IV saline solution and insulin. Complications include coma, seizures, and death. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHSpreviously referred to as hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic coma [HHNK] and nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome) is a complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus and has an estimated mortality rate of up to20%, which is significantly higher than the mortality for diabetic ketoacidosis (currently < 1%). It usually develops after a period of symptomatic hyperglycemia in which fluid intake is inadequate to prevent extreme dehydration due to the hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis. Acute infections and other medical conditions Drugs that impair glucose tolerance (glucocorticoids) or increase fluid loss (diuretics) Serum ketones are not present because the amounts of insulin present in most patients with type 2 DM are adequate to suppress ketogenesis. Because symptoms of acidosis are not present, most patients endure a significantly longer period of osmotic dehydration before presentation, and thus plasma glucose (> 600 mg/dL [> 33.3 mmol/L]) and osmolality (> 320 mOsm/L) are typically much higher than in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The primary symptom of HHS is altered consciousness varying from confusion or disorientation to coma, usually as Continue reading >>

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