diabetestalk.net

Dka Simplified

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes, making it a medical emergency. Nurses need to know how to identify and manage it and how to maintain electrolyte balance Continue reading >>

Infection As A Trigger Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Intensive Care—unit Patients

Infection As A Trigger Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Intensive Care—unit Patients

Together with hyperglycemic coma, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the most severe acute metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus [ 1 ]. Defined by the triad hyperglycemia, acidosis, and ketonuria, DKA can be inaugural or complicate known diabetes [ 2 ]. Although DKA is evidence of poor metabolic control and usually indicates an absolute or relative imbalance between the patient's requirements and the treatment, DKA-related mortality is low among patients who receive standardized treatment, which includes administration of insulin, correction of hydroelectrolytic disorders, and management of the triggering factor (which is often cessation of insulin therapy, an infection, or a myocardial infarction) [ 3–8 ]. Although there is no proof that diabetics are more susceptible to infection, they seem to have more difficulty handling infection once it occurs [ 9 , 10 ]. Indeed, several aspects of immunity are altered in diabetic patients: polymorphonuclear leukocyte function is depressed, particularly when acidosis is present, and leukocyte adherence, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and bactericidal activity may also be impaired [ 11–15 ]. Joshi et al. [ 10 ] reported recently on the lack of clinical evidence that diabetics are more susceptible to infection than nondiabetic patients. Nevertheless, infection is a well-recognized trigger of DKA. Earlier studies have investigated the prevalence of infection as a trigger of DKA and the impact of antimicrobial treatment [ 2 , 15–18 ]. However, none of these studies were of intensive care unit (ICU) patients only. Furthermore, most were descriptive, included small numbers of patients, used univariate analysis only, and did not designate infection as the sole outcome variable of interest. Efforts to identify correlates of infection h Continue reading >>

Understanding The Presentation Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Understanding The Presentation Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS) must be considered while forming a differential diagnosis when assessing and managing a patient with an altered mental status. This is especially true if the patient has a history of diabetes mellitus (DM). However, be aware that the onset of DKA or HHNS may be the first sign of DM in a patient with no known history. Thus, it is imperative to obtain a blood glucose reading on any patient with an altered mental status, especially if the patient appears to be dehydrated, regardless of a positive or negative history of DM. In addition to the blood glucose reading, the history — particularly onset — and physical assessment findings will contribute to the formulation of a differential diagnosis and the appropriate emergency management of the patient. Pathophysiology of DKA The patient experiencing DKA presents significantly different from one who is hypoglycemic. This is due to the variation in the pathology of the condition. Like hypoglycemia, by understanding the basic pathophysiology of DKA, there is no need to memorize signs and symptoms in order to recognize and differentiate between hypoglycemia and DKA. Unlike hypoglycemia, where the insulin level is in excess and the blood glucose level is extremely low, DKA is associated with a relative or absolute insulin deficiency and a severely elevated blood glucose level, typically greater than 300 mg/dL. Due to the lack of insulin, tissue such as muscle, fat and the liver are unable to take up glucose. Even though the blood has an extremely elevated amount of circulating glucose, the cells are basically starving. Because the blood brain barrier does not require insulin for glucose to diffuse across, the brain cells are rece Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Symptoms

Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Symptoms

A A A Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) results from dehydration during a state of relative insulin deficiency, associated with high blood levels of sugar level and organic acids called ketones. Diabetic ketoacidosis is associated with significant disturbances of the body's chemistry, which resolve with proper therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis usually occurs in people with type 1 (juvenile) diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but diabetic ketoacidosis can develop in any person with diabetes. Since type 1 diabetes typically starts before age 25 years, diabetic ketoacidosis is most common in this age group, but it may occur at any age. Males and females are equally affected. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when a person with diabetes becomes dehydrated. As the body produces a stress response, hormones (unopposed by insulin due to the insulin deficiency) begin to break down muscle, fat, and liver cells into glucose (sugar) and fatty acids for use as fuel. These hormones include glucagon, growth hormone, and adrenaline. These fatty acids are converted to ketones by a process called oxidation. The body consumes its own muscle, fat, and liver cells for fuel. In diabetic ketoacidosis, the body shifts from its normal fed metabolism (using carbohydrates for fuel) to a fasting state (using fat for fuel). The resulting increase in blood sugar occurs, because insulin is unavailable to transport sugar into cells for future use. As blood sugar levels rise, the kidneys cannot retain the extra sugar, which is dumped into the urine, thereby increasing urination and causing dehydration. Commonly, about 10% of total body fluids are lost as the patient slips into diabetic ketoacidosis. Significant loss of potassium and other salts in the excessive urination is also common. The most common Continue reading >>

Dka Vs Hhs (hhns) Nclex Review

Dka Vs Hhs (hhns) Nclex Review

Diabetic ketoacidosis vs hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS or HHS): What are the differences between these two complications of diabetes mellitus? This NCLEX review will simplify the differences between DKA and HHNS and give you a video lecture that easily explains their differences. Many students get these two complications confused due to their similarities, but there are major differences between these two complications. After reviewing this NCLEX review, don’t forget to take the quiz on DKA vs HHNS. Lecture on DKA and HHS DKA vs HHNS Diabetic Ketoacidosis Affects mainly Type 1 diabetics Ketones and Acidosis present Hyperglycemia presents >300 mg/dL Variable osmolality Happens Suddenly Causes: no insulin present in the body or illness/infection Seen in young or undiagnosed diabetics Main problems are hyperglycemia, ketones, and acidosis (blood pH <7.35) Clinical signs/symptoms: Kussmaul breathing, fruity breath, abdominal pain Treatment is the same as in HHNS (fluids, electrolyte replacement, and insulin) Watch potassium levels closely when giving insulin and make sure the level is at least 3.3 before administrating. Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome Affects mainly Type 2 diabetics No ketones or acidosis present EXTREME Hyperglycemia (remember heavy-duty hyperglycemia) >600 mg/dL sometimes four digits High Osmolality (more of an issue in HHNS than DKA) Happens Gradually Causes: mainly illness or infection and there is some insulin present which prevents the breakdown of ketones Seen in older adults due to illness or infection Main problems are dehydration & heavy-duty hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity (because the glucose is so high it makes the blood very concentrated) More likely to have mental status changes due to severe dehydrat Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic ketoacidosis is an acute metabolic complication of diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperketonemia, and metabolic acidosis. Hyperglycemia causes an osmotic diuresis with significant fluid and electrolyte loss. DKA occurs mostly in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). It causes nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain and can progress to cerebral edema, coma, and death. DKA is diagnosed by detection of hyperketonemia and anion gap metabolic acidosis in the presence of hyperglycemia. Treatment involves volume expansion, insulin replacement, and prevention of hypokalemia. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is most common among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and develops when insulin levels are insufficient to meet the body’s basic metabolic requirements. DKA is the first manifestation of type 1 DM in a minority of patients. Insulin deficiency can be absolute (eg, during lapses in the administration of exogenous insulin) or relative (eg, when usual insulin doses do not meet metabolic needs during physiologic stress). Common physiologic stresses that can trigger DKA include Some drugs implicated in causing DKA include DKA is less common in type 2 diabetes mellitus, but it may occur in situations of unusual physiologic stress. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes is a variant of type 2 diabetes, which is sometimes seen in obese individuals, often of African (including African-American or Afro-Caribbean) origin. People with ketosis-prone diabetes (also referred to as Flatbush diabetes) can have significant impairment of beta cell function with hyperglycemia, and are therefore more likely to develop DKA in the setting of significant hyperglycemia. SGLT-2 inhibitors have been implicated in causing DKA in both type 1 and type 2 DM. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka), Brief Description, Diagnosis And Management Simplified

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka), Brief Description, Diagnosis And Management Simplified

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life threatening complication of diabetes mellitis. DKA occurs predominantly in patients with type 1 diabetes and may be the presenting manifestation. It can also occur in patients with type 2 diabetes under certain circumstances. It results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies that cause most of the signs and symptoms. ETIOLOGY: DKA results from insulin insufficiency with a relative or absolute increase in glucagon and may be caused by insufficient or interrupted insulin therapy, infections (pneumonia, urinary tract infection, gastroenteritis, sepsis), infarction (cerebral, coronary, mesenteric, peripheral), emotional stress, excessive alcohol intake, surgery, pregnancy and trauma, and certain drugs such as steroids, cocaine etc. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: DKA clinically presents as polydypsia (excessive intake of fluid due to pronounced thirst), polyuria (excessive urination) anorexia (loss of appetite), nausea or vomiting, abdominal pain, rapid breathing (kussmaul respiration), fruity breath odor of acetone, fever, tachycardia, hypotension, signs of dehydration (dry skin and mucous membranes and poor skin turgor) and altered consciousness to coma. DKA is characterised by hyperglycemia, ketosis and metabolic acidosis (increased anion gap) along with a number of secondary metabolic derangement. The serum blood glucose is usually elevated (RBS > 250 mg/dL), ketones in the blood (serum ketones) and on urinalysis are positive, serum bicarbonate is less than 10 mmol/L, and arterial PH ranges between 6.8 to 7.3, depending upon the severity of acidosis. MANAGEMENT: Confirm the diagnosis of DKA(elevated blood sugar, positive serum/urinary ketones, metabolic Continue reading >>

Uk Doctor Calls For Dka Guidelines Revision In Bid To Improve Diagnosis

Uk Doctor Calls For Dka Guidelines Revision In Bid To Improve Diagnosis

A UK doctor has called for an overhaul of guidance related to the diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in adults. DKA is a complication of type 1 diabetes and, in some cases, latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA), characterised by a lack of insulin aggravated by high blood sugar levels and the build-up of ketone bodies in the blood. In a new editorial written in The Lancet, Dr Ketan Dhatariya, a diabetes and endocrinology consultant based at the Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Trust, argues that our national guidance is laconic. He believes that the international recommendations we resort to are largely outdated, and that a number of modifications should be made, highlighting new evidence that has emerged since the American Diabetes Association's (ADA) last position statement on DKA in 2009. Dhatariya's proposed changes include the use of more criteria to define DKA and different management options for short-term complications of DKA. The problem with the diagnosis of DKA, as seen by Dhatariya, is twofold: the blood sugar cut-off point of 13.9 mmol/L to identify DKA is set too high, and DKA is too often diagnosed based on a single risk factor like the disruption of insulin treatment or elevated ketone levels. Drawing from accumulated professional experience, Dhatariya knows that many patients vulnerable to DKA can present with smaller increases in blood sugar levels than this cut-off point after lowering their insulin dose, reducing their food intake, or when ill. By referring to the standardised cut off score of 13.9 mmol/mol, euglycemic DKA (defined as DKA without marked hyperglycemia) seen in patients with gestational diabetes or those treated with SGLT2 inhibitors, can go amiss too. Euglycemic DKA is thought to occur when blood Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a condition that results from when the body is deprived of the ability to use glucose as an energy source. Usually this is due to a lack of insulin. Insulin is used to uptake glucose into the cells to be used for energy. If there is no insulin or the cells are resistant to insulin, the blood sugar levels increase to dangerous levels for the patient. It seems counter intuitive that the patient wouldn't have energy with such high levels of glucose, but this glucose is essentially unusable without insulin. Because your body needs energy to survive, it starts turning to alternative fuel sources (fat). Fat cells start breaking down and, as a result, release ketones (which are acidic) into the bloodstream. Hence the name: diabetic ketoacidosis. “High levels of ketones can poison the body. When levels get too high, you can develop DKA. DKA may happen to anyone with diabetes, though it is rare in people with type 2. Treatment for DKA usually takes place in the hospital. But you can help prevent it by learning the warning signs and checking your urine and blood regularly.” Causes The most common causes of DKA are not getting enough insulin, having a severe infection, becoming dehydrated, or a combination of these issues. It seems like it occurs mainly in patients with type one diabetes. Symptoms Some of the symptoms that people experience with DKA include the following: Excessive thirst and urination (more water is pulled into the urine as a result of high ketone loss in the urine) Lethargy Breathing very quickly (patients have a very high level of acids in their bloodstream and they try to "blow" off carbon dioxide by breathing quickly) A fruity odor on their breath (ketones have a fruity smell) Nausea and vomiting (the body tries to get rid of acid Continue reading >>

Does Fluid Choice Make Any Difference In Dka?

Does Fluid Choice Make Any Difference In Dka?

Your patient is a 21 year-old female with a history of type 1 diabetes mellitus who was brought to the ED by her boyfriend for diminished responsiveness. In a stupor, she is unable to give any history. Her vitals are: BP 102/66, pulse 120, respiratory rate 24, temperature 98.9 oral, and O2 saturation 98% on room air. Her finger stick glucose is >500 mg/dl. She looks dry and is somnolent (GCS 9). Pupils are equal, round, and reactive. Neck is supple. She is protecting her airway well, her lungs are clear, and you hear no murmurs. Her belly is soft, and you see no signs of trauma or exanthema. Her skin tents when you pinch it. She is moving all extremities in response to noxious stimulus. As the rest of her labs (including serum osmolality and cultures, of course!) are sent off, her boyfriend tells you that she has not been taking her medications over the past 2 weeks and has had symptoms consistent with polydipsia and polyuria most noticeably over the past few days. A rapid shock panel returns with a glucose level of >500 mg/dl, pH 7.2, bicarbonate 10, and a urine dipstick shows large ketones. These confirm your suspicion of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). You wait for further results to decide whether a full sepsis work-up and antibiotics are necessary. In the meantime, you look at the bag of normal saline (0.9% saline solution) that is already hanging and you wonder, “Am I sure this is really the best solution to resuscitate a patient with DKA?” Consensus for Resuscitation in DKA Diabetic ketoacidosis is one of the diseases for which emergency physicians are expected to have a plan to quickly put into action. The basics should be familiar: Manage the patient’s ABCs, place an IV, put the patient on a monitor to check vitals frequently, and start with an intravenous f Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Explained

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Explained

Twitter Summary: DKA - a major complication of #diabetes – we describe what it is, symptoms, who’s at risk, prevention + treatment! One of the most notorious complications of diabetes is diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA. First described in the late 19th century, DKA represented something close to the ultimate diabetes emergency: In just 24 hours, people can experience an onset of severe symptoms, all leading to coma or death. But DKA also represents one of the great triumphs of the revolution in diabetes care over the last century. Before the discovery of insulin in 1920, DKA was almost invariably fatal, but the mortality rate for DKA dropped to below 30 percent within 10 years, and now fewer than 1 percent of those who develop DKA die from it, provided they get adequate care in time. Don’t skip over that last phrase, because it’s crucial: DKA is very treatable, but only as long as it’s diagnosed promptly and patients understand the risk. Table of Contents: What are the symptoms of DKA? Does DKA occur in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes? What Can Patients do to Prevent DKA? What is DKA? Insulin plays a critical role in the body’s functioning: it tells cells to absorb the glucose in the blood so that the body can use it for energy. When there’s no insulin to take that glucose out of the blood, high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) results. The body will also start burning fatty acids for energy, since it can’t get that energy from glucose. To make fatty acids usable for energy, the liver has to convert them into compounds known as ketones, and these ketones make the blood more acidic. DKA results when acid levels get too high in the blood. There are other issues too, as DKA also often leads to the overproduction and release of hormones like glucagon and adrenaline Continue reading >>

Bedside Monitoring Of Blood Β-hydroxybutyrate Levels In The Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Children

Bedside Monitoring Of Blood Β-hydroxybutyrate Levels In The Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Children

Arleta Rewers, M.D., Ph.D.Kim McFann, Ph.D. The Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado. H. Peter Chase, M.D. The Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado. Introduction: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) affects many children with type 1 diabetes. Insulin treatment of DKA is traditionally guided by changes in the blood glucose levels and blood gases, whereas β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB)—the main ketoacid causing acidosis—is rarely measured. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if bedside monitoring of blood β-OHB levels can simplify management of DKA through elimination of superfluous laboratory monitoring. Methods: Our emergency department treated 68 children with DKA using a standard protocol with monitoring of venous pH, partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), bicarbonate, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, and electrolytes (two to 10 time points per patient). Venous β-OHB levels were measured using the Precision Xtra™ meter (MediSense/Abbott Diabetes Care, Abbott Park, IL) and, on duplicate batched serum samples, using a reference laboratory method (Cobas Mira Plus; Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN). Correlations between bedside meter β-OHB and other parameters were evaluated in a series of general linear models with a time series covariance structure fit using spatial power law. Results: The bedside meter β-OHB levels were significantly correlated with pH (r = –0.63; P <0.0001), bicarbonate (r = –0.74; P <0.0001), and pCO2 (r = –0.55; P <0.0001) at all points of measurement during the treatment (unadjusted Pearson correlations). The pH, bicarbonate, and pCO2 were entered into separate time series an Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a medical emergency that can happen in people with diabetes mellitus. DKA happens mostly in people with Type 1 diabetes, although it may happen in some people that have Type 2 diabetes. DKA happens when a person does not have enough insulin in their body. All of the cells in the body need glucose (sugar) to survive, because the body needs sugar to make energy. Insulin breaks down glucose into a form that the body can use for energy. Without insulin, sugar stays in the blood and cannot get into the cells. This causes high blood sugar levels and makes it impossible for the cells to use glucose to make energy. DKA can be caused by not having enough insulin, eating too many carbohydrates, and sometimes physical or mental stress. DKA can also be a sign that a person has diabetes that has not been discovered, or is not being controlled well. DKA is diagnosed through blood and urine testing. These tests will show high blood sugar, which does not happen with other forms of ketoacidosis. DKA was first discovered around 1886. Before insulin therapy was first used in the 1920s, DKA almost always caused death. The "3 polys" of DKA: Polydipsia (feeling very thirsty; this is caused by dehydration) Polyphagia (feeling very hungry; the brain realizes the body's cells are not getting enough sugar and triggers hunger, because normally eating would give the cells the sugar they need) Polyuria (urinating a lot; this is the body's way of trying to get rid of the extra glucose in the bloodstream) A "fruity" smell on the breath (acetone breath, caused by the body trying to blow off the acids and waste products created by DKA) Abdominal pain As DKA gets worse, it can cause these symptoms:[2] Confusion, which becomes worse and worse (because the brain is not getti Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment & Management

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment & Management

Approach Considerations Managing diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in an intensive care unit during the first 24-48 hours always is advisable. When treating patients with DKA, the following points must be considered and closely monitored: It is essential to maintain extreme vigilance for any concomitant process, such as infection, cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, sepsis, or deep venous thrombosis. It is important to pay close attention to the correction of fluid and electrolyte loss during the first hour of treatment. This always should be followed by gradual correction of hyperglycemia and acidosis. Correction of fluid loss makes the clinical picture clearer and may be sufficient to correct acidosis. The presence of even mild signs of dehydration indicates that at least 3 L of fluid has already been lost. Patients usually are not discharged from the hospital unless they have been able to switch back to their daily insulin regimen without a recurrence of ketosis. When the condition is stable, pH exceeds 7.3, and bicarbonate is greater than 18 mEq/L, the patient is allowed to eat a meal preceded by a subcutaneous (SC) dose of regular insulin. Insulin infusion can be discontinued 30 minutes later. If the patient is still nauseated and cannot eat, dextrose infusion should be continued and regular or ultra–short-acting insulin should be administered SC every 4 hours, according to blood glucose level, while trying to maintain blood glucose values at 100-180 mg/dL. The 2011 JBDS guideline recommends the intravenous infusion of insulin at a weight-based fixed rate until ketosis has subsided. Should blood glucose fall below 14 mmol/L (250 mg/dL), 10% glucose should be added to allow for the continuation of fixed-rate insulin infusion. [19, 20] In established patient Continue reading >>

More in ketosis