Dka Patient Education

Share on facebook

What is DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS? What does DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS mean? DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS meaning - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS definition - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine. The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium. Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked. Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection. In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended. Rates of DKA vary around the world. About 4% of people with type 1 diabetes in United Kingdom develop DKA a year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year. DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost universally fatal. The risk of death with adequate and timely treatment is currently around 1–4%. Up to 1% of children with DKA develop a complication known as cerebral edema. The symptoms of an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a period of about 24 hours. Predominant symptoms are nausea and vomiting, pronounced thirst, excessive urine production and abdominal pain that may be severe. Those who measure their glucose levels themselves may notice hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). In severe DKA, breathing becomes labored and of a deep, gasping character (a state referred to as "Kussmaul respiration"). The abdomen may be tender to the point that an acute abdomen may be suspected, such as acute pancreatitis, appendicitis or gastrointestinal perforation. Coffee ground vomiting (vomiting of altered blood) occurs in a minority of people; this tends to originate from erosion of the esophagus. In severe DKA, there may be confusion, lethargy, stupor or even coma (a marked decrease in the level of consciousness). On physical examination there is usually clinical evidence of dehydration, such as a dry mouth and decreased skin turgor. If the dehydration is profound enough to cause a decrease in the circulating blood volume, tachycardia (a fast heart rate) and low blood pressure may be observed. Often, a "ketotic" odor is present, which is often described as "fruity", often compared to the smell of pear drops whose scent is a ketone. If Kussmaul respiration is present, this is reflected in an increased respiratory rate.....

Management Of Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Go to: Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a rare yet potentially fatal hyperglycemic crisis that can occur in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Due to its increasing incidence and economic impact related to the treatment and associated morbidity, effective management and prevention is key. Elements of management include making the appropriate diagnosis using current laboratory tools and clinical criteria and coordinating fluid resuscitation, insulin therapy, and electrolyte replacement through feedback obtained from timely patient monitoring and knowledge of resolution criteria. In addition, awareness of special populations such as patients with renal disease presenting with DKA is important. During the DKA therapy, complications may arise and appropriate strategies to prevent these complications are required. DKA prevention strategies including patient and provider education are important. This review aims to provide a brief overview of DKA from its pathophysiology to clinical presentation with in depth focus on up-to-date therapeutic management. Keywords: DKA treatment, insulin, prevention, ESKD Go to: Introduction In 2009, there were 140,000 hospitalization Continue reading >>

Share on facebook

Popular Questions

  1. MathWiz

    I wasn’t sure which section I should post this in, my strategy is what I call the 4–2–1 plan, I fast 2 day non consecutive days a week, eat a low carb but not calorie restricted diet 4 days a week to keep the fat burning benefits of ketosis going and then I give myself 1 day a week to indulge and eat whatever I want, usually a Saturday pasta dinner and wonderful dessert. I also walk 4 to 6 miles a day during the week and 10 to 12 miles on Saturday.
    Low Carb plans such as Atkins can be very effective for some people including me, many people who start a low carb diet experience get what’s called the “ketosis flu” or the “induction flu” in the first few days while the body is adapting to burning ketones instead of glucose.
    The basic symptoms are:
    – Headaches
    – Nausea
    – Upset stomach
    – Lack of mental clarity (brain fog)
    – Sleepiness
    – Fatigue
    It’s called the “ketosis flu” for a reason: you feel sick. I’ve gone through it and it wasn’t a pleasant experience. Fortunately it only lasted 2 days but then suddenly I woke up feeling much better, less hungry and my energy level was really high and consistent throughout the day!
    The first time I thought to myself: “What the heck am I doing? I feel like I’m going to die!” but I persevered and when it was over I didn’t regret a thing because what I had gained mentally and physically was 100% worth it.
    For those of you that are going through the ketosis flu, don’t give up! I know you feel like it’s never going to get better but stick with it and you´ll be so happy you did! I’m telling you, waking up refreshed for the first time in years, not getting the afternoon “blah” feeling and stuffing my face with carbs to try to boost my energy is the best side effect of the low carb diet I’ve experienced. Okay, losing weight while eating good food, feeling full and satisfied is great too.
    First you have to understand why your body is reacting this way. Your body’s been burning glucose for energy so it’s basically full of enzymes that are waiting to deal with the carbs you eat, but now the body needs to make new enzymes that burn fat for fuel instead of carbs, and the transition period causes the flu-like symptoms.
    There are some things you can do to lessen the symptoms of the ketosis flu and to make it go away sooner (to force the body to transition sooner) Ok, let’s get to the good part – what to do:
    First of all – you’re probably dehydrated. Drink PLENTY of water while you’re on a low carb diet, and then drink some more.
    Watch your electrolytes. When the body is getting rid of excess insulin from your former carb-crazy diet you´ll lose lots of fluids that have been retained in your body. This causes the rapid weight loss most people see in their first few days of ketosis, it’s mostly water, sorry. When you lose all the retained water you also lose electrolytes like sodium, magnesium and potassium. When you’re lacking them you´ll feel like crap so when you’re feeling really ill on the ketosis flu try things like chicken/beef broth and look for foods rich in these minerals. Take a multi-vitamin and a multi-mineral.
    Ok, here is where people throw the red flag – Eat more fat – Yup, I said MORE fat. Have some butter, just not on a roll, eat some bacon and eggs for breakfast, just skip the potatoes and toast. This will force your body to hurry up the transition. You´ll think this is crazy and think you´ll never get lose weight eating this way, but you will.
    Don’t eat too much protein – The body can transform protein into glucose so if you eat too much of it in the first days it will slow down the transition. Go for fatty meat and cheese if you can, add fat to protein shakes etc.
    Drink water, replenish electrolytes (sodium, magnesium, potassium) with food and supplements, drink broth, eat fat and not too much protein.
    I hope this helps, and have a great day

  2. rockyromero

    ” Take a multi-vitamin and a multi-mineral.”
    I have been forgetting to take a multi-vitamin on fast days. Thanks for the reminder.
    “Eat more fat – Yup, I said MORE fat. ”
    I will have avocado more often.

  3. AussieJess

    Thanks for that info, very interesting

  4. -> Continue reading
read more
Share on facebook

What is KETOACIDOSIS? What does KETOACIDOSIS mean? KETOACIDOSIS meaning - KETOACIDOSIS definition - KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Ketoacidosis is a pathological metabolic state marked by extreme and uncontrolled ketosis. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal. Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. Prolonged alcoholism may lead to alcoholic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be smelled on a person's breath. This is due to acetone, a direct by-product of the spontaneous decomposition of acetoacetic acid. It is often described as smelling like fruit or nail polish remover. Ketosis may also smell, but the odor is usually more subtle due to lower concentrations of acetone. Treatment consists most simply of correcting blood sugar and insulin levels, which will halt ketone production. If the severity of the case warrants more aggressive measures, intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion can be given to raise blood pH back to an acceptable range. However, serious caution must be exercised with IV sodium bicarbonate to avoid the risk of equally life-threatening hypernatremia. Three common causes of ketoacidosis are alcohol, starvation, and diabetes, resulting in alcoholic ketoacidosis, starvation ketoacidosis, and diabetic ketoacidosis respectively. In diabetic ketoacidosis, a high concentration of ketone bodies is usually accompanied by insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia, and dehydration. Particularly in type 1 diabetics the lack of insulin in the bloodstream prevents glucose absorption, thereby inhibiting the production of oxaloacetate (a crucial molecule for processing Acetyl-CoA, the product of beta-oxidation of fatty acids, in the Krebs cycle) through reduced levels of pyruvate (a byproduct of glycolysis), and can cause unchecked ketone body production (through fatty acid metabolism) potentially leading to dangerous glucose and ketone levels in the blood. Hyperglycemia results in glucose overloading the kidneys and spilling into the urine (transport maximum for glucose is exceeded). Dehydration results following the osmotic movement of water into urine (Osmotic diuresis), exacerbating the acidosis. In alcoholic ketoacidosis, alcohol causes dehydration and blocks the first step of gluconeogenesis by depleting oxaloacetate. The body is unable to synthesize enough glucose to meet its needs, thus creating an energy crisis resulting in fatty acid metabolism, and ketone body formation.

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar l Continue reading >>

Share on facebook

Popular Questions

  1. [deleted]


    Sweet, Walgreens has Ketostix on sale! Wait...what? (i.imgur.com)

    35 comments share save hide

    all 35 comments
    sorted by: best

    Want to add to the discussion?
    Post a comment!

    Create an account


    Don`t forget, you can cut them in half and get double value!

  3. Wyrd_5

    Haven't used ketostix yet. Is this true? Just cut em in half and instead of 50 you have 100, tinier ketostix, the only downside being a slightly higher risk of peeing on your hand?

  4. -> Continue reading
read more
Share on facebook

DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis) Vs HHNS (Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome) Tables From Step Up to Medicine (3rd Edition, Agabegi) Here is the link for the Quick Hits =) http://imgur.com/TnJPBmu

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

In Brief Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) are two acute complications of diabetes that can result in increased morbidity and mortality if not efficiently and effectively treated. Mortality rates are 2–5% for DKA and 15% for HHS, and mortality is usually a consequence of the underlying precipitating cause(s) rather than a result of the metabolic changes of hyperglycemia. Effective standardized treatment protocols, as well as prompt identification and treatment of the precipitating cause, are important factors affecting outcome. The two most common life-threatening complications of diabetes mellitus include diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS). Although there are important differences in their pathogenesis, the basic underlying mechanism for both disorders is a reduction in the net effective concentration of circulating insulin coupled with a concomitant elevation of counterregulatory hormones (glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone). These hyperglycemic emergencies continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes. DKA is reported to be responsible fo Continue reading >>

Share on facebook

Popular Questions

  1. thinketo

    Hi all,
    This is my first post so go easy on me. I discovered the podcast about a week and a half ago (thanks to Paul Thurrott on Windows Weekly) and have spent some time catching up. I have very much enjoyed getting educated.
    Me - I typically workout 3-4 times per week and run 3-4 times per week. These alternate days, i.e. only one workout per day whatever it may be. Strength training is 45-1 hour fairly high intensity using the 5x5 Stronglifts program - I have been doing this for a couple years with cycles - works great for me. I run 30 - 45 mins with varying intensities. In the summer I regularly have one long run (for me) per week of between 5-8 miles. I also bike frequently in the summer...as I am a bike nerd.
    I am 47 male - 5'6 with 34 inch waist. I have not been eating well over the bast 3 months and have gotten up to about 190. In the summer I can get to 170 ish and a 32" or so waist. FWIW - I have been on this evil cycle for along time - winter just isn't my season I guess.... Adding muscle, even at my age, has never been a problem for me but cutting fat has. In my twenties I was 150.... but not with near the frame I have now. I think 165 would be a great weight, but it really is not about the number and more my pants fit! I just want to be healthy.
    I am duly educating myself and want to give this a try in a week or so. I am slowly getting my kitchen ready and piling up recopies to keep me going. I am gluten sensitive so that comes into play but makes it easier.
    There seems to be some debate about going through the initiation and flu while exercising. On a podcast, I seem to remember the recommendation to avoid exercise during this time. I really don't want to do that, but want to get in to past the first 3-4 weeks.
    What advice do you have for me?
    Thanks in advance and sorry to be overly verbose.

    Edit - I also have "mostly" adopted a primal lifestyle aka Mark Sisson so I think that fits pretty well into keto. Just throwing that out there and am curious to know if anyone else is keto and Primal. To be honest - I fallen off the that past few months.... so there is room for improvement :-).

  2. Emacfarland

    I'm a runner and weight lifter and had a fairly easy time transitioning to keto at the beginning of 2015. Really make sure to utilize the advice of getting enough salt and electrolytes and fat, it will keep your energy level up. You might see either a dip in performance initially or an increase in energy and performance followed by a slump a couple months after going keto. I've heard both of these scenarios. Your endurance and performance levels will adjust the longer you're in ketosis. Also I know it might not sound like a concern at the moment but those of us who engage in high levels of activity while doing keto can become quite lean, even to a point of it affecting your health. This is less a concern for men than women, but as your body fat levels dip you might notice flagging energy, lower libido...it's a good idea to keep fat levels high enough and test how you do with more carbs. I got dangerously lean on keto while running and doing weights and had to go off to regain weight. I've been back on for just over three months and am correcting the mistakes I made before, and I feel great. Just don't short change your self on getting enough fat and overall calories

  3. rodan5150

    My experience was that the first week was tough for me in the gym, but I went anyway and pushed through it. I had already been going on a regular basis so it wasn't that bad overall, I just felt a little weak/drained. I made sure I got plenty of fluids and electrolytes, especially sodium and potassium. I supplement with 300mg of potassium citrate per day and then I salt the hell out of my food all day to try and hit my goals there.
    My advice is to test the water and see how you feel. If you feel like crap, cut it back some and then try again the next day. You're already used to working out, so your transition won't be a tough as someone who starts keto AND starts going to the gym at the same time in my opinion. I think you will enjoy the keto way of life, you sound like a perfect candidate for losing that nagging fat weight.

    edit: I wanted to add a "Good luck!" in there as well!

  4. -> Continue reading
read more

No more pages to load

Related Articles

  • Diabetes Patient Education Brochure

    American Academy of Dermatology, 1-888-462-3376 www.aad.org This site offers a wealth of dermatology related patient education information, as well as information for health care professionals. American Cancer Society, 1-800-227-2345 www.cancer.org This site provides information on prevention (including diet, smoking, exercise, alcohol, hormones), risk factors, mammograms (with tips on how to get a good mammogram), BSE, and treatment options. The ...

    diabetes Apr 23, 2018
  • Free Diabetes Patient Education Materials

    Table of Contents Click on any of the links below to access helpful materials on managing all aspects of diabetes that can be printed and given to your patients . Introductory Information 1. Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Symptoms, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment (e.g., insulin) 2. Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Symptoms, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment (e.g., medications) 3. Women and Diabetes: Eating and weight, pregnancy, and heart disease 4. Me ...

    diabetes Apr 24, 2018
  • Type 2 Diabetes Patient Education Handout

    Diabetes self-management education helps people to stay healthy and prevent costly complications, yet very few people with diabetes attend a course. Diabetes UK's Taking Control campaign aims to increase the provision and uptake of diabetes self-management education, so that everyone with diabetes has the skills and confidence to take control of their condition. This page gives healthcare professionals and local decision makers more information a ...

    diabetes Apr 5, 2018
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis Patient Education Handout

    Hyperglycemia means high blood sugar or glucose. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that moves glucose into your cells to give them energy. Hyperglycemia happens when your body doesn't make enough insulin or can't use it the right way. People with diabetes can get hyperglycemia from not eating the right foods or not taking medicines correctly. Other problems that can raise blood sugar include infections, certain medicines, ...

    diabetes Mar 31, 2018
  • Dka Patient Education

    Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes, making it a medical emergency. Nurses need to know how to identify and manage it and how to maintain electrolyte balance ...

    ketosis Feb 27, 2018
  • American Diabetes Association Patient Education Videos

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) — A diagnosis your doctor(s) can make. This is usually based on abnormal blood & urine tests that may show decreased kidney function, or an injury to the kidney(s) that has occurred over time. Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) — An estimation of your kidneys’ overall function (i.e. its ability to filter your blood and remove toxins). Creatinine — A normal muscle breakdown product measured in your blood (part of ...

    diabetes Jan 15, 2018

More in ketosis