Dka Pathophysiology

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Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic disorder that can occur in animals with diabetes mellitus (DM).1,2 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in managing and treating patients with this life-threatening condition. In addition to recognizing the clinical signs of this disorder and evaluating the patient's response to therapy, technicians should understand how this disorder occurs. DM is caused by a relative or absolute lack of insulin production by the pancreatic b-cells or by inactivity or loss of insulin receptors, which are usually found on membranes of skeletal muscle, fat, and liver cells.1,3 In dogs and cats, DM is classified as either insulin-dependent (the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin) or non-insulin-dependent (the body produces insulin, but the tissues in the body are resistant to the insulin).4 Most dogs and cats that develop DKA have an insulin deficiency. Insulin has many functions, including the enhancement of glucose uptake by the cells for energy.1 Without insulin, the cells cannot access glucose, thereby causing them to undergo starvation.2 The unused glucose remains in the circulation, resulting in hyperglycemia. To provide cells Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. genesis530

    I am a professional barista who has worked in two different coffee shops (family owned upscale) and make special low carb drinks all the time. If any of you have a favorite drink that you need modified for keto, let me know and I can let you know what to tell your barista so they make it properly.
    As far as keto goes, you can have espresso or matcha/tea lattes made with almond milk (if they use the unsweetened kind) or coconut milk and the sugar free syrups, iced or hot. Cappuccinos and macchiatos can't really be made well with non-dairy milk by all baristas, but you can have those too if you get someone good. I'll get to the heavy whipping cream thing further down.
    You can only have chai (or other tea) lattes if they make their own unsweetened concentrate. Prepackaged chai concentrate has tons of sugar and preservatives, plus it's no where near as good. If you're in a coffee shop and they DO use prepackaged chai, ask them to brew you a fresh 4oz chai (or matcha/green or herbal tea If you don't want chai) and let it sit 6 minutes then make your latte from that. The flavor is fantastic. Any quality coffee shop should be happy to do this, not sure if Starbucks will though.
    Most of the time, heavy creams used have 1 or .5 carbs per two tablespoons (companies aren't required to list that it has any if it's .5g or lower per serving). Heavy cream is not zero carb. Lattes typically have 6oz to 12oz of milk in them. There are 2 tablespoons in 1oz, so keep in mind that your heavy whipping cream latte (called a breve) and depending on the size these Brians, could have 6 to 12 carbs per drink and up to 600 to 1200 calories. Almond milk and coconut milk usually has 1 to 2 carbs per 8oz and 30-50 calories. Half and Half has less calories but similar carbs compared too hwc. So just use your better judgement.
    Iced coffee with hwc is great on keto because they typically only add one to three ounces of cream compared too the 6 to 12 in breves.
    If you want an espresso drink made with Half and Half, it's a breve, not a latte. Lattes use milk. You can get breves made with hwc.
    If you have a hot ( cold is by actual volume minus ice) 20oz drink ( example), there are typically 4oz of espresso in it (4 ish shots). Your drink does NOT have 16oz of milk (or alt whatever) in it. It has closer to 10 or 12 depending on the drink. When you steam ( stretch) milk you incorporate air and it can up to double in volume. A good bit of it is air and doesn't need to be counted. Keep this in mind if you log your meals.
    The exception to the milk stretching is almond and coconut milk ( especially coconut). They lack the fat and proteins to stretch as much as dairy. Almond ( typically, depending on your barista's skill) stretches about 1/3 and coconut is about 1/4.
    If you really miss your mocha latte and are totally bummed out that you can't have chocolate syrup, most places have unsweetened cocoa powder somewhere. Have them add a half a tablespoon ( small/12oz drink) to 1.5 tablespoons (20oz/large) of unsweetened cocoa powder to two ounces of steamed milk. It has to be hot steamed milk or the cocoa powder won't mix in. Then add however many pumps of sugar free vanilla syrup (to your taste preference) and mix it in. Add this mixture to the espresso shot, mix), and then add whatever other steamed dairy/alt dairy you want to use. Bonus points to your barista if they offer to add a bit of cinnamon. This balances the flavor of the espresso and cocoa powder and is really yummy.
    I hope this helps some of you out next time you hit up your favorite coffee shop!

  2. Drakitha

    My favorite keto coffee shop drink is iced coffee with extra heavy cream and 6shots of sugar free vanilla. (I dont like my coffee to taste too much like coffee)

  3. veterinarygopher

    I switched to an americano with a splash of cream and some Splenda. I love my espresso but didn't want the calories from a latte or breve.

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