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Dka Leading To Stroke

Diabetes, Heart Attack Risk And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetes, Heart Attack Risk And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

People with diabetes have heart attacks or strokes more than twice as often as people without diabetes. 1 In addition, two out of three people with diabetes eventually die from these conditions, according to the American Diabetes Association. 2 Heart Disease Risk Factors According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), if you have diabetes your risk of death by heart disease may be two to four times greater than for someone who doesn’t have diabetes. 3 The American Heart Association cites the same statistic, adding that at least 68 percent of people with diabetes who are older than 65 years of age die of heart disease. 4 Other risks for heart disease include high LDL cholesterol levels, high blood pressure (hypertension), and high triglyceride levels, according to the CDC. 5 Many people with diabetes also have a combination of other risk factors: low HDL cholesterol, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle. 6 High Blood Sugar and Heart Disease Over time, high blood sugar may lead to increased fatty deposits on blood vessel walls, affecting blood flow and increasing the chance of blood vessel hardening. This is according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). 7 Heart Attack Warning Signs The risk of having a heart attack is higher for diabetics and diabetics who have already suffered one heart attack have an even greater risk of having a second. NIDDK mentions some important warning signs that may indicate you might be experiencing a heart attack, such as chest, arm, jaw, neck, back or stomach pain. 8 Other possible symptoms of a heart attack include shortness of breath, nausea, sweating and lightheadedness. 9 Reducing Your Risks as a Diabetic If you have diabetes, th Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Abbas E. Kitabchi, PhD., MD., FACP, FACE Professor of Medicine & Molecular Sciences and Maston K. Callison Professor in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism UT Health Science Center, 920 Madison Ave., 300A, Memphis, TN 38163 Aidar R. Gosmanov, M.D., Ph.D., D.M.Sc. Assistant Professor of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 920 Madison Avenue, Suite 300A, Memphis, TN 38163 Clinical Recognition Omission of insulin and infection are the two most common precipitants of DKA. Non-compliance may account for up to 44% of DKA presentations; while infection is less frequently observed in DKA patients. Acute medical illnesses involving the cardiovascular system (myocardial infarction, stroke, acute thrombosis) and gastrointestinal tract (bleeding, pancreatitis), diseases of endocrine axis (acromegaly, Cushing`s syndrome, hyperthyroidism) and impaired thermo-regulation or recent surgical procedures can contribute to the development of DKA by causing dehydration, increase in insulin counter-regulatory hormones, and worsening of peripheral insulin resistance. Medications such as diuretics, beta-blockers, corticosteroids, second-generation anti-psychotics, and/or anti-convulsants may affect carbohydrate metabolism and volume status and, therefore, could precipitateDKA. Other factors: psychological problems, eating disorders, insulin pump malfunction, and drug abuse. It is now recognized that new onset T2DM can manifest with DKA. These patients are obese, mostly African Americans or Hispanics and have undiagnosed hyperglycemia, impaired insulin secretion, and insulin action. A recent report suggests that cocaine abuse is an independent risk factor associated with DKA recurrence. Pathophysiology In Continue reading >>

Stroke In A Child With Adams-oliver Syndrome And Mixed Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Stroke In A Child With Adams-oliver Syndrome And Mixed Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Diabetes mellitus complicated by mixed diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome presents a special challenge to physicians. There is no standard protocol for the management of mixed hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome and diabetic ketoacidosis in children. The commonest cause of neurological deterioration during an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis is cerebral edema, whereas hyperosmolality often leads to thrombosis. The risks for these complications are further increased in diseases associated with vasculopathies. We present the first case of complex cerebral arteriovenous thrombosis leading to stroke in a child with Adams-Oliver syndrome, a genetic condition that is associated with abnormal vasculogenesis. He presented with new-onset double diabetes complicated by a combination of diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, and magnetic resonance venography provided evidence for an ischemic stroke. Children and adolescents who present with a combination of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome and diabetic ketoacidosis should be monitored for neurologic deficits and must be investigated for both stroke and cerebral edema in the event of neurological deterioration. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication of diabetes caused by a lack of insulin in the body. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body is unable to use blood sugar (glucose) because there isn't enough insulin. Instead, it breaks down fat as an alternative source of fuel. This causes a build-up of a by-product called ketones. Most cases of diabetic ketoacidosis occur in people with type 1 diabetes, although it can also be a complication of type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: passing large amounts of urine feeling very thirsty vomiting abdominal pain Seek immediate medical assistance if you have any of these symptoms and your blood sugar levels are high. Read more about the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis. Who is affected by diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a relatively common complication in people with diabetes, particularly children and younger adults who have type 1 diabetes. Younger children under four years of age are thought to be most at risk. In about 1 in 4 cases, diabetic ketoacidosis develops in people who were previously unaware they had type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis accounts for around half of all diabetes-related hospital admissions in people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis triggers These include: infections and other illnesses not keeping up with recommended insulin injections Read more about potential causes of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diagnosing diabetic ketoacidosis This is a relatively straightforward process. Blood tests can be used to check your glucose levels and any chemical imbalances, such as low levels of potassium. Urine tests can be used to estimate the number of ketones in your body. Blood and urine tests can also be used to check for an underlying infec Continue reading >>

About Diabetes

About Diabetes

Complications of diabetes Diabetes complications are divided into microvascular (due to damage to small blood vessels) and macrovascular (due to damage to larger blood vessels). Microvascular complications include damage to eyes (retinopathy) leading to blindness, to kidneys (nephropathy) leading to renal failure and to nerves (neuropathy) leading to impotence and diabetic foot disorders (which include severe infections leading to amputation). Macrovascular complications include cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks, strokes and insufficiency in blood flow to legs. There is evidence from large randomized-controlled trials that good metabolic control in both type 1 and 2 diabetes can delay the onset and progression of these complications. Diabetic retinopathy (eye disease) Etiology Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness and visual disability. It is caused by small blood vessel damage to the back layer of the eye, the retina, leading to progressive loss of vision, even blindness. Symptoms Usually the patient complains of blurred vision, although other visual symptoms may also be present. Diagnosis Diagnosis of early changes in the blood vessels of the retina can be made through regular eye examinations. Treatment Good metabolic control can delay the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy. As well, early detection and treatment of vision-threatening retinopathy can prevent or delay blindness. This involves regular eye examinations and timely intervention Nephropathy (kidney disease) Etiology Diabetic kidney disease is also caused by damage to small blood vessels in the kidneys. This can cause kidney failure, and eventually lead to death. In developed countries, this is a leading cause of dialysis and kidney transplant. Symptoms Patients usually Continue reading >>

Acute Cerebellar Infarction In A Young Patient Presenting With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Acute Cerebellar Infarction In A Young Patient Presenting With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Abstract The neurological complications of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) include cerebral oedema or, rarely, acute cerebrovascular accident (CVA) due to ischaemic brain infarction or haemorrhage. These complications result from complex haemostatic mechanisms involving a state of systemic inflammation, coagulopathy, endothelial dysfunction and loss of blood volume induced by insulin deficiency. The development of cerebral oedema is believed to be under-reported in adult patients with DKA as compared to children. Only a limited number of case reports exist in the literature regarding the development of CVA as a complication of DKA in adults. A high index of suspicion needs to be maintained for early recognition of neurological complications as associated signs and symptoms may only be subtle and masked by altered sensorium commonly seen in the acute phase of DKA, leading to potentially catastrophic consequences if left untreated. Here we present the case of a 22-year-old man with type 1 diabetes who developed cerebellar infarction with associated brainstem herniation as a complication of diabetic ketoacidosis and required urgent neurosurgical intervention. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons. Practical Diabetes 2012; 29(9): 377–379 Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

In Brief Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) are two acute complications of diabetes that can result in increased morbidity and mortality if not efficiently and effectively treated. Mortality rates are 2–5% for DKA and 15% for HHS, and mortality is usually a consequence of the underlying precipitating cause(s) rather than a result of the metabolic changes of hyperglycemia. Effective standardized treatment protocols, as well as prompt identification and treatment of the precipitating cause, are important factors affecting outcome. The two most common life-threatening complications of diabetes mellitus include diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS). Although there are important differences in their pathogenesis, the basic underlying mechanism for both disorders is a reduction in the net effective concentration of circulating insulin coupled with a concomitant elevation of counterregulatory hormones (glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone). These hyperglycemic emergencies continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes. DKA is reported to be responsible for more than 100,000 hospital admissions per year in the United States1 and accounts for 4–9% of all hospital discharge summaries among patients with diabetes.1 The incidence of HHS is lower than DKA and accounts for <1% of all primary diabetic admissions.1 Most patients with DKA have type 1 diabetes; however, patients with type 2 diabetes are also at risk during the catabolic stress of acute illness.2 Contrary to popular belief, DKA is more common in adults than in children.1 In community-based studies, more than 40% of African-American patients with DKA were >40 years of age and more than 2 Continue reading >>

Risk Factors For Cerebral Oedema In Children And Adolescents With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Risk Factors For Cerebral Oedema In Children And Adolescents With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Cerebral oedema (CO) is a rare life-threatening complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children. We analysed the biochemical and therapeutic risk factors for CO in DKA by a retrospective review of 256 children hospitalized for DKA between February 2003 and March 2015. The demographic characteristics, biochemical variables and therapeutic interventions were compared between the patients with and without CO. CO was observed in 22 (8.6%) of the 256 subjects included in the study. One of these patients (5%) had a fatal outcome and two patients (9%) survived with neurological consequences. CO was significantly associated with severe DKA: lower initial venous pH (p < 0.001) and bicarbonate (p < 0.001), higher initial blood glucose (p < 0.01), urea level (p < 0.05) and baseline serum osmolality (р < 0.05). During the treatment of DKA, low serum phosphate level was found to be significantly associated with CO (p < 0.05). We also found significant dependence between the development of CO and the initiation of treatment for DKA in another facility before hospitalization in our hospital (p < 0.05), bicarbonate application (p < 0.001), higher fluid volume infused initially (p < 0.01) and delayed potassium substitution (p < 0.01). Severe ketoacidosis, hyperglycaemia and dehydration at presentation, and low serum phosphate during treatment are significantly related to CO formation in children with DKA. The initial severe acidosis and hyperglycaemia probably cause brain injury which progresses into CO in the course of developing hypophosphatemia and cerebral hypervolemia. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Practice Essentials Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, major, life-threatening complication of diabetes that mainly occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes, but it is not uncommon in some patients with type 2 diabetes. This condition is a complex disordered metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and ketonuria. Signs and symptoms The most common early symptoms of DKA are the insidious increase in polydipsia and polyuria. The following are other signs and symptoms of DKA: Nausea and vomiting; may be associated with diffuse abdominal pain, decreased appetite, and anorexia History of failure to comply with insulin therapy or missed insulin injections due to vomiting or psychological reasons or history of mechanical failure of insulin infusion pump Altered consciousness (eg, mild disorientation, confusion); frank coma is uncommon but may occur when the condition is neglected or with severe dehydration/acidosis Signs and symptoms of DKA associated with possible intercurrent infection are as follows: See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis On examination, general findings of DKA may include the following: Characteristic acetone (ketotic) breath odor In addition, evaluate patients for signs of possible intercurrent illnesses such as MI, UTI, pneumonia, and perinephric abscess. Search for signs of infection is mandatory in all cases. Testing Initial and repeat laboratory studies for patients with DKA include the following: Serum electrolyte levels (eg, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus) Note that high serum glucose levels may lead to dilutional hyponatremia; high triglyceride levels may lead to factitious low glucose levels; and high levels of ketone bodies may lead to factitious elevation of creatinine levels. Continue reading >>

Acute Complications Of Diabetes: Dka And Hhs

Acute Complications Of Diabetes: Dka And Hhs

Sort Precipitating factors in HHS -infection -vascular thromboses -hemorrhage -pancreatitis -hyperalimentation -burn -renal failure -Medications: corticosteroids, thiazides, phenytoin -dementia, elderly, those unable to access H2O Clinical course of HHS -the clinical course may be complicated by seizures, vascular thromboses, or embolism -the mortality in comparison to DKA is higher partly because of coexistence of serious underlying precipitating illnesses -treatment requires more free water and greater volume replacement than diabetic ketoacidosis -potassium replacement is required -treatment after recovery in many cases may be oral agents or diet Continue reading >>

Stroke And Diabetic Ketoacidosis – Some Diagnostic And Therapeutic Considerations

Stroke And Diabetic Ketoacidosis – Some Diagnostic And Therapeutic Considerations

Go to: Cerebrovascular insult (CVI) is a known and important risk factor for the development of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA); still, it seems that the prevalence of DKA among the patients suffering CVI and its influence on stroke outcome might be underestimated. Diabetic ketoacidosis itself has been reported to be a risk factor for the occurrence of stroke in children and youth. A cerebral hypoperfusion in untreated DKA may lead to cerebral injury, arterial ischemic stroke, cerebral venous thrombosis, and hemorrhagic stroke. All these were noted following DKA episodes in children. At least some of these mechanisms may be operative in adults and complicate the course and outcome of CVI. There is a considerable overlap of symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings in the two conditions, making their interpretation difficult, particularly in the elderly and less communicative patients. Serum pH and bicarbonate, blood gases, and anion gap levels should be routinely measured in all type 1 and type 2 diabetics, regardless of symptomatology, for the early detection of existing or pending ketoacidosis. The capacity for rehydration in patients with stroke is limited, and the treatment of the cerebrovascular disease requires intensive use of osmotic and loop diuretics. Fluid repletion may be difficult, and the precise management algorithms are required. Intravenous insulin is the backbone of treatment, although its effect may be diminished due to delayed fluid replenishment. Therefore, the clinical course of diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with CVI may be prolonged and complicated. Keywords: CVI, type 2 diabetes complications, acid-base disturbances, fluid management Go to: Introduction Cerebrovascular incidents (CVI) are significant and well-known risk factors for the development Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State

The hallmark of diabetes is a raised plasma glucose resulting from an absolute or relative lack of insulin action. Untreated, this can lead to two distinct yet overlapping life-threatening emergencies. Near-complete lack of insulin will result in diabetic ketoacidosis, which is therefore more characteristic of type 1 diabetes, whereas partial insulin deficiency will suppress hepatic ketogenesis but not hepatic glucose output, resulting in hyperglycaemia and dehydration, and culminating in the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state. Hyperglycaemia is characteristic of diabetic ketoacidosis, particularly in the previously undiagnosed, but it is the acidosis and the associated electrolyte disorders that make this a life-threatening condition. Hyperglycaemia is the dominant feature of the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state, causing severe polyuria and fluid loss and leading to cellular dehydration. Progression from uncontrolled diabetes to a metabolic emergency may result from unrecognised diabetes, sometimes aggravated by glucose containing drinks, or metabolic stress due to infection or intercurrent illness and associated with increased levels of counter-regulatory hormones. Since diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state have a similar underlying pathophysiology the principles of treatment are similar (but not identical), and the conditions may be considered two extremes of a spectrum of disease, with individual patients often showing aspects of both. Pathogenesis of DKA and HHS Insulin is a powerful anabolic hormone which helps nutrients to enter the cells, where these nutrients can be used either as fuel or as building blocks for cell growth and expansion. The complementary action of insulin is to antagonise the breakdown of fuel stores. Thus, the relea Continue reading >>

Stroke And Diabetic Ketoacidosis--some Diagnostic And Therapeutic Considerations.

Stroke And Diabetic Ketoacidosis--some Diagnostic And Therapeutic Considerations.

Abstract Cerebrovascular insult (CVI) is a known and important risk factor for the development of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA); still, it seems that the prevalence of DKA among the patients suffering CVI and its influence on stroke outcome might be underestimated. Diabetic ketoacidosis itself has been reported to be a risk factor for the occurrence of stroke in children and youth. A cerebral hypoperfusion in untreated DKA may lead to cerebral injury, arterial ischemic stroke, cerebral venous thrombosis, and hemorrhagic stroke. All these were noted following DKA episodes in children. At least some of these mechanisms may be operative in adults and complicate the course and outcome of CVI. There is a considerable overlap of symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings in the two conditions, making their interpretation difficult, particularly in the elderly and less communicative patients. Serum pH and bicarbonate, blood gases, and anion gap levels should be routinely measured in all type 1 and type 2 diabetics, regardless of symptomatology, for the early detection of existing or pending ketoacidosis. The capacity for rehydration in patients with stroke is limited, and the treatment of the cerebrovascular disease requires intensive use of osmotic and loop diuretics. Fluid repletion may be difficult, and the precise management algorithms are required. Intravenous insulin is the backbone of treatment, although its effect may be diminished due to delayed fluid replenishment. Therefore, the clinical course of diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with CVI may be prolonged and complicated. KEYWORDS: CVI; acid-base disturbances; fluid management; type 2 diabetes complications Continue reading >>

Distinctive Characteristics And Specific Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction, Stroke And Renal Failure

Distinctive Characteristics And Specific Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction, Stroke And Renal Failure

1. Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is considered a predominantly acute type 1 diabetic complication, although it may occur in type 2 diabetes as well, particularly in patients who already have a decreased insulin secretion capacity. Stress –induced burst in catecholamine and ACTH secretion in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) promotes release of free fatty acids and their hepatic and muscular tissue utilization. The impairment in insulin-mediated intracellular glucose influx owing to the absent or insufficient pancreatic insulin secretion is the prerequisite for the occurrence of diabetic ketoacidosis. The results of the analysis of acid – base disturbances from our previous study [26] performed in the intensive-care unit in diabetics and non-diabetics suffering acute myocardial infarction are shown in Fig. 1. Cardiovascular accidents have a marked place among the possible causes of diabetic ketoacidosis. Cardiovascular morbidity influences the severity and duration of diabetic ketoacidosis and limits the first and most important step in its treatment- the fluid resuscitation. The resulting hyperosmolarity of body fluids precipitates a pro-thrombotic state, thus aggravating prognosis in patients with myocardial infarction. The clinical features of hyperglycemic/hyperosmolar state and diabetic ketoacidosis may overlap and are observed simultaneously (overlap cases) [44]. Acid-base disturbances in diabetics and non-diabetics suffering acute myocardial infarction: Almost one-third of diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction had un-compensated metabolic acidosis defined as pH< 35, HCO3- < 22mmol/L. Although acidosis was mild in most of the cases at least third of these patients had criteria for true diabetic ketoacidosis (pH<30, HCO3- <15mmol/L). Addi Continue reading >>

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